SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock, granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray depending on their mineralogy; the word "granite" comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse-grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar; the term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin. These rocks consist of feldspar, quartz and amphibole minerals, which form an interlocking, somewhat equigranular matrix of feldspar and quartz with scattered darker biotite mica and amphibole peppering the lighter color minerals; some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic.

A granitic rock with a porphyritic texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks. Petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids; the extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite. Granite is nearly always massive and tough; these properties have made granite a widespread construction stone throughout human history. The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength lies above 200 MPa, its viscosity near STP is 3–6·1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C. Granite has poor primary permeability overall, but strong secondary permeability through cracks and fractures if they are present. Granite is classified according to the QAPF diagram for coarse grained plutonic rocks and is named according to the percentage of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase feldspar on the A-Q-P half of the diagram.

True granite contains both alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite; when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called two-mica granite. Two-mica granites are high in potassium and low in plagioclase, are S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the chemical composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses: Granite containing rock is distributed throughout the continental crust. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age. Outcrops of granite tend to form rounded massifs. Granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite occurs as small, less than 100 km2 stock masses and in batholiths that are associated with orogenic mountain ranges. Small dikes of granitic composition called aplites are associated with the margins of granitic intrusions.

In some locations coarse-grained pegmatite masses occur with granite. Granite is more common in continental crust than in oceanic crust, they are crystallized from felsic melts which are less dense than mafic rocks and thus tend to ascend toward the surface. In contrast, mafic rocks, either basalts or gabbros, once metamorphosed at eclogite facies, tend to sink into the mantle beneath the Moho. Granitoids have crystallized from felsic magmas that have compositions near a eutectic point. Magmas are composed of minerals in variable abundances. Traditionally, magmatic minerals are crystallized from the melts that have separated from their parental rocks and thus are evolved because of igneous differentiation. If a granite has a cooling process, it has the potential to form larger crystals. There are peritectic and residual minerals in granitic magmas. Peritectic minerals are generated through peritectic reactions, whereas residual minerals are inherited from parental rocks. In either case, magmas will evolve to the eutectic for crystallization upon cooling.

Anatectic melts are produced by peritectic reactions, but they are much less evolved than magmatic melts because they have not separated from their parental rocks. The composition of anatectic melts may change toward the magmatic melts through high-degree fractional crystallization. Fractional crystallisation serves to reduce a melt in iron, titanium and sodium, enrich the melt in potassium and silicon – alkali feldspar and quartz, are two of the defining constituents of granite; this process operates regardless of the origin of parental magmas to granites, regardless of their chemistry. The composition and origin of any magma that differentiates into granite leave certain petrological evidence as to what the granite's parental rock was; the final texture and composition of a granite are distinctive as to its parental rock. For instance, a granite, derived from partial melting of meta

HD 37519

HD 37519 is star in the northern constellation Auriga. It has a blue-white hue and is dimly visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 6.04. The distance to HD 37519 is 810 light years based on parallax, but it is drifting closer with a radial velocity of −10 km/s. Cowley in 1972 found a stellar classification of B9.5III-IV? for this star, suggesting it is an evolved B-type star and a suspected chemically peculiar star of the mercury-manganese type. It is estimated to be 375 million years old and with a high rate of spin, showing a projected rotational velocity of 195 km/s. In March 1964, a suspected flare of HD 37519 was detected that increased the star's brightness by about three magnitudes. Smaller variations of up to two magnitudes were detected a few days suggesting there might be a flare star companion. However, follow-up observations failed to confirm the variability; the star is radiating 110 times the luminosity of the Sun from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 8,289 km/s.

HR 1938 Image HD 37519

Derivative work

In copyright law, a derivative work is an expressive creation that includes major copyrightable elements of an original created first work. The derivative work becomes a separate work independent in form from the first; the transformation, modification or adaptation of the work must be substantial and bear its author's personality sufficiently to be original and thus protected by copyright. Translations, cinematic adaptations and musical arrangements are common types of derivative works. Most countries' legal systems seek to protect both derivative works, they grant authors the right to impede or otherwise control their integrity and the author's commercial interests. Derivative works and their authors benefit in turn from the full protection of copyright without prejudicing the rights of the original work's author; the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, an international copyright treaty, stipulates that derivative works shall be protected although it does not use the term, namely that "Translations, arrangements of music and other alterations of a literary or artistic work shall be protected as original works without prejudice to the copyright in the original work".

An extensive definition of the term is given by the United States Copyright Act in 17 U. S. C. § 101: A “derivative work” is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, elaborations, or other modifications which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work”. 17 U. S. C. § 103 provides: The copyright in a compilation or derivative work extends only to the material contributed by the author of such work, as distinguished from the preexisting material employed in the work, does not imply any exclusive right in the preexisting material. The copyright in such work is independent of, does not affect or enlarge the scope, ownership, or subsistence of, any copyright protection in the preexisting material. 17 U. S. C. § 106 provides: Subject to sections 107 through 122, the owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: to reproduce the copyrighted work in copies....

US Copyright Office Circular 14: Derivative Works notes that: A typical example of a derivative work received for registration in the Copyright Office is one, a new work but incorporates some published material. This published material makes the work a derivative work under the copyright law. To be copyrightable, a derivative work must be different enough from the original to be regarded as a "new work" or must contain a substantial amount of new material. Making minor changes or additions of little substance to a preexisting work will not qualify the work as a new version for copyright purposes; the new material must be copyrightable in itself. Titles, short phrases, format, for example, are not copyrightable; the statutory definition is incomplete and the concept of derivative work must be understood with reference to explanatory case law. Three major copyright law issues arise concerning derivative works: what acts are sufficient to cause a copyright-protected derivative work to come into existence.

French law prefers the term "œuvre composite" although the term'"œuvre dérivée" is sometimes used. It is defined in article L 113-2, paragraph 2 of the Intellectual Property Code as "new works into which pre-existing work, without the collaboration of its author"; the Court of Cassation has interpreted this statue as requiring two distinct inputs at different points in time. The Court of Justice of the European Union in 2010 decided on a matter of derivative works in Systran v. European Commission. However, it was overturned in 2013 based on the conclusion that the case did not fall within the General Court's jurisdiction, after concluding that the dispute had been of a contractual nature, instead of a non-contractual one. For copyright protection to attach to a allegedly derivative work, it must display some originality of its own, it can not be a uncreative variation on the earlier, underlying work. The latter work must contain sufficient new expression and above that embodied in the earlier work for the latter work to satisfy copyright law's requirement of originality.

Although serious emphasis on originality, at least so designated, began with the Supreme Court's 1991 decision in Feist v. Rural, some pre-Feist lower court decisions addressed this requirement in relation to derivative works. In Durham Industries, Inc. v. Tomy Corp. and earlier in L. Batlin & Son, Inc. v. Snyder; the Second Circuit held that a derivative work must be original relative to the underlying work on which it is based. Otherwise, it cannot enjoy copyright protection and copying it will not infringe any copyright of the derivative work itself. The