The Grant–Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, created in 1972, commemorates the Western cattle industry from its 1850s inception through recent times. The original ranch was established in 1862 by a Canadian fur trader, Johnny Grant, at Cottonwood Creek, along the banks of the Clark Fork river; the ranch was expanded by a cattle baron, Conrad Kohrs. The 1,618 acres historic site is maintained today as a working ranch by the National Park Service. Johnny Francis Grant was born at Fort Edmonton, Canada, his mother died when he was only three years old, so he was sent to Trois-Rivières, Quebec, to be raised by his grandmother. His father, Captain Richard Grant, was a Hudson's Bay Company employee, therefore, in his mid-teens, he left for Fort Hall, Idaho, to meet up with his father. There he learned the trading business. However, in the 1840s the fur trade was dying out, so Johnny Grant and his brother James turned to trading with emigrants traveling west along the Oregon Trail, he made a considerable profit by trading travelers one healthy cow or horse for two trail-wearied ones.
He fed and rested the tired animals and the following season traded them again. This is. Grant started using the Deer Lodge Valley in 1857 to graze his cattle during the winter along the banks of the Clark Fork river near Cottonwood creek. In 1859 he decided to permanently locate a ranch and constructed a permanent residence in 1862, he convinced traders to settle around him. Johnny was successful, but found that when gold miners arrived in the area, he was at a disadvantage, because he spoke French and the newcomers spoke English, he felt that he could no longer be successful in the area. In August 1866, he sold his ranch to a cattle baron, Conrad Kohrs, for $19,200 and returned to Canada. Conrad Kohrs was born on August 5, 1835, in Wewelsfleth, in Holstein province, a part of the German Confederation. At the age of 22, he became a citizen of the United States, he went to California during the gold rush days. He moved on to Canada and arrived at the gold camps of Montana in 1862, he never struck gold.
Kohrs built his cattle operation until he owned 50,000 head of cattle and had grazing pasture of 10 million acres. However, he had a setback when the severe winter of 1886–1887 left over half the cattle population in the northwest dead. Most cattlemen went bankrupt, but Kohrs managed to receive a 100,000 dollar loan from his banker, A. J. Davis. While the open range era was ending, Kohrs adapted and was able to pay off the loan in only four years. Kohrs and his half-brother, John Bielenberg, turned to more modern methods of ranching, including buying purebred breeding stock, fencing his rangeland and raising and storing fodder, his became known as "Montana's Cattle King." Bielenberg helped Kohrs to run the Grant–Kohrs ranch. He came to Montana at age 18 in 1864 to help with the butcher shop that served the mining camps. Bielenberg had a lot to do with the horse side of the Grant–Kohrs ranch, he bred what were called the "Big Circle" horses, reputed to be able to cover twenty miles of country in a half a day.
Together and Kohrs made a most successful team for over half a century. The winter of 1886–1887 was one of the harshest on record in Montana. Ranchers using the open range for their herds lost upwards of 90% of their cattle to brutal cold and lack of feed. In Eastern Montana, temperatures hovered at 30–40 degrees below zero for weeks on end; the summer of 1887 witnesses a great many ranchers in Montana go out of business. In the 1960s, the National Park Service, under the leadership of Director Conrad Wirth, reenergized the search for historic properties under the auspices of the Historic Sites Act of 1935 and Mission 66; the original Grant–Kohrs ranch was among several other ranches which were recommended for National Historic Landmark status. Con Warren wanted to sell the Grant–Kohrs portion of his ranch to the National Park Service as a historic landmark. In 1970 an agreement to sell the property to the park service was achieved with the proviso that it would be managed as a living ranch by the National Park Service.
The original purchase involved 130 acres of the active Warren Hereford Ranch. In December 1970, the National Park Foundation acquired an additional 1,180 acres of the ranch allowing the National Park Service to take administrative control of the site. In August 1972, the U. S. Congress authorized the establishment of Grant–Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site to provide an understanding of the frontier cattle era of the Nation’s history, to preserve the Grant–Kohrs Ranch, to interpret the nationally significant values thereof for the benefit and inspiration of future generations. In 1972 the National Park Foundation transferred ownership of its portions of the site to the National Park Service; the site was administered under the jurisdiction of Yellowstone National Park. In 1972 the Grant–Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Throughout the 1970s, the National Park Service continued to acquire acreage from Conrad Warren, rehabilitate elements of the ranch and provide improvements for visitation to include a visitor center, interpretive trails and access for the public.
