Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport competition, has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as early as 1894. It evolved from simple road races from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver. Innovation and the drive of competition soon saw speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour, but because early races took place on open roads, accidents occurred resulting in deaths both of drivers and of spectators. Grand Prix motor racing evolved into formula racing, one can regard Formula One as its direct descendant; each event of the Formula One World Championships is still called a Grand Prix. Motor racing was started in France, as a direct result of the enthusiasm with which the French public embraced the motor car. Manufacturers were enthusiastic due to the possibility of using motor racing as a shop window for their cars; the first motoring contest took place on July 22, 1894 and was organised by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal. The Paris–Rouen rally was 126 km, from Porte Maillot in Paris, through the Bois de Boulogne, to Rouen.
Count Jules-Albert de Dion was first into Rouen after 6 hours 48 minutes at an average speed of 19 km/h. He finished 3 minutes 30 seconds ahead of Albert Lemaître, followed by Auguste Doriot, René Panhard, Émile Levassor; the official winners were Peugeot and Panhard as cars were judged on their speed and safety characteristics, De Dion's steam car needed a stoker which the judges deemed to be outside of their objectives. In 1900, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. the owner of the New York Herald and the International Herald Tribune, established the Gordon Bennett Cup. He hoped the creation of an international event would drive automobile manufacturers to improve their cars; each country was allowed to enter up to three cars, which had to be built in the country that they represented and entered by that country's automotive governing body. International racing colours were established in this event; the 1903 event occurred in the aftermath of the fatalities at the Paris-Madrid road race, so the race, at Athy in Ireland, though on public roads, was run over a closed circuit: the first closed-circuit motor race.
In the United States, William Kissam Vanderbilt II launched the Vanderbilt Cup at Long Island, New York in 1904. Some anglophone sources wrongly list a race called the Pau Grand Prix in 1901; this may stem from a mistranslation of the contemporary French sources such as the magazine La France Auto of March 1901. The name of the 1901 event was the Circuit du Sud-Ouest and it was run in three classes around the streets of Pau; the Grand Prix du Palais d'Hiver was the name of the prizes awarded for the lesser classes. The Grand Prix de Pau was the name of the prize awarded for the'Heavy' class, thus Maurice Farman was awarded the'Grand Prix de Pau' for his overall victory in the Circuit du Sud-Ouest driving a Panhard 24 hp. In L'Histoire de l'Automobile/Paris 1907 Pierre Souvestre described the 1901 event as: "... dans le Circuit du Sud-Ouest, à l'occasion du meeting de Pau... " The only race at the time to carry the name Grand Prix was organised by the Automobile Club de France, of which the first took place in 1906.
The circuit used, based in Le Mans, was triangular in shape, each lap covering 105 kilometres. Six laps were to run each day, each lap took an hour using the primitive cars of the day; the driving force behind the decision to race on a circuit - as opposed to racing on ordinary roads from town to town - was the Paris to Madrid road race of 1903. During this race a number of people, both drivers and pedestrians - including Marcel Renault - were killed and the race was stopped by the French authorities at Bordeaux. Further road based events were banned. From the 32 entries representing 12 different automobile manufacturers, at the 1906 event, the Hungarian-born Ferenc Szisz won the 1,260 km race in a Renault; this race was regarded as the first Grande Épreuve, which meant "great trial" and the term was used from on to denote up to the eight most important events of the year. Races in this period were nationalistic affairs, with a few countries setting up races of their own, but no formal championship tying them together.
The rules varied from country to country and race to race, centered on maximum weights in an effort to limit power by limiting engine size indirectly. The cars all had mechanics on board as well as the driver, no one was allowed to work on the cars during the race except for these two. A key factor to Renault winning this first Grand Prix was held to be the detachable wheel rims, which allowed tire changes to occur without having to lever the tire and tube off and back on the rim. Given the state of the roads, such repairs were frequent. A further historic confusion arose in the early 1920s when the Automobile Club de France attempted to pull off a retrospective political trick by numbering and renaming the major races held in France before the 1906 French Grand Prix as being Grands Prix de l'Automobile Club de France, despite their running pre-dating the formation of the Club. Hence, the 1895 Paris–Bordeaux–Paris Trail was renamed I Grand Prix de l'Automobile Club de France.
Kherwara Chhaoni is a census town in the Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is part of the Vagad region, which includes the districts of Dungarpur and parts of Udaipur district, it is in close proximity to two major highways, National Highway 8 and Rajasthan State Highway 76 and National Highway 927A passes through it. Its name derives from the large number of Kher trees in the region once upon a time. Prominent institutions in the area are Police Training School. Kherwara Chhaoni is a sub-division in the Udaipur district located just 80 km from the Rajasthan-Gujarat border. Ahemdabad, the capital of Gujarat state is 170 km away; the topography of the area consists of medium to high rocky hills, plains and is surrounded by Aravalli Range from north to south. The hill have forests that are an essential source of income and help sustain the economy of the local tribal inhabitants. There are many well-developed villages, such as Jawas, Chhani and Karawara among others; the area is semi-arid with an average annual rainfall of about 650 mm.
Most rain falls during the monsoon season from July to September. Winter temperatures range from a low of 2 °C to a high of 25 °C. Summer temperatures range from a low of 20 °C to a high of 42 °C. Relative humidity is above 70% during the monsoon months but below 20% during the months of March through May; the area is rich in mineral resources, such as Green Marble and Asbestos. Private companies use manual methods for mining operations, it is located on National Highway 8 which connects it to Delhi. Rajasthan State Road Transport Corporation services provide road connectivity via public transport; the nearby railway stations are Udaipur with trains available for major routes. The nearest airports are Ahmedabad; as per the 2001 Indian census, the population of Kherwara Chhaoni was 6,649 individuals living in 1,323 households. Out of this, 52% were male and 48% were female. Out of the total population, 14% were under 6 years of age and 72% were literate; the break-up of literate residents was 64 % female.
The name of Kherwara Chani derives from the large number of Kher trees in the region once upon a time. The main rulers of the area in the past were Jawas Thikana Prominent institutions in the area are Mewar Bhil Corps and Police Training School; the Mewar Bhil Corps paramilitary training station served as headquarters for the Assistant Political Agent and had the whole Bhomat area under its direct political supervision. Civil control over the Bhomat area remained with Maharana. Kherwara is part of the Vagad region, which includes the districts of Dungarpur and parts of Udaipur district; the area is predominantly inhabited by Meena, Brahmin, Kalal, Jain and Patel communities. The main dialect of the area is Wagdi; the main occupation of the residents of this area is agriculture. Its Proximity to National Highway 8 helps business ventures; the Temple of Mataji and Lord Shiva is located at Godavari River. Khadkwa Mata temple and Jain temple are located at Chhaoni-Chhitora on Rani-Chhaoni road; the state government has contributed to the development of Khadkwa Mata temple.
The Industrial Training Institute for vocational training is located at Badeshwar. There is two other colleges offering Bachelor of Education degree. Udaipur and Ahmedabad are preferred locations for higher education. There are many schools in the region with medium of instruction in both English. Major schools are Vidyaniketan Upper Primary School, Rajkiya Uccha Madhyamik Vidyalaya, Eden International School, Vikas Public School, The Nobles School; the Government School Chhani is well known with many notable alumni, such as former education minister Dr. Dayaram Parmar. Villages in the region have smaller schools providing good education. Http://www.censusindia.gov.in/PopulationFinder/View_Village_Population.aspx?pcaid=638&category=C. T
Gabriele Zerbi was a Veronese professor at the Universities of Bologna and Padua. He was referred to as Zerbus, Zerbis, Gerbo and Gerbus, he survived the devastating bubonic plague outbreak of 1477-79 in Northern Italy. He published the first printed treatise on geriatrics, "Gerontocomia: On the Care of the Aged," which took the form of a practical guide, his other works included: Questiones Metaphysicae. Gabriele Zerbi was born in Verona to Paola. Not much is known about his mother, but in various community documents that mention his father, Francesco, it appears that he was involved in various duties of civic responsibility, including the financial affairs of Verona, he had two brothers named Benedetto and Giovanni as well as two sisters named Taddea and Angela, the former being the name given to Zerbi's daughter. While it is unclear where Zerbi obtained his university degree, he spent notable amount of his youth in Venice, leading to the belief that he studied at the University of Padua, it is here that he began a four-year teaching post in philosophy starting in 1467 at the age of twenty-two.
Zerbi taught medicine and logic at the University of Bologna from 1475 to 1483. Between 1483 and 1494, Zerbi lived in Rome, but not much is known about his academic career during this time period. After living in Rome, he returned to the University of Padua to be a lecturer "de sero" between 1494 and 1505. In the summer of 1499 Zerbi practiced as a physician. In May 1503 Lorenzino de Medici became ill and sent for a physician from Florence to come and treat him. Zerbi's death came about after treating his last patient, he was summoned by chief minister of the sultan of the Ottoman Turks. Zerbi had fled from the wrath of Pope Sixtus, Skander was ill with a severe case of dysentery; the doctor brought along his young son on his visit to the Turks. After curing the prince, Zerbi received a large sum of gold and other valuable items as payment. On his way home, the prince fell ill again and died due to not following Zerbi's instructions, his sons, thinking Zerbi had poisoned their father and captured Zerbi to punish him.
They sawed Zerbi's son in half before him immediately sawed Zerbi in half as well. According to his will last dated on October 13, 1504, his wife Helena de' Metaselimi of Bologna and the godfather of his children Pietro of Mantua were the executors of his estate. After her, his estate would go to his four sons: Paolo, Hieronymo or Girolamo and Giovanni Aloisio. In addition, he gave money to his daughters and Hermodoria, his sisters and Angela, his brothers and Benedetto, to his nephew, Francesco, his first work, Questiones Metaphysicae, was a commentary on Aristotle's own Metaphysics. Gerontocomia discussed the treating of elderly, it discussed topics such as diet, optimal living situations, beneficial medicines, how to ensure the physical well being of the elderly. De Cautelis Medicorum was a text discussing the medical ethics that a practicing physician should follow; the text included what a physician's appearance should resemble, hygienic habits, preferred spiritual beliefs. Liber Anathomie Corporis Humani De Generatione Embrionis was Zerbi's last published essay.
Zerbi was a strong advocate for the code of physicians. This code includes six categories of rules. Rules for the course of studies and the perfection of the physician, according to the congenital dispositions of the soul and body; the obligations of the physician toward God. Recommendations for acquired dispositions and general conduct; the proper attitude toward the patient. Rules for the attitude toward the patient's family and other people involved with the cure. Regulation of the physician's relationship with the general public. Zerbi gained much of his knowledge of human anatomy by dissecting various animals since human cadavers were scarce. By doing this, he opened up the first discipline of comparative anatomy, he was one of the first physicians to separate the organs into systems and focused his attention on the kidneys. He discovered. Zerbi hypothesized the kidneys act as a filter to filter liquid before it enters the bladder but other physicians doubted this