The Mahājanapadas were sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE. Two of them were most ganatantras and others had forms of monarchy. Ancient Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region, prior to the rise of Buddhism in India; the 6th–5th century BCE is regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history. Archaeologically, this period corresponds in part to the Northern Black Polished Ware culture; the term "Janapada" means the foothold of a tribe. The fact that Janapada is derived from Jana points to an early stage of land-taking by the Jana tribe for a settled way of life; this process of first settlement on land had completed its final stage prior to the times of the Buddha and Pāṇini.
The Pre-Buddhist north-west region of the Indian sub-continent was divided into several Janapadas demarcated from each other by boundaries. In Pāṇini's "Ashtadhyayi", Janapada stands for Janapadin for its citizenry; each of these Janapadas was named after the Kshatriya tribe. Buddhist and other texts only incidentally refer to sixteen great nations which were in existence before the time of the Buddha, they do not give any connected history except in the case of Magadha. The Buddhist Anguttara Nikaya, at several places, gives a list of sixteen great nations: Another Buddhist text, the Digha Nikaya, mentions only twelve Mahajanapadas from the above list and omits four of them. Chulla-Niddesa, another ancient text of the Buddhist canon, adds Kalinga to the list and substitutes Yona for Gandhara, thus listing the Kamboja and the Yona as the only Mahajanapadas from Uttarapatha; the Vyākhyāprajñapti, a sutra of Jainism, gives a different list of sixteen Mahajanapadas: The author of the Bhagavati Sutra has a focus on the countries of Madhydesa and of the far east and south only.
He omits the nations from Uttarapatha like the Gandhara. The more extended horizon of the Bhagvati and the omission of all countries from Uttarapatha "clearly shows that the Bhagvati list is of origin and therefore less reliable." The first reference to the Angas is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mention along with the Magadhas and the Mujavats as a despised people. The Jaina Prajnapana ranks Vangas in the first group of Aryan people, it mentions the principal cities of ancient India. It was a great center of trade and commerce and its merchants sailed to distant Suvarnabhumi. Anga was annexed by Magadha in the time of Bimbisara; this was the one and only conquest of Bimbisara. The country of Assaka or the Ashmaka tribe was located in southern India. In Buddha's time, many of the Assakas were located on the banks of the river Godavari; the capital of the Assakas was Potali, which corresponds to Paudanya of Mahabharata. The Ashmakas are mentioned by Pāṇini, they are placed in the north-west in the Brhat Samhita.
The river Godavari separated the country of the Assakas from that of the Mulakas. The commentator of Kautiliya's Arthashastra identifies Ashmaka with Maharashtra; the country of Assaka lay outside the pale of Madhyadesa. It was located on the Dakshinapatha. At one time, Assaka abutted Avanti; the country of the Avantis was an important kingdom of western India and was one of the four great monarchies in India in the post era of Mahavira and Buddha, the other three being Kosala and Magadha. Avanti was divided into south by the river Narmada. Mahishamati was the capital of Southern Avanti, Ujjaini was of northern Avanti, but at the times of Mahavira and Buddha, Ujjaini was the capital of integrated Avanti; the country of Avanti corresponded to modern Malwa and adjoining parts of today's Madhya Pradesh. Both Mahishmati and Ujjaini stood on the southern high road called Dakshinapatha which extended from Rajagriha to Pratishthana. Avanti was an important centre of Buddhism and some of the leading theras and theris were born and resided there.
King Nandivardhana of Avanti was defeated by king Shishunaga of Magadha. Avanti became part of the Magadhan empire; the Chedis, Chetis or Chetyas had two distinct settlements of which one was in the mountains of Nepal and the other in Bundelkhand near Kausambi. According to old authorities, Chedis lay near Yamuna midway between the kingdom of Vatsas. In the mediaeval period, the southern frontiers of Chedi extended to the banks of the river Narmada. Sotthivatnagara, the Sukti or Suktimati of Mahabharata, was the capital of Chedi; the Chedis were an ancient people of India and are mentioned in the Rigveda, with their king Kashu Chaidya. The location of the capital city, has not been established with certainty. Historian Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri and F. E. Pargiter believed that it was in the vicinity of Banda, Uttar Pradesh. Archaeologist Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti has proposed that Suktimati can be iden
Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It is a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul is 4.635 million, which includes all the major ethnic groups of Afghanistan. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 75th largest city. Kabul is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres making it one of the highest capitals in the world; the city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, a key location of the ancient Silk Road, it has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Greco Bactrians, Indo Greeks, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Qarlughids, Timurids and Hotaks, until becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. Kabul became the capital of Afghan Empire in 1776, during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
In the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but after establishing foreign relations they were compelled to withdraw all forces from Afghanistan. The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties. Kabul is known for its gardens and palaces, it was formerly a mecca for young western hippies. Since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city began rebuilding itself with assistance from the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by anti-state elements, the city is developing and was the fifth fastest-growing city in the world as of 2012; the city is divided into 22 districts. Kabul is spelled as Cabool, Kabol, or Cabul; the origin of Kabul, who built it and when, is unknown. The Hindu Rigveda, composed between 1500–1200 BCE and one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism, the Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, refer to the Kabul River and to a settlement called Kubha.