In 1974 the site became an independently operating unit of the National Park Service with its own superintendent and budget
Ernest William Gimson was an English furniture designer and architect. Gimson was described by the art critic Nikolaus Pevsner as "the greatest of the English architect-designers". Today his reputation is securely established as one of the most influential designers of the English Arts and Crafts movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Ernest Gimson was born in Leicester, in the East Midlands of England, in 1864, the son of Josiah Gimson and iron founder, founder of Gimson and Company, owner of the Vulcan Works. Ernest was articled to the Leicester architect, Isaac Barradale, worked at his offices on Grey Friars between 1881 and 1885. Aged 19, he attended a lecture on'Art and Socialism' at the Leicester Secular Society given by the leader of the Arts and Crafts revival in Victorian England, William Morris, inspired, talked with him until two in the morning, after the lecture. Two years aged 21, Gimson had both architectural experience and a first class result from classes at Leicester School of Art.
He moved to London to gain wider experience, William Morris wrote him letters of recommendation. The first architectural practice he approached was John Dando Sedding, where he was taken on, stayed for two years. From Sedding, Gimson derived his interest in craft techniques, the stress on textures and surfaces, naturalistic detail of flowers and animals, always drawn from life, the close involvement of the architect in the simple processes of building and in the supervision of a team of craftsmen employed direct. Seddings offices were next door to the showrooms of Morris & Co. providing opportunity to see first hand the first flourishing of Arts and Crafts design. He met Ernest Barnsley at Sedding’s studio, through him, Sidney Barnsley, a friendship, to last the rest of his life. After a brief period traveling in both Britain and Europe, Gimson settled in London again and in 1889 he joined Morris’s Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. In 1890, he was a founder member of the short-lived furniture company, Kenton and Co. with Sidney Barnsley, Alfred Hoare Powell, W.
R. Lethaby, Mervyn Macartney, Col. Mallet and Reginald Blomfield. Here they acted as designers rather than craftsmen and explored inventive ways of articulating traditional crafts, "the common facts of traditional building", as Philip Webb, "their particular prophet", had taught. Gimson had through the Art Workers' Guild, become interested in a more hands on approach to traditional crafts, in 1890 spent time with Philip Clissett in Bosbury, learning to make rush-seated ladderback chairs, he began experimenting with plaster work. Gimson and the Barnsley brothers moved to the rural region of the Cotswolds in Gloucestershire in 1893 "to live near to nature", they soon settled at Pinbury Park, near Sapperton, on the Cirencester estate, under the patronage of the Bathurst family. In 1900, he set up a small furniture workshop in Cirencester, moving to larger workshops at Daneway House, a small medieval manor house at Sapperton, where he stayed until his death in 1919, he strove to invigorate the village community and, encouraged by his success, planned to found a Utopian craft village.
He concentrated on designing furniture, made by craftsmen, under his chief cabinet-maker, Peter van der Waals, whom he engaged in 1901. His architectural commissions include Inglewood and The White House in the prosperous Leicester suburb of Stoneygate. In February 2013 the National Trust bought Stoneywell; the walls were built 3 ft. thick, pared down to 2 ft. 6 in. and were placed on a plinth standing 18 in. Above the ground floor, built of cobble stones found among the sand; the walls were given a coat of plaster and a coat of rough-cast, trowelled over to smooth the surface slightly. I believe eight men were engaged on the cobwork, some preparing the material, others treading in on to the top of the walls, it took them about three months to reach the wall plate. A cubic yard, exclusive of the plastering. No centring was used; the joists rested on plates, above them the walls were reduced to 2 ft. 2 in. in thickness to leave the ends of the joists free. The beams rested on wide plates and the ends were built round with stone, leaving space for ventilation.
Tile or slate lintels were used over all openings. The cost of the whole house was 6½d. A cubic foot. Building with cob is soon learnt—of the eight men, only one of them had had any previous experience, and, I believe, he had not built with it for thirty years; this is the only house I have built of cob.” https://www.gutenberg.org/files/32048/32048-h/32048-h.htm Whaplode Church window Lincolnshire. Competition designs His competition'Design for the Federal Capital of Australia' is an original project in town planning for the city, to become Canberra, he submitted a design for new offices for the Port of London Authority. Bedales His last major projec
The Toyota Camry is a mid-size car, produced by Toyota from August 2011 to March 2019. Replacing the XV40 series, the XV50 represents the seventh generation of the Toyota Camry in all markets outside Japan, which follows a different generational lineage; the XV50 Camry was introduced on 23 August 2011 and made its debut in the 2011 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series on 27 August 2011. It was released in Japan on 5 September 2011 and in the U. S. that same month. The interior received a major restyling, while the exterior received all-new sheet metal and more angular styling. Power options are the 2.5-liter 2AR-FE 4-cylinder and the 3.5-liter 2GR-FE V6. The power output for the 2AR-FE was increased to 133 kW across the entire vehicle lineup while the power output for the V6 remained unchanged. EPA fuel economy numbers for both engines increased, with the V6 engine increased to 11 L/100 km; the engine produces 230 N⋅m of torque. Despite similar exterior dimensions with the XV40 Camry, Toyota was able to increase the interior volume by restyling the interior panels so that they followed the contour of the exterior panels.
