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Grand jury

A grand jury is a jury – a group of citizens – empowered by law to conduct legal proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, determine whether criminal charges should be brought. A grand jury may subpoena a person to testify. A grand jury is separate from the courts; the United States and Liberia are the only countries that retain grand juries, though other common law jurisdictions employed them, most others now employ a different procedure that does not involve a jury: a preliminary hearing. Grand juries perform both investigatory functions; the investigatory functions of grand juries include obtaining and reviewing documents and other evidence, hearing sworn testimonies of witnesses who appear before it. A grand jury in the United States is composed of 16 to 23 citizens, though in Virginia it has fewer members for regular or special grand juries. In Ireland, they functioned as local government authorities. In Japan, the Law of July 12, 1948, created the Kensatsu Shinsakai, inspired by the American system.

The grand jury is so named because traditionally it has more jurors than a trial jury, sometimes called a petit jury. The function of a grand jury is to accuse persons who may be guilty of a crime, but the institution is a shield against unfounded and oppressive prosecution, it is a means for lay citizens, representative of the community, to participate in the administration of justice. It can make presentments on crime and maladministration in its area. Traditionally, a grand jury numbers 23 members; the mode of accusation is by a written statement of two types: 1) in solemn form describing the offense with proper accompaniments of time and circumstances, certainty of act and person, or 2) by a mode less formal, the spontaneous act of the grand jury, called presentment. No indictment or presentment can be made except by concurrence of at least twelve of the jurors; the grand jury may accuse upon their own knowledge, but it is done upon the testimony of witnesses under oath and other evidence heard before them.

The proceedings of grand jury are, in the first instance, at the instigation of the government or other prosecutors, ex parte and in secret deliberation. The accused has right to interfere with their proceedings. If they find the accusation true, drawn up in form by the prosecutor or an officer of the court, they write upon the indictment the words "a true bill", signed by the foreman of the grand jury and presented to the court publicly in the presence of all the jurors. If the indictment is not proven to the satisfaction of the grand jury, the word "ignoramus" or "not a true bill" is written upon it by the grand jury, or by their foreman and said to be ignored, the accusation is dismissed as unfounded. If the grand jury returns an indictment as a true bill, the indictment is said to be founded and the party to stand indicted and required to be put on trial; the first instance of a grand jury can be traced back to the Assize of Clarendon in 1166, an Act of Henry II of England. Henry's chief impact on the development of the English monarchy was to increase the jurisdiction of the royal courts at the expense of the feudal courts.

Itinerant justices on regular circuits were sent out once each year to enforce the "King's Peace". To make this system of royal criminal justice more effective, Henry employed the method of inquest used by William the Conqueror in the Domesday Book. In each shire, a body of important men were sworn to report to the sheriff all crimes committed since the last session of the circuit court, thus originated the more recent grand jury that presents information for an indictment. The grand jury was recognized by King John in Magna Carta in 1215 on demand of the nobility; the Grand Jury can be said to have "celebrated" its 800th birthday in 2015, because a precursor to the Grand Jury is defined in Article 61, the longest of the 63 articles of Magna Carta called Magna Carta Libertatum executed on 15 June 1215 by King John and by the Barons. The document was composed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton, he and Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro developed schemas for the division of the Bible into chapters and it is the system of Archbishop Langton which prevailed.

He was a Bible scholar, the concept of the Grand Jury may derive from Deuteronomy 25:1: "If there be a controversy between men, they come unto judgment, that the judges may judge them. Thus the Grand Jury has been described as the "Shield and the Sword" of the People: as a "Shield for the People" from abusive indictments of the government- or malicious indictments of individuals- and as the "Sword of the People" to cut away crime by any private individual. On 2 July 1681, a popular statesman, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was arrested on suspicion of high treason and committed to the Tower of London, he petitioned the Old Bailey on a writ of habeas corpus, but the Old Bailey said it did not have jurisdiction over prisoners in the Tower of London, so Cooper had to wait for the next session of the Court of

List of Jewish Canadian politicians

This list comprises persons who belong to the Jewish faith who have been elected to the federal House of Commons, legislative assemblies of provinces and territories, members appointed to the Senate. The first Jewish Canadian politician elected was Henry Nathan Jr. elected as a Liberal MP to the House of Commons in a by-election in 1871. There have been 37 Jewish Canadians who have served as Members of Parliament, as well as 18 who have been named Senators. After the 2015 Canadian election, the highest number of Jews were elected to Parliament in history - with 7 MPs. Elected in a 2019 by-election, Rachel Bendayan became the eighth currently-serving Jewish MP. Of the current federal Jewish politicians, 8 are Liberals, 2 are Conservatives, one sits as an Independent. Provincially, Jews have been elected to 8 of the 13 legislatures – with only New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Northwest Territories and Nunavut never having Jewish representation. There are seven Jews serving in three provincial legislatures.