The Rigveda refers to Kubha as an "ideal city" and a vision of paradise set in the mountains and is full of poems in praise of the city. The Kabul valley was part of the Median Empire. In 549 BC, the Median Empire was annexed by Cyrus The Great and Kabul became part the Achaemenid Empire. During that period, Kabul became a center of learning for Zoroastrianism, followed by Buddhism. An inscription on Darius the Great's tombstone lists Kabul as one of the 29 countries of the Achaemenid Empire; when Alexander annexed the Achaemenid Empire, the Kabul region came under his control. After his death, his empire was seized by his general Seleucus, becoming part of the Seleucid Empire; the Greco-Bactrians took control of Kabul from the Seleucids lost the city to their subordinates in the Indo-Greek Kingdom around the mid-2nd century BC. Buddhism was patronized by the rulers and majority of people of the city were adherents of the religion. Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later.
Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja. It is mentioned as Kophene in some classical writings. Hsuan Tsang refers to the city as Kaofu in the 7th century AD, the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who had migrated from across the Hindu Kush into the Kabul valley around the beginning of the Christian era, it was conquered by Kushan Emperor Kujula Kadphises in about 45 AD and remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD. The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians from the Tarim Basin. Around 230 AD, the Kushans were defeated by the Sassanid Empire and replaced by Sassanid vassals known as the Indo-Sassanids. During the Sassanian period, the city was referred to as "Kapul" in Pahlavi scripts. Kapol in the Persian language means Royal Bridge, due to the main bridge on the Kabul River that connected the east and west of the city. In 420 AD the Indo-Sassanids were driven out of Afghanistan by the Xionite tribe known as the Kidarites, who were replaced in the 460s by the Hephthalites.
It became part of the surviving Turk Shahi Kingdom of Kapisa known as Kabul-Shahan. According to Táríkhu-l Hind by Al-Biruni, Kabul was governed by princes of Turkic lineage whose rule lasted for about 60 generations; the Kabul rulers built a defensive wall around the city to protect it from enemy raids. This wall has survived until today, it was held by the Tibetan Empire between 801 and 815. The Islamic conquest reached modern-day Afghanistan in 642 AD, at a time. A number of failed expeditions were made to Islamize the region. In one of them, Abdur Rahman bin Samana arrived to Kabul from Zaranj in the late 600s and converted 12,000 inhabitants to Islam before abandoning the city. Muslims were a minority until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar of Zaranj conquered Kabul in 870 and established the first Islamic dynasty in the region, it was reported. Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind. Over the following centuries, the city was successively controlled by the Samanids, Ghurids, Kh
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
Allahabad known as Prayagraj, known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division; the city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city. Allahabad, in 2016, was ranked the third most liveable city in the state and sixteenth in the country; the 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested.
The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam of the Ganga and Sarasvati rivers, a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was called Kaushambi by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since the city has been a political and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbarnama mentions. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there, called Ilahabas or Ilahabad. He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there renaming it Ilahabas by 1584, changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan. In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital. In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a independent ruler.
He was, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day; the city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence. Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2. Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council; the city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.
The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh. Prayag or Prayagraj was the ancient name of this city; the name is a sandhi of the words Pra, meaning'first' and Yag, meaning'devotion, worship or offering'. It is believed that Lord Brahma performed the first yajna in this land. Rig Veda and some Puranas mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in India; the word Prayag means "Confluence of Rivers". It is here the rivers Ganga and Sarasvati meet. Prayagraj is called the "Emperor of Five Prayags". After Mughal invasion, it is said that the Mughal emperor Akbar when visited the region in 1575, was so impressed by the strategic location of the site that he ordered a fort be constructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584 changed to Allahabad under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however, exist; because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha from Alha's story.