The XV50 Camry is the first Camry to be offered in the U. S. without a manual transmission. The U. S. Camry has a 6-speed automatic transmission, with SE models featuring paddle shifters for manual shifts. CVT is still offered on hybrid models. In Japan, the XV50 Camry is exclusive to Toyota Corolla Store locations; the 2013 model year Camry was released in Japan on 3 September 2012, but was delayed in the U. S. until late January 2013 due to power shortages in Japan caused by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. For the first time, the Japanese market Camry did not use the "regular" Camry design used for the U. S. and Australian models. Instead, it adopts the "prestige" Camry or Aurion design that Southeast Asia and China have received; the SE model is fitted with a sport-tuned suspension, 17-inch alloy wheels, fog lamps, a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift knob, sport seats and shift paddles to differentiate it from the XLE. Prices in the U. S. start at US$21,955. The SE, XLE trims and the hybrid had no price change or a reduction of between $200 and $2000 with respect to the previous year.
The Camry LE received a price increase of $710, while the new base level Camry L was introduced to the lineup. Introduced in late 2011, the XV50 series Camry in Australia and New Zealand was sold under a new two-tier naming and styling structure. For the gasoline models, Altise remains the base model while Ateva and Grande have been replaced by the Atara S, SX and SL. Australian Camrys have different interior fabrics and trim as well as the steering and suspension settings that were adapted for the local market; the Altise starts at A$30,490 and the Atara SL is A$39,990. The XV50 series Camry Hybrid was released to the Australian market in early 2012, is available in two variants, the lower grade "h" and the higher grade "hL"; the hybrid models are differentiated to the petrol models by having a unique chrome grille and additional hybrid badging. Toyota Australia released limited-run models of the ASV50R, including the Atara R and RZ; the facelift version of the XV50 started production in Australia on 28 April 2015.
Australian production ended on 3 October 2017 when the Altona plant was closed, making it the last Toyota vehicle produced in Australia. The Asian version of the Camry was designed in Japan by Hirofumi Fukui, Kazumi Kowaki and Keisuke Matsuno in 2009, it is referred to as the "prestige Camry" by Toyota officials in Japan. The prestige Camry was first unveiled in Ukraine on 25 August 2011, it was manufactured and sold in Australia as the Toyota Aurion, launched there in April 2012. The Camry was launched in China on 18 November 2011, followed by its hybrid counterpart on 21 May 2012; the prestige Camry for the ASEAN market was first unveiled in Thailand at the 33rd Bangkok International Motor Show on 28 March 2012. In Indonesia, the prestige Camry was launched on 4 April 2012, followed by the Philippines on 27 April 2012, Malaysia on 1 June 2012 and Vietnam on 14 August 2012; this was the first time the Camry in Indonesia and Malaysia that offered with a hybrid drivetrain. The prestige Camry, sold in Japan and other Asian markets, received a large facelift in 2014 and was unveiled during the Moscow International Automobile Salon.
However, the Aurion itself in Australia have not received the same treatment, but rather a much smaller facelift based on the original design. In India, the prestige Camry was launched on 24 August 2012; the Camry Hybrid was available for the first time in India, launched on 28 August 2013. Both the Indian market Camry and Camry Hybrid were locally assembled. Toyota introduced a substantial mid-cycle restyling to the Camry XV50 at the 2014 New York International Auto Show in April 2014; the changes, applicable to the entire Camry range and dubbed the "big minor change", consisted of the alteration of most of the exterior panels – only the roof remained unchanged. The powertrain remained unchanged from the pre-facelift model; the facelift included an aggressive front bumper featuring a wider and more prominent trapezoidal grille shape. The interior received a more premium appearance, with improved amenities; the window and door seals were improved to reduce road noise. Toyota started production of restyled Camry for Russian market i