Of those members, five are Conservative, one s Liberal and one is a New Democrat. List of Canadian Jews List of electoral firsts in Canada List of visible minority politicians in Canada List of indigenous Canadian politicians

K1 fund

The K1 fund was a British Virgin Islands based hedge fund marketed to and invested in by German-based private investors, latterly a series of global banks. With an estimated size of $378million/£249million and $1Bn under management, it collapsed in 2008, it is estimated by administrators Grant Thornton that liquidated funds able to be returned to investors are zero. It is suspected by German regulators BaFin to be a ponzi scheme. After Dieter Frerichs relocated back to Germany from Spain in the early 1990s, he contacted his friend, qualified psychologist Helmut Kiener, to establish a financial partnership. Together they persuaded 10,000 small investors and banks to invest in an investment fund, founded in 1996 via the Kiener Company as the K1 fund; as neither Kiener nor Frerichs held suitable licenses to run the fund, they appointed ex-banker Michael Smolek to run the fund under the United Kingdom-registered private limited company Nitro Ltd from London. The business prospered, by 1999 Kiener claimed to have made 13million Deutsche Marks for 100 investors.

However, in 2001, after the German federal financial authority BaFin prohibited further investment in the fund, the company split into two shell companies named K1 and K1 Global Investments, based in the British Virgin Islands. However, actual control was via Frerichs office in Mallorca, marketed to German customers via a telephone line sited in a friend's flat in Munich. Although further warnings and prosecutions were issued by BaFin with regards the two K1 funds, investigations have shown that since 2006 K1 had subscribed a further 300 million euros of investment from both private German investors, as well as banks including Bear Stearns, BNP Paribas and Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International. K1 claimed a return on its investments of 825% from 1996 to 2008. During the financial crisis of 2008, the K1 hedge fund collapsed. After their appointment in November 2009, liquidators Grant Thornton found that the two leveraged funds had a combined 421 million euros of liabilities, have projected that prospects for the money are poor.

In 2012 aggrieved investors filed suits against Barclays Bank. They accuse Barclays of not having communicated that the K1 funds were ponzi schemes when the funds still were solvent, although the bank knew better. An investigation was started by German federal authorities and BaFin, with the co-operation of the FBI, the United Kingdom's Financial Services Authority, regulatory bodies in the British Virgin Islands, Hong Kong and Switzerland. Authorities presently suspect that much like the ponzi-schemes run by Bernie Madoff and R. Allen Stanford, that monies were serially transferred between overseas bank accounts to make the whole fund look bigger and more stable than it was. Kiener was subsequently arrested and placed in detention in October 2009, while an Interpol-authorised arrest warrant was issued for Frerichs on February 23, 2010. Both faced 15 years in jail in Germany. Helmut Kiener claims while studying at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, his studies included “statistical chance theory,” which led to the K1 funds K1 Asset Allocation Method.

Kiener claimed to have developed what K1 described as a “semi- automatical allocation system” using statistics to help pick hedge-fund investments. He lived near Frankfurt. Dieter Frerichs was director for two of the K1 funds controlled by the K1 group founded by Kiener. Following the collapse of K1 and issue of the Interpol arrest warrant, on April 13, 2010, Frerichs was arrested at his home in Palma and conditionally released. In May, prosecutors in Germany sought to question Frerichs, obtained an extradition order. On July 3, Spanish police attempted to serve an extradition warrant on Frerichs close to his home in Mallorca. According to a police spokeswoman, Frerichs ran away from the police, displayed a firearm. Police indicated. Police recovered him from the sea, although taken by emergency ambulance to the Hospital Son Dureta in Palma, he died after a few hours. Members of Frerich's family alleged that police officers had shot at Frerichs, the New York Times and the Daily Telegraph reported the death as an "apparent suicide" and "suicide" respectively

Ark (British band)

Ark, stylized as arK, are a musical group formed around Birmingham and The Black Country, England. Active from c.1985 to c.1995, the band reformed in 2010. The group's sound is a mixture of progressive pop rock styles. Ark formed from the ashes of Damascus and Kite, in 1985. Having won a following around the Midlands they began to venture further and gained a following around the UK and in parts of Europe; the band's line-up began with Peter Wheatley, Steve Harris, Andy Harris and Dave Robbins. In 1986 Andy was replaced by John Jowitt and the band first entered the recording studio, the fruit of which were an early set of cassette only singles. In 1987 the band entered a local Battle Of The Bands competition at Edward's Number 8 in Birmingham and won time at The Rich Bitch Recording Studios after beating Slowburner and Fayre Warning in the final. Following the recording session they released the first album: The Dreams Of Mr Jones, it gained them fans up and down the country. In 1988 Gary Davis replaced Dave Robbins on drums and in 1989 the group changed drummers again, this time bringing in Richard Deane.

With this line-up they recorded and released their New Scientist EP and began touring throughout the UK. In the autumn of 1989 the band toured as the support for IQ, it was an association, to motivate John to move on. In 1990 IQ were looking for a new bass player, called John; the band parted on good terms and the search was on for a new bass player. It came in the guise of Gel, who had played in local "mekal" bands, they soon set about working towards another tour, but Richard decided he too wanted to leave, so in early 1991 a young metal drummer Paul Rogers joined the band. The line-up now settled again, set about touring the Europe. After the first recording session with the line-up, the release the Cover Me With Rain EP to much acclaim in the rock press and set about touring both the UK and Northern Europe. Following extensive writing sessions and a successful recording session, they release the album Spiritual Physics in 1992. Despite good reviews and an increasing fanbase, the major record companies were proving hard to convince and after several long and extensive tours the band decided to call it a day.

