Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
Division of Blair
The Division of Blair is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was created in 1998 and is named after Harold Blair, an Aboriginal singer and civil rights campaigner; the Division is based on Ipswich, extends from rural and exurban areas west of Brisbane to the Scenic Rim and Lockyer Valley regions. The founder of One Nation, Pauline Hanson, contested Blair in 1998, her previous seat, had been split in half in the redistribution ahead of the election. Oxley was reconfigured into an Brisbane-based seat that tilted toward Labor, while most of the rural area near Ipswich shifted to Blair. Although it was a safe Liberal seat on paper, it contained most of Hanson's base, so it was a natural choice for Hanson to attempt to transfer; the Liberals and Labor preferenced each other ahead of Hanson, allowing Liberal challenger Cameron Thompson to win on the eighth count. Thompson overtook the Labor candidate on National preferences defeated Hanson on Labor preferences. Thompson held the seat without serious difficulty in the next two elections, it was considered as a safe Liberal seat.
In the 2006 redistribution, the 2004 Liberal margin of 11.2% was halved to 5.7%. Conservative-leaning Esk and Kingaroy were transferred to Maranoa, while Blair was pushed further into Ipswich and Boonah. Blair had been rated as having received more funding promises from the Howard Government than any other electorate in the country; the redistribution pushed Blair just outside the range of seats Labor needed to win government. In the 2007 election, Thompson was defeated by Labor challenger Shayne Neumann, with a 10.2 percent swing to Labor. Since the growth of Ipswich has allowed Neumann to consolidate his hold on the seat. For instance, in 2013, he picked up a small swing in his favour as Labor lost government. In 2016, Neumann made Blair a safe Labor seat with 58.9 percent of the vote. - Division of Blair — Australian Electoral Commission
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Rail transport in Queensland
The Queensland rail network, the first in the world to adopt 1,067 mm narrow gauge for a main line, now the second largest narrow gauge network in the world, consists of: the North Coast Line extending 1,680 kilometres from Brisbane to Rockhampton, Townsville & Cairns Four east–west lines connecting to the NCL: the Western line from Brisbane to Toowoomba & Charleville the Central Western line from Rockhampton to Longreach & Winton the Great Northern Railway from Townsville to Mount Isa the Tablelands line from Cairns to Atherton & Forsayth Four export coal networks: Moura to Gladstone Blackwater to Gladstone utilising the Central Western and NCL lines Goonyella to Hay Point Newlands to Abbot Point the original narrow gauge Southern line that provided a rail connection to Sydney, extending from Toowoomba to the New South Wales border at Wallangarra, plus the South Western line west from Warwick to Thallon. Passenger services are provided by: Long distance trains from: Brisbane to Cairns Townsville to Mount Isa Brisbane to Rockhampton and Longreach Brisbane to Charleville Brisbane to Sydney by the standard gauge XPT the Brisbane-centric TransLink network providing services: south to Beenleigh and Varsity Lakes on the Gold Coast north to Ferny Grove, Kippa Ring, Caboolture & Gympie.
The TransLink network consists of 300 route km and 151 stations. Construction of the Queensland rail network began in 1864 with the first section of the Main Line railway from Ipswich to Grandchester being built; this was the first narrow gauge main line constructed in the world and is now the second largest narrow gauge railway network in the world. At its maximum extent in 1932, the system totalled. In 1925 QR employed ~18,000 people, 713 locomotives, 930 passenger carriages, ~16,000 goods wagons, hauled ~five million tons of goods and ~30 million passengers, made a return on capital of 3.2% before depreciation. Three significant electrification programs have been undertaken in Queensland which include the Brisbane suburban network, the Blackwater and Goonyella coal networks, the Caboolture to Gladstone section of the North Coast line. On 2 June 2009 the Queensland Government announced the'Renewing Queensland Plan', with Queensland Rail's commercial activities to be separated from the Government's core passenger service responsibilities.
The commercial activities were formed into a new company called QR National Limited. The new structure was announced by the Queensland Government on 2 December 2009, took place from 1 July 2010; the nascent Queensland Railways was persuaded that the way to reduce the cost of railway construction was to use a narrower gauge than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. A prototype existed in Norway, but Queensland became the first rail operator in the world to adopt narrow gauge for a main line; the proposed 3 ft 6 in gauge railway involved a 5 long tons axle load and sharp curves of 5 chains radius on the long climb to Toowoomba at about 610 metres above sea level. The maximum gradient was 1 in 50 uncompensated, which combined with a 5 chains radius curve gives an equivalent grade of 1 in 41. Although the proposed railway could only manage a top speed of 20 mph, claimed to be sufficient for a hundred years. One of main advantages of a narrow gauge railway is that the earthworks required during construction do not have to be as extensive.
