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Grand Rapids, Michigan

Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan and the largest city in West Michigan. It is on the Grand River about 30 miles east of Lake Michigan; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 188,040. In 2010, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area had a population of 1,005,648, the combined statistical area of Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland had a population of 1,321,557. Grand Rapids is the county seat of Kent County. A historic furniture-manufacturing center, Grand Rapids is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies, is nicknamed "Furniture City". Other nicknames include "River City" and more "Beer City"; the city and surrounding communities are economically diverse, based in the health care, information technology, automotive and consumer goods manufacturing industries, among others. Grand Rapids is the childhood home of U. S. President Gerald Ford, buried with his wife Betty on the grounds of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum in the city; the city's main airport and one of its freeways are named after him.

For thousands of years, succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples occupied the area. Over 2000 years ago, people associated with the Hopewell culture occupied the Grand River Valley. A tribe from the Ottawa River traveled to the Grand River valley, fighting three battles with the Prairie Indians who were established in the area; the tribe split, with the Chippewas settling in the northern lower peninsula, the Pottawatomies staying south of the Kalamazoo River and the Ottawa staying in central Michigan. By the late 1600s, the Ottawa, who occupied territory around the Great Lakes and spoke one of the numerous Algonquian languages, moved into the Grand Rapids area and founded several villages along the Grand River; the Ottawa established on the river, which they called O-wash-ta-nong, or far-away-water due to the river's length, where they "raised corn, melons and beans, to which they added game of the woods and the fish from the streams". In 1740, an Ottawa man who would be known as Chief Noonday and become the future chief of the Ottawa, was born.

Between 1761 and 1763, Chief Pontiac visited the area annually, gathering over 3,000 natives and asking them to volunteer to fight the British in Detroit, which would culminate into Pontiac's War. By the end of the 1700s, there were an estimated 1,000 Ottawa in the Kent County area. After the French established territories in Michigan, Jesuit missionaries and traders traveled down Lake Michigan and its tributaries. At the start of the 19th century, European fur traders and missionaries established posts in the area among the Ottawa, they lived in peace, trading European metal and textile goods for fur pelts. In 1806, Joseph and his wife Madeline La Framboise, Métis, traveled by canoe from Mackinac and established the first trading post in West Michigan in present-day Grand Rapids on the banks of the Grand River, near what is now Ada Township, they were Roman Catholic. They both spoke Ottawa, Madeline's maternal ancestral language. After the murder of her husband in 1809 while en route to Grand Rapids, Madeline La Framboise carried on the trade business, expanding fur trading posts to the west and north, creating a good reputation among the American Fur Company.

La Framboise, whose mother was Ottawa and father French merged her successful operations with the American Fur Company. By 1810, Chief Noonday established a village on the west side of the river with about 500 Ottawa. Madeline La Framboise returned to Mackinac; that year, Grand Rapids was described as being the home of an Ottawa village of about 50 to 60 huts on the west side of the river near the 5th Ward, with Kewkishkam being the village chief and Chief Noonday being the chief of the Ottawa. The first permanent European-American settler in the Grand Rapids area was Isaac McCoy, a Baptist minister. General Lewis Cass, who commissioned Charles Christopher Trowbridge to establish missions for Native Americans in Michigan, ordered McCoy to establish a mission in Grand Rapids for the Ottawa. In 1823, McCoy, as well as Paget, a Frenchman who brought along a Native American pupil, traveled to Grand Rapids to arrange a mission, though negotiations fell through with the group returning to the Carey mission for the Potawatomi on the St. Joseph River.

In 1824, Baptist missionary Rev. L. Slater traveled with two settlers to Grand Rapids to perform work; the winter of 1824 was difficult, with Slater's group having to resupply and return before the spring. Slater erected the first settler structures in Grand Rapids, a log cabin for himself and a log schoolhouse. In 1825, McCoy established a missionary station, he represented the settlers who began arriving from Ohio, New York and New England, the Yankee states of the Northern Tier. Shortly after, Detroit-born Louis Campau, known as the official founder of Grand Rapids, was convinced by fur trader William Brewster, in a rivalry with the American Fur Company, to travel to Grand Rapids and establish trade there. In 1826, Campau built his cabin, trading post, blacksmith shop on the east bank of the Grand River near the rapids, stating the Native Americans in the area were "friendly and peaceable". Campau returned to Detroit returned a year with his wife and $5,000 of trade goods to trade with the Ottawa and Ojibwa, with the only currency being fur.