Paul decided to leave before a final tour, the band recruited Hugh Edwards on drums to help them say farewell to their fans. Their final gig was on 13 March 1995 at The Firkin in Birmingham. Late in 2009 it was confirmed that Ant Short, Peter Wheatley and Steve Harris had reformed Ark, with John Jowitt returning on bass and new member Tim Churchman from Darwin's Radio on drums. New material is being written, the band is rehearsing for some live dates, including the Summer's End progressive rock festival in October 2010. New album is being recorded and is set for a September 2010 release; the band have retitled themselves as "arK", with the capitalisation at the end. Ant Short – vocals and flute Peter Wheatley – guitar and backing vocals Steve Harris – synth-guitar John Jowitt – bass Tim Churchman – drums Richard Deane – drums Gel Newey – bass Paul Rogers – drums Andy Harris – bass Dave Robbins – drums Albums 1988 - The Dreams of Mr Jones 1990 - Stand Alone 1990 - Archives 1983-1990 1992 - Spiritual Physics 2010 - Wild Untamed Imaginings Singles/EPs 1986 - Home for the Summer/Nowhere's Ark 1986 - Communications/Hands Down 1986 - Trinity EP - Through the Night/Paper Ladder 1986 - The Scattering EP - "The Scattering/Flag Day/Gaia/The Teller" 1987 - Communications/Home for the Summer 1989 - New Scientist EP - Calling You Now/Eighth Deadly Sin/New Scientist/Boudicca's Chariot 1992 - Cover Me With Rain EP Official website no longer active Edward's Number 8 Rock Complex

Mitt Romney: An Inside Look at the Man and His Politics

Mitt Romney: An Inside Look at the Man and His Politics is a 2011 biography of the US presidential candidate Mitt Romney, written by the American author and journalist Ronald B. Scott; the book was conceived as an authorised biography, was built from numerous first hand interviews on that basis. However, after drafts were shared with senior members of the 2012 Romney Presidential campaign, namely with Eric Fehrnstrom and Beth Myers, Scott believed Romney's people were trying to exercise too much editorial control and decided to publish his book as unauthorised, it was the first biography of Romney written by a fellow Mormon, although the author doesn't focus on religion. Scott had strong family and church ties with Romney, during his research discovered that they are distant cousins; the book is written from the point of view of an writer. It has been described as an extensive and informed grounding "about Romney's family and personal life, a solid analysis and review of his issue stances". Scott's assessments of Romney's skills as a politician were mixed.

He described him as pragmatic and a problem solver, but noting that he was a "control freak" who "doesn't read people well" and "doesn't anticipate blindside attacks and therefore is ill prepared to deal with them". At numerous points he criticizes him as a "flip-flopper". In a 2005 article for Sunstone, Scott highlighted Mitt Romney's move to the populist right on abortion, stem cell research, gun control and gay rights; the article was subsequently quoted or used as a primary source on Romney's early political career. In 2011 he published his biography "Mitt Romney: An Inside Look at the Man and His Politics", he had begun the project in 2010, when he had been assured that the book would be authorized and written with the cooperation of the family. Both had similar family histories, are distant cousins. Scott was aware of Romney at BYU when he was an editor at Utah, had idolized his father, George W. Romney. However, Romney's team wanted heavy editorial input into the book, after a number of consultations and providing drafts to campaign officials such as Romney's chief spokesman campaign chief Eric Fehrnstrom and Beth Myers, Scott decided he wanted to maintain control and thus the book was published unauthorized.

However Scott did maintain close contacts with some members of the family and campaign, the book is built from numerous first hand interviews. Because the family was not accessible to the media, Scott became one of the few available people to turn to for family information, was thus interviewed during this period. A review in the political magazine On the Issues said that the book provides numerous new insights into the evolution of Romney's stances focusing on how the LDS Church viewed the issue and how Romney reconciled his views with the church's views... It's not explicitly about Mormonism at all—but the author is a Mormon who knew Romney well through church ties, who evidently did not like Romney much. Hence it is an unauthorized biography, which to readers means it is more honest than one which must pass muster with the Romney campaign."

Humberto Núñez

Humberto de la Cruz Núñez Cubillas was a former Paraguayan football goalkeeper and manager. Humberto came to Spain through the Hércules CF, he kept goal for Hércules for one of them loan to CD Málaga. He helped Hércules win two promotions from the Third Division to Second and Second to the First Division. After his retirement as a player, he became the "house coach", he was placed on the lower grades, director of football, the second first-team coach, was devoted to training of first-team goalkeepers. On several occasions he was caretaker manager first team. Humberto died after a heart attack in his sleep while he was napping in his hotel room where the Hércules was preparing the pre-season in July 2004. In Alicante, he was considered a dear person, having worked for the Hércules for 35 years and died while serving the club. Humberto Núñez at BDFutbol