It was estimated that the cost of this standard of railway would be 25% of the cost of a standard gauge line built to the minimum standard considered possible with that gauge at the time. As the colony of Queensland had a non-indigenous population of ~30,000 at the time the decision was made, it is understandable. Standard gauge branch lines were constructed in NSW with 5 chains radius curves and had the same low maximum speed; the choice of the non-standard 3 ft 6 in gauge was and still is controversial, the choice was approved narrowly by parliament. Thus the die was cast for a large narrow-gauge system, copied by three other Australian states as well as a number of other countries. A hundred and fifty years Queensland is still sparsely populated, but many trains hauling coal are some of the longest and heaviest in the world, with Aurizon trialing coal trains of 25,000 tonne gross load that are ~4.5 km long. QR had one rack railway, with grades as steep as 1 in 16.5, on the branch to Mount Morgan.
It was bypassed by a conventional line in 1951 with grades of 1 in 50. The bypass closed in 1987; the rack system was the same type used by the Mount Lyell Railway in Tasmania. The government owned Queensland Rail has been the main rail operator in Queensland; the exception has been the standard gauge link from New South Wales into Brisbane. When opened in 1930 it was operationally a part of the Ne
South East Queensland
South East Queensland is a bio-geographical and administrative region of the state of Queensland in Australia, which contains 3.5 million people out of the state's population of 4.8 million. The area covered by South East Queensland varies, depending on the definition of the region, though it tends to include Queensland's three largest cities: the capital city Brisbane, its most common use is for political purposes, covers 22,420 square kilometres and incorporates 11 local government areas, extending 240 kilometres from Noosa in the north to the Gold Coast and New South Wales border in the south, 140 kilometres west to Toowoomba. South East Queensland was the first part of Queensland to be explored by Europeans. Settlements arose in the Brisbane and Ipswich areas with activity by European immigrants spreading in all directions from there. Various industries such as timber cutting and agriculture developed at locations around the region from the 1840s onwards. Transport links have been shaped by the range of terrains found in South East Queensland.
The economy of South East Queensland supports and relies on a wide diversity of agricultural manufacturing industries and tourism. The region has TransLink. South East Queensland, classified as an interim Australian bioregion, comprises 7,804,921 hectares and includes the Moreton Basin, South Burnett, the Scenic Rim along with ten other biogeographic subregions; the term South East Queensland has no equivalent political representation. The area covers many lower house seats at the federal and state levels; as Queensland has no upper house, there are no Legislative Council provinces or regions to bear the name either. South East Queensland was home to around 20,000 Aboriginals prior to British occupation; the local tribes of the area were the Yuggurapul of the Central Brisbane area. According to history researchers the Aboriginal population declined to around 10,000 over the next 60 years. Early explorers in the area including Matthew Flinders, Allan Cunningham, John Oxley and Patrick Logan. Around 1839, European settlers were able to move into the region.
Logging was the first industry to develop. The first railway built in Queensland linked Grandchester to Ipswich in 1865 along a narrow 1067 mm gauge. Major floods were experienced in 1893, 1974 and 2011. In 2005, the region suffered its worst drought in recorded history. Queensland's third highest peak, Mount Barney, is located in the south of the region; the Cunningham Highway passes southwest to the Darling Downs via Cunninghams Gap. Several highways including the Bruce Highway, Warrego Highway and the Pacific Motorway link to the adjoining regions; the region is mountainous. McPherson Range, Teviot Range, D'Aguilar Range, Little Liverpool Range, Blackall Range as well as the Springbrook Plateau and Tamborine Mountain Plateau. Isolated volcanic peaks are found at the Glass House Mountains. Along the coast are several large islands including Bribie Island, Moreton Island and North Stradbroke Island with many smaller islands in Moreton Bay. Several major water supply and flood mitigation dams have been constructed here.
The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme and Gold Coast Desalination Plant were built to counter the effects of drought in South East Queensland. South East Queensland consists of the following regions, each of, a local government area: Brisbane – the capital and largest city of Queensland; the Brisbane metropolitan area consists of the City of Brisbane, as well as the following local governments: Ipswich City – an outer-suburban city with an industrial and mining heritage west of Brisbane. Logan City – a residential area between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Moreton Bay Region – a residential area between Brisbane and the Sunshine Coast. Redland City – a residential and agricultural area on the shores of Moreton Bay to the south-east of Brisbane. City of Gold Coast – a major tourist and retirement destination to the south of Brisbane, the largest non-capital city in Australia. Sunshine Coast Region – a coastal tourist and agricultural region to the north of Brisbane; the Glass House Mountains are a symbol of this region.
West Moreton, a rural area in the Great Dividing Range consisting of: Toowoomba City – the Toowoomba city is included in both the South East Queensland region and within Western Downs region due to its importance to both regions as a gateway city providing access to the west of the state. Lockyer Valley Region – an agricultural area west of Ipswich, known for its fruit and vegetable production. Scenic Rim Region – a pastoral area inland from the Gold Coast known for its scenic mountains and villages. Somerset Region – a pastoral area north west of Brisbane and location of two major dams supplying South East Queensland with water; this area is known as the Brisbane Valley. The Tweed Shire is within NSW but is included in planning processes for SEQ. While not part of the
The Lockyer Valley is an area of rich farmlands that lies to the west of Brisbane, Queensland and east of Toowoomba. The Lockyer Valley is rated among the top ten most fertile farming areas in the world as mentioned in page 13 of the Lockyer Valley Community Recovery Plan 2011; the intensively cultivated area grows the most diverse range of commercial fruit and vegetables of any area in Australia. The valley is referred to as "Australia's Salad Bowl" and has been described as one of Australia's premium food bowls; the valley is experiencing increasing urbanisation at both its western extremities. As commuters move into the area, its towns are becoming dormitory suburbs and satellite towns of the Brisbane-Ipswich conurbation in the east and Toowoomba in the west. Urban planning measures have been implemented to preserve the good quality agricultural land and rural feel of the valley; such measures confine future development to non-arable land on the slopes of the hills. The valley is enclosed on either side by the Great Dividing Range and lies within the Lockyer Valley Region local government area.
The biggest town in the Lockyer Valley is Gatton. Other centres include Laidley, Forest Hill, Grantham, Helidon and Prenzlau. Lockyer Creek and its tributaries drain the valley and forms a tributary of the Brisbane River that empties into Moreton Bay. Many of the creeks in the valley are ephemeral; the valley has a number of small dams that serve local storage needs, including Atkinson Dam built in 1970, Bill Gunn Dam and Lake Clarendon. 12 different land types have been identified in the valley. The banks of waterways in the Lockyer Valley have been identified as the source of silt, which caused problems for the Mount Crosby Pumping Station during Cyclone Oswald. In 2014, $8 million was allocated to prevent soil erosion within the Lockyer Valley. In the 1840s the valley was settled and land clearing began. Gatton was gazetted in 1855; the valley was populated by German immigrants under a scheme organised by Lutheran Pastor Heussler. The first rail line in the valley was opened in 1865 when the Ipswich to Grandchester services began operation.
A small town developed in the 1870s. Structures in the valley were damaged by a 4.4 magnitude earthquake that struck the area on 17 November 1960. Between 1922 and 1960 the Laidley Valley railway line operated between Mulgowie and Laidley but was never profitable. In 1994, a 41 hectare parcel of scrub, known as Berlin Scrub Nature Refuge, was the first land protected as a nature refuge under the Nature Conservation Act 1992 In January 2012, the Southern Queensland Correctional Centre near Gatton began operations. With an average annual rainfall of 780 mm, the Lockyer Valley is the driest part of South East Queensland. Rainfall is variable and droughts are experienced regularly; the Lockyer Valley experiences temperatures higher than the Brisbane region in summer, but colder in the winter. In November 2008, the valley experienced some of the worst flooding in its recorded history with farmers experiencing total crop failure; the flooding claimed the lives of livestock as well as an elderly female in the Forest Hill area, caught up in the flooding whilst driving.
This event was overshadowed by severe flooding in January 2011. The towns of Withcott and Grantham were hard hit. Flood related deaths were recorded in the communities of Spring Bluff, Murphys Creek and Postmans Ridge. Many council-owned bridges in the valley were either gone or destroyed. To repair roads and drains the Lockyer Valley Region local government area estimated the repair bill to be A$176 million. In 2012, a solar powered, radar based, imaging system was installed to detect dramatic rises in creek water levels; the cameras monitor conditions from atop a five to six-metre high pole to avoid damage during floods. An LED spotlight is used to take photos at night; when a flood event is detected the system enters a mode. Real time data is transmitted to the council's disaster centre; the council spent $40,000 on the system. The valley's main agricultural activities are intensive horticulture and grazing. Major crops grown in the areas include vegetables. Cultivation of turf and lucerne for both dairy and racehorses is widespread.
Most of the water used in agriculture is sourced from below the surface. Farmers in the valley produce around 40% of the fresh vegetables consumed in South East Queensland. Most farms in the Lockyer Valley are small ranging from 100 to 1,000 hectares in size; the valley contains fertile black soils. A variable climate and all year cropping has placed significant strain on water supply from groundwater aquifers; the viability of agriculture in the Lockyer Valley has been questioned after unreliable rains during drought, pest outbreaks and crop damage during severe weather have led to a decrease in agricultural productivity. Some farmers have instigated the use of laser measurements to ensure irrigation systems are optimally configured and yields are high. Recycled wastewater from the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme could be used for irrigation in the Lockyer; the infrastructure is in place however the cost is prohibitive. Nearly all the nation's processing beetroot is grown in the Lockyer Valley.
In 2002, the number of beetroot farmers had reduced to just eight farms. Golden Circle sources vegetables from the Lockyer Valley. Agriculture in Australia Fassifern Valley List of valleys of Australia Lockyer Valley Tourism & Development Association Lockyer Valley Community Recovery Plan 2011. Loc