James Forbes' account of the early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad or "abode of God" by Jahangir after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name, predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death, it has been thought to not have been named after Allah but ilaha. Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar to be construed as both Hindu and Muslim. Over the years, a number of attempts were made by the BJP-led governments of Uttar Pradesh to rename Allahabad to Prayagraj. In 1992, the planned rename was shelved when the chief minister, Kalyan Singh, was forced to resign following the Babri Masjid demolition. 2001 saw another attempt led by the government of Rajnath Singh. The rename succeeded in October 2018 when the Yogi Adityanath-led government changed the name of the city to Prayagraj; the city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still used.
Prayāga is first mentioned in the Agni Purana and in Manusmriti, as the place where Brahma attended a ritual sacrifice. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE
Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri, born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital in Sasaram in modern-day Bihar. An ethnic Afghan Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor, he first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general, his reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of the Indian Subcontinent, he further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna.
He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country. Sher Shah Suri was born in Sasaram, a city in the state of Bihar in India, while he called Rohri, a village in the Dera Ismail Khan district of Pakistan, his ancestral home, as that's from where his grandfather, Ibrahim Khan Suri, moved with his father Hassan, his surname'Suri' was taken from his Sur tribe. The name Sher was conferred upon him for his courage, when as a young man, he killed a tiger that leapt upon the king of Bihar, his grandfather Ibrahim Khan Suri was a landlord in Narnaul area and represented Delhi rulers of that period. Mazar of Ibrahim Khan Suri still stands as a monument in Narnaul. Tarikh-i Khan Jahan Lodi. confirm this fact. However, the online Encyclopædia Britannica states that he was born in Sasaram, in the Rohtas district, he was one of about eight sons of Mian Hassan Khan Suri, a prominent figure in the government of Bahlul Khan Lodi in Narnaul Pargana.
Sher shah belonged to the Pashtun Sur tribe. His grandfather, Ibrahim Khan Suri, was a noble adventurer from Roh, recruited much earlier by Sultan Bahlul Lodi of Delhi during his long contest with the Jaunpur Sultanate, it was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súri,* with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place, called in the Afghán tongue "Shargarí,"* but in the Multán tongue "Rohrí." It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc. in the Panjáb, they settled in the pargana of Bajwára. During his early age, Farid was given a village in Fargana, Delhi by Omar Khan Sarwani, the counselor and courtier of Bahlul Khan Lodi. Farid Khan and his father, a jagirdar of Sasaram in Bihar, who had several wives, did not get along for a while so he decided to run away from home.
When his father discovered that he fled to serve Jamal Khan, the governor of Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh, he wrote Jamal Khan a letter that stated:Faríd Khán, being annoyed with me, has gone to you without sufficient cause. I trust in your kindness to appease him, send him back. Jamal Khan had advised Farid to return home but he refused. Farid replied in a letter:If my father wants me back to instruct me in learning, there are in this city many learned men: I will study here. Farid Khan started his service under the Mughal Governor of Bihar; because of his valour, Bahar Khan rewarded him the title Sher Khan. After the death of Bahar Khan, Sher Khan became the regent ruler of Jalal Khan. Sensing the growth of Sher Shah's power in Bihar, Jalal sought the assistance of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah, the independent Sultan of Bengal. Ghiyasuddin sent an army under General Ibrahim Khan. But, Sher Khan defeated the force at the battle of Surajgarh in 1534 after forming an alliance with Ujjainiya Rajputs and other local chiefdoms.