Campau's younger brother Touissant would assist him with trade and other tasks at hand. In 1831 the federal survey of the Northwest Territory reached the Grand River.


Gilmoremys is an extinct genus of softshell turtle which lived during the late Cretaceous of North Dakota and Wyoming, United States. Gilmoremys is known from a mandible and an incomplete postcranial skeleton; the holotype of G. lancensis, USNM 6727, consists of a nearly complete carapace and an isolated hyoplastral fragment, was first assigned to the species Aspideretes lancensis. Many additional specimens were discovered including cranial remains, the material was assigned to its own genus, Gilmoremys, it was found from the Lance Formation. It was first named by Walter G. Joyce and Tyler R. Lyson in 2011 and the type species is Gilmoremys lancensis; the generic name honors Dr. Charles W. Gilmore. A second species, G. gettyspherensis, is known from the late Campanian Fruitland Formation of New Mexico. Juveniles of this species have narrow skulls, a narrow processus trochlearis oticum, a deep and narrow median palatal groove, low accessory ridges, a secondary palate formed by the maxilla, skeletally mature individuals have notably broad skulls, a broad processus trochlearis oticum, a shallow but broad median palatal groove, high accessory ridges, a substantial contribution of the vomer to the secondary palate.

Two large trionychid skulls and isolated shell pieces have been discovered in deposits of the Hell Creek Formation exposed in Carter County, southeastern Montana. The skulls are noticeably larger than those discovered and differ in their overall form by being broader. Detailed analysis reveals that the new skulls and shell fragments correspond with changes in overall form representing an ontogenetic shift towards the adult morphology of this species. Cladogram after Joyce & Lyson, 2011

Georgi Bliznashki

Georgi Bliznashki is a Bulgarian politician and a former Member of the European Parliament. He was a member of the Coalition for Bulgaria, part of the Party of European Socialists, became and was an MEP from 1 January 2007 to June 2007 with the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union, he was born in Sofia Oblast. Bliznashki was expelled from the BSP in March 2014 after he expressed disagreement with party policy. On 6 August 2014 he was appointed to serve as a caretaker Prime Minister of Bulgaria; the Bliznashki Government ended with the election of a new government two months later. Bliznashki Government European Parliament profile European Parliament official photo Works by or about Georgi Bliznashki in libraries

Wu Xinzhi

Wu Xinzhi is a Chinese paleoanthropologist, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, former vice director of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology. Wu was born in Hefei, Republic of China in 1928, he graduated with a B. S. in medicine from Shanghai Medical College in 1953, taught from 1953 to 1958 at the Department of Anatomy, Dalian Medical College. He attended the graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. After graduating in 1961, he became an assistant research professor, vice director, of the IVPP. During the 1980s he was chief editor of the journal Acta Anthropologica Sinica, he was elected an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1999. In 2013 he was conferred the Lifetime Achievement Award in Anthropology. Wu is most known for his criticism of the Out of Africa hypothesis. Along with Milford H. Wolpoff and Alan Thorne he developed the alternative Multiregional hypothesis in 1984. Wu however confines his palaeoanthropological research to China and coined "Continuity with Hybridization" to refer to a China-specific Multiregional model.

According to Wu, the human lineage arose in Africa sometime during the early Pleistocene and since evolution has been within a single, continuous species. He considers H. erectus for example to be the earliest fossil specimens of the species Homo sapiens, against the more popular view that Homo sapiens arose as a species 200,000 years ago in Africa. Wu argues that while there were migrations outside of Africa within the last 100,000 years, these did not replace the human population settled in China, he claims there is evidence of regional continuity in China in terms of Mongoloid cranial morphology, but that there was always gene flow between the indigenous occupants and African migrants. Wu, X.. "The evolution of humankind in China". Acta Anthropologica Sinica. 9: 312-321. Wu, X. Poirier, F. E.. Human evolution in China: a metric description of the fossils and a review of the sites. New York: Oxford University Press. Wu, X.. "On the descent of modern humans in East Asia". In: Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origin Research.

Clarke, G. A. and Willermet C. M.. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Wu, X.. "Origin of modern humans of China viewed from cranio-dental characteristics of late Homo sapiens". Acta Anthropologica Sinica. 17. 276-282. Wu, X.. "On the origin of modern humans in China". Quaternary International. 117: 131-140. Wu, X.. "Discussion on the results of some molecular studies concerning the origin of modern Chinese". Acta Anthropologica Sinica. 24: 259-269. Wu, X.. "Evidence of Multiregional Human Evolution Hypothesis from China". Quaternary Sciences. 26: 702-709. Wu, X. Cui, Y.. On the origin of modern humans in China. Before Farming. 6: 1-6

Zhi-Xun Shen

Zhi-Xun Shen is a Chinese-American experimental and solid state physicist, a professor at Stanford University. He is noted for his ARPES studies on high-temperature superconductors. Shen was born in July 1962 in China, he graduated from Fudan University with a B. S. in 1983, went to the United States through the CUSPEA program organized by T. D. Lee, he earned his M. S. degree in 1985 at Rutgers University. In 1989 he received a PhD in applied physics from Stanford University. In 1991 he became assistant professor, in 1996 associate professor, in 2000 full professor at Stanford University. Since 2010 he is chief scientist at SLAC, since 2006 he is founding director of the Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences. Furthermore, 2005 to 2008 he was director of the Geballe Laboratory for Advance Materials, he developed several precision instruments, e.g. for synchrotron radiation sources, helium lamps for UV and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, he used these to study high-temperature superconductors.

For example, his group in 2010 obtained convincing evidence that the pseudogap phase of the cuprate high-temperature superconductors, discovered in the mid 1990s, indeed is an independent phase, which reaches into the superconducting phase. Besides ARPES techniques in the UV regime, he employs x-ray diffraction methods, he developed near-field microwave microscopy based on atomic force microscopes for studies on mesoscopic length scales, e.g. nanostructured materials. Using this, he addresses applications such as new techniques for solar collectors. 2002 he became fellow of the American Physical Society, in 1999 he gave the APS Centennial lecture. 2000 he received the Kamerlingh Onnes Prize, 2009 the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Award, 2011 together with Peter Johnson the Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize. In 2015 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In 2017, Shen was elected as a foreign member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Homepage in Stanford Oliver Buckley Prize Further Homepage of Shen


Barachatti is a block in the Gaya district of Bihar, India. Barachatti contains 13 gram panchayat. Sarwan bazar is biggest and nimi is smallest village of barachatti; the total population in Barachatti sub district is 142,534 as per the survey of census during 2011 by Indian Government. There are 72,455 males. Samta Devi is currunt MLA of barachatti. Barachatti is located at an elevation of 159 m above sea level, it is situated 45 km towards South from District headquarters Gaya. 150 km from State capital Patna towards North. It is bounded by Chouparan Block towards East, Itkhori Block towards South, Fatehpur Block towards North, Mohanpur Block towards North. Bodh Gaya City, Gaya City, Sherghati City, Jhumri Tilaiya City are the nearby Cities to Barachatti; the National Highway 2 Grand Trunk Road from Kolkata to Delhi passes through Barachatti. The nearest railway station is Gaya Junction 47 km from barachatti, which has trains to major destinations in India; the nearest airport is Gaya International Airport 40 km from barachatti.

Barachatti Bazar Sarwan Bazar is among the largest cattle markets in gaya situated at barachatti.mangal bazar runs every Tuesday. There are other markets in barachatti named as bhadhya bazar and barachatti market. Balti & Jug market is the most famous market in Barachatti; this market is situated at the distance of 500 metres from Barachatti block office. The literacy rate for the population was 47.52 per cent. Literates are 67,745 of which males are 39,891 and Females are 27,854. There are 7344,789 Illiterates in barachatti block. Schools and colleges include: B. N. S. Public school Jeevan Deep Public school S. S High School Barachatti Middle School, Barachatti Primary School Imamganj,Bhadeya Urdu Middle School, Bajarker. Middle School, Lahathua Middle school, simarwar Sir Syed Memorial School, Bhadeya Sullebatta High School High School, Bumuar State Subsidised High School, Barrachatti Project Kanya High School, Barachatti B. N. S college, Mayapur Urdu Middle School, Bhadeya Bihar public School. Chanya public school