Grand Rapids, Michigan

Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan and the largest city in West Michigan. It is on the Grand River about 30 miles east of Lake Michigan; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 1,005,648, the combined statistical area of Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland had a population of 1,321,557. Grand Rapids is the county seat of Kent County. A historic furniture-manufacturing center, Grand Rapids is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies, is nicknamed "Furniture City". Other nicknames include "River City" and more "Beer City"; the city and surrounding communities are economically diverse, based in the health care, information technology, automotive and consumer goods manufacturing industries, among others. Grand Rapids is the childhood home of U. S. President Gerald Ford, buried with his wife Betty on the grounds of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in the city; the city's main airport and one of its freeways are named after him.

For thousands of years, succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the area. Over 2000 years ago, people associated with the Hopewell culture occupied the Grand River Valley. A tribe from the Ottawa River traveled to the Grand River valley, fighting three battles with the Prairie Indians who were established in the area; the tribe split, with the Chippewas settling in the northern lower peninsula, the Pottawatomies staying south of the Kalamazoo River and the Ottawa staying in central Michigan. By the late 1600s, the Ottawa, who occupied territory around the Great Lakes and spoke one of the numerous Algonquian languages, moved into the Grand Rapids area and founded several villages along the Grand River; the Ottawa established on the river, which they called O-wash-ta-nong, or far-away-water due to the river's length, where they "raised corn, melons and beans, to which they added game of the woods and the fish from the streams". In 1740, an Ottawa man who would be known as Chief Noonday and become the future chief of the Ottawa, was born.

Between 1761 and 1763, Chief Pontiac visited the area annually, gathering over 3,000 natives and asking them to volunteer to fight the British in Detroit, which would culminate into Pontiac's War. By the end of the 1700s, there were an estimated 1,000 Ottawa in the Kent County area. After the French established territories in Michigan, Jesuit missionaries and traders traveled down Lake Michigan and its tributaries. At the start of the 19th century, European fur traders and missionaries established posts in the area among the Ottawa, they lived in peace, trading European metal and textile goods for fur pelts. In 1806, Joseph and his wife Madeline La Framboise, Métis, traveled by canoe from Mackinac and established the first trading post in West Michigan in present-day Grand Rapids on the banks of the Grand River, near what is now Ada Township, they were Roman Catholic. They both spoke Ottawa, Madeline's maternal ancestral language. After the murder of her husband in 1809 while en route to Grand Rapids, Madeline La Framboise carried on the trade business, expanding fur trading posts to the west and north, creating a good reputation among the American Fur Company.

La Framboise, whose mother was Ottawa and father French merged her successful operations with the American Fur Company. By 1810, Chief Noonday established a village on the west side of the river with about 500 Ottawa. Madeline La Framboise returned to Mackinac; that year, Grand Rapids was described as being the home of an Ottawa village of about 50 to 60 huts on the west side of the river near the 5th Ward, with Kewkishkam being the village chief and Chief Noonday being the chief of the Ottawa. The first permanent European-American settler in the Grand Rapids area was Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister. General Lewis Cass, who commissioned Charles Christopher Trowbridge to establish missions for Native Americans in Michigan, ordered McCoy to establish a mission in Grand Rapids for the Ottawa. In 1823, McCoy, as well as Paget, a Frenchman who brought along a Native American pupil, traveled to Grand Rapids to arrange a mission, though negotiations fell through with the group returning to the Carey mission for the Potawatomi on the St. Joseph River.

In 1824, Baptist missionary Rev. L. Slater traveled with two settlers to Grand Rapids to perform work; the winter of 1824 was difficult, with Slater's group having to resupply and return before the spring. Slater erected the first settler structures in Grand Rapids, a log cabin for himself and a log schoolhouse. In 1825, McCoy established a missionary station, he represented the settlers who began arriving from Ohio, New York and New England, the Yankee states of the Northern Tier. Shortly after, Detroit-born Louis Campau, known as the official founder of Grand Rapids, was convinced by fur trader William Brewster, in a rivalry with the American Fur Company, to travel to Grand Rapids and establish trade there. In 1826, Campau built his cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop on the east bank of the Grand River near the rapids, stating the Native Americans in the area were "friendly and peaceable". Campau returned to Detroit returned a year with his wife and $5,000 of trade goods to trade with the Ottawa and Ojibwa, with the only currency being fur.

Campau's younger brother Touissant would assist him with trade and other tasks at hand. In 1831 the federal survey of the Northwest Territory reached the Grand River.


Gilmoremys is an extinct genus of softshell turtle which lived during the late Cretaceous of North Dakota and Wyoming, United States. Gilmoremys is known from a mandible and an incomplete postcranial skeleton; the holotype of G. lancensis, USNM 6727, consists of a nearly complete carapace and an isolated hyoplastral fragment, was first assigned to the species Aspideretes lancensis. Many additional specimens were discovered including cranial remains, the material was assigned to its own genus, Gilmoremys, it was found from the Lance Formation. It was first named by Walter G. Joyce and Tyler R. Lyson in 2011 and the type species is Gilmoremys lancensis; the generic name honors Dr. Charles W. Gilmore. A second species, G. gettyspherensis, is known from the late Campanian Fruitland Formation of New Mexico. Juveniles of this species have narrow skulls, a narrow processus trochlearis oticum, a deep and narrow median palatal groove, low accessory ridges, a secondary palate formed by the maxilla, skeletally mature individuals have notably broad skulls, a broad processus trochlearis oticum, a shallow but broad median palatal groove, high accessory ridges, a substantial contribution of the vomer to the secondary palate.

Two large trionychid skulls and isolated shell pieces have been discovered in deposits of the Hell Creek Formation exposed in Carter County, southeastern Montana. The skulls are noticeably larger than those discovered and differ in their overall form by being broader. Detailed analysis reveals that the new skulls and shell fragments correspond with changes in overall form representing an ontogenetic shift towards the adult morphology of this species. Cladogram after Joyce & Lyson, 2011

Georgi Bliznashki

Georgi Bliznashki is a Bulgarian politician and a former Member of the European Parliament. He was a member of the Coalition for Bulgaria, part of the Party of European Socialists, became and was an MEP from 1 January 2007 to June 2007 with the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union, he was born in Sofia Oblast. Bliznashki was expelled from the BSP in March 2014 after he expressed disagreement with party policy. On 6 August 2014 he was appointed to serve as a caretaker Prime Minister of Bulgaria; the Bliznashki Government ended with the election of a new government two months later. Bliznashki Government European Parliament profile European Parliament official photo Works by or about Georgi Bliznashki in libraries