Thus he achieved complete control of Bihar. In 1538, Sher Khan defeated Mahmud Shah, but he could not capture the kingdom because of the sudden expedition of Emperor Humayun. On 26 June 1539, Sher Khan defeated him. Assuming the title Farīd al-Dīn Shēr Shah, he defeated Humayun once again at Kannauj in May 1540 and forced him out of India. After the death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in 1537, Qadir Shah became the new ruler of Malwa Sultanate, he turned for support towards the Rajput and Muslim noblemen of the Khilji rule of Malwa. Bhupat Rai and Puran Mal, sons of Raja Silhadi accepted service under the regime of Malwa in recognition of their interest in the Raisen region. By 1540, Bhupat Rai had died and Puran Mal had become the dominant force in eastern Malwa. In 1542, Sher Shah conquered Malwa without a fight and Qadir Shah fled to Gujarat, he appointed Shuja'at Khan as the gover
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, is a city in eastern Afghanistan. It is the capital of Nangarhar Province. Jalalabad is located at the junction of the Kunar River, it is linked by an 150-kilometre highway with Kabul to the west, a 130-kilometre highway with the Pakistani city of Peshawar to the east. Jalalabad has a population of 356,274, making it one of the five largest cities of Afghanistan. Jalalabad is a leading center of social and trade activity because of its proximity with the Torkham border crossing, 65 km away. Major industries include papermaking, as well as agricultural products including oranges and sugarcane, it has a total land area of 12,796 hectares. The total number of dwellings in this city is 39,586. Faxian visited and worshiped the sacred Buddhist sites such as of The Shadow of the Buddha in Nagarhara. In 630 AD Xuan Zang, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk, visited Jalalabad, which he referred to as Adinapur, a number of other locations nearby; the city was a major center of Gandhara's Greco-Buddhist culture in the past until it was conquered by Ghaznavids in the 11th century.
However, not everyone converted to Islam at that period. In Hudud-al-Alam, written in 982 CE, there is reference to a village near Jalalabad where the local king used to have many Hindu and Afghan wives; the region became part of the Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century. Sabuktigin annexed the land all the way west of the Neelum River in Kashmir. "The Afghans and Khiljies who resided among the mountains having taken the oath of allegiance to Sabuktigin, many of them were enlisted in his army, after which he returned in triumph to Ghazni." The Ghurids expanded the Islamic empire further into Hindustan. The region around Jalalabad became part of the Khalji territory, followed by that of the Timurids, it is said. It was renamed as Jalalabad in the last decade of the sixteenth century, in honour of Jalala, the son of Pir Roshan; the modern city gained prominence during the reign of founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city, built by his grandson Jalal-uddin Mohammad Akbar in 1560.
It remained part of the Mughal Empire until around 1738 when Nader Shah and his Afsharid forces from Khorasan began defeating the Mughals. Nader Shah's forces were accompanied by the young Ahmad Shah Durrani and his 4,000-strong Afghan army from southern Afghanistan. In 1747, he founded the Durrani Empire after re-conquering the area; the Afghan army has long used the city while going back and forth during their military campaigns into the Indian subcontinent. The British-Indian forces invaded Jalalabad in 1838, during the First Anglo-Afghan War. In the 1842 Battle of Jellalabad, Akbar Khan besieged the British troops on their way to Jalalabad. In 1878, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again invaded and set up camps in Jalalabad but withdrew two years later. Jalalabad is considered one of the most important cities of the Pashtun culture. Seraj-ul-Emarat, the residence of Amir Habibullah and King Amanullah was destroyed in 1929 when Habibullah Kalakani rose to power; the mausoleum of both rulers is enclosed by a garden facing Seraj-ul-Emart.
The Sulemankhils, a Pashtun family famous for their scientific research, is from Jalalabad. Other celebrated Pashtun families originate from the villages near Jalalabad too. From 1978 to early 1990s, the city served as a strategic location for the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. In spring 1989, two Mujahideen rebel factions backed by Pakistan and the U. S. assaulted the city during the Battle of Jalalabad. However government forces managed to drive them out within two months, a major setback to the resistance fighters and the ISI. After the resignation of President Najibullah, Jalalabad fell to mujahideen rebels of Yunus Khalis on April 19, 1992. On September 12, 1996, the Taliban took control of the city until they were toppled by the US-backed Afghan forces in late 2001. Al-Qaeda had been building terrorist training camps in Jalalabad; the city returned to Afghan government control under Hamid Karzai. The economy of Jalalabad increased in the last decade. Many of the city's population began joining the Afghan National Security Forces.
Construction has risen. The Jalalabad Airport has long served as a military base for the NATO forces. In 2011, the U. S. Embassy in Kabul announced. Occasional suicide attacks by anti-Afghanistan forces take place; these forces include the Taliban, Haqqani Network, al-Qaeda, the new ISIS group. The United States has promised to eliminate these groups before withdrawing from Afghanistan; the city population is estimated to be 356,274 in year 2015. Nearly all residents of Jalalabad are followers of Sunni Islam; the city is home to one of Afghanistan's few Hindu temples, the Darga Hindu Temple founded in c. 1084 AD. Jalalabad is the regional hub in eastern Afghanistan, close to the border with Pakistan. Agriculture is the predominant land use at 44%, higher density of dwellings is found in Districts 1-5 and vacant plots are clustered in District 6. Districts 1-6 all have a grid network of roads. Jalalabad's climate is hot desert; the city's climate has close resemblance to that of Arizona in the United States.
It receives six to eight inches of rainfall per annum which are limited to winter and the months of spring. Frosts are not common, during the summer, the temperature can
Amritsar also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in northwestern India, the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district and is located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab. According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761, it is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. The city is situated 217 km northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km northwest of New Delhi, the national capital, it is with the Wagah Border being only 28 km away. Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras; the Bhagwan Valmiki Tirath Sthal situated at Amritsar is believed to be the Ashram site of Maharishi Valmiki, the writer of Ramayana.
As per the Ramayana, Sita gave birth to Kusha, sons of lord Rama at Ramtirth ashram. Large number of people visit Ramtirth Temple at annual fair. Nearby cities to Amritsar and Kasur were said to be founded by Lava and Kusha, respectively. During Ashvamedha Yagna by Lord Rama and Kush captured the ritual horse and tied Lord Hanuman to a tree near to today's Durgiana Temple. During Navratra festivities it is considered to be auspicious by Hindu population of the city to visit that temple. Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh guru is credited with founding the holy city of Amritsar in the Sikh tradition. Two versions of stories exist regarding the land. In one based on a Gazetteer record, the land was purchased with Sikh donations, for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. According to the Sikh historical records, the site was chosen by Guru Amar Das and called Guru Da Chakk, after he had asked Ram Das to find land to start a new town with a man made pool as its central point. After his coronation in 1574, the hostile opposition he faced from the sons of Amar Das, Ram Das founded the town named after him as "Ramdaspur".
He started by completing the pool, building his new official Guru centre and home next to it. He invited artisans from other parts of India to settle into the new town with him; the town expanded during the time of Arjan constructed by voluntary work. The town grew to become the city of Amritsar, the pool area grew into a temple complex after his son built the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, installed the scripture of Sikhism inside the new temple in 1604; the construction activity between 1574 and 1604 is described in Mahima Prakash Vartak, a semi-historical Sikh hagiography text composed in 1741, the earliest known document dealing with the lives of all the ten Gurus. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa. In the Punjab, during World War I, there was considerable unrest among the Sikhs, first on account of the demolition of a boundary wall of Gurdwara Rakab Ganj at New Delhi and because of the activities and trials of the Ghadarites all of whom were Sikhs.
In India as a whole, there had been a spurt in political activity owing to the emergence of two leaders: Mahatma Gandhi who after a period of struggle against the British in South Africa, had returned to India in January 1915, Annie Besant, head of the Theosophical Society of India, who on 11 April 1916 established the Home Rule League with autonomy for India as its goal. In December 1916, the Indian National Congress, at its annual session held at Lucknow, passed a resolution asking the king to issue a proclamation announcing that it is the "aim and intention of British policy to confer self-government on India at an early date". On 10 April 1919, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two popular proponents of the Satyagraha movement led by Gandhi, were called to the deputy commissioner's residence and sent off by car to Dharamsetla, a hill town, now in Himachal Pradesh; this led to a general strike in Amritsar. Excited groups of citizens soon merged into a crowd of about 50,000 marching on to protest to the deputy commissioner against the arrest of the two leaders.
The crowd, was stopped and fired upon near the railway foot-bridge. According to the official version, the number of those killed was 12 and of those wounded between 20 and 30. Evidence before an inquiry of the Indian National Congress put the number of the dead between 20 and 30. Three days on 13 April, the traditional festival of Baisakhi, thousands of Sikhs and Hindus gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 16:30, Dyer arrived with a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers. Without warning the crowd to disperse, Dyer blocked the main exits and ordered his troops to begin shooting toward the densest sections of the crowd. Firing continued for ten minutes. A British inquiry into the massacre placed the death toll at 379; the Indian National Congress determined that 1,000 people were killed. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India to curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar.
The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured