Whitman is an unincorporated community in northeastern Grant County, United States. It lies along Nebraska Highway 2 east of the village of the county seat of Grant County; the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory lies just north of the community. Although Whitman is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 69366. Whitman was established in the 1860s, it was named after the town of Whitman, Massachusetts by a railroad official
Garden County, Nebraska
Garden County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,057, its county seat is Oshkosh. In the Nebraska license plate system, Garden County is represented by the prefix 77. Garden County was formed in 1909 by popular vote. Voters in the general election of November 2, 1909 approved making the northern part of Deuel County into its own county, it is said the county was so named in the hope that this land should become the garden of the West or with allusion to the "Garden of Eden". The county has lost population since the Great Dust Bowl of the 1930s; the land was homesteaded for family farms that turned out to be too small for subsistence farming under the arid conditions of the region. In the early decades of settlement by immigrants and migrants from the East, farmers did not know how to work the land on the prairies. Tons of topsoil were lost after droughts; the North Platte River runs ESE through the south part of Garden County. Since the county is in the western portion of Nebraska, its residents observe Mountain Time.
The eastern two-thirds portion of the state observes Central Time. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,731 square miles, of which 1,704 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 26 Nebraska Highway 27 Nebraska Highway 92 Ash Hollow State Historical Park Clear Creek State Waterfowl Management Area Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 2,292 people, 1,020 households, 658 families in the county; the population density was 1.3 people per square mile. There were 1,298 housing units at an average density of 0.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.34% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.52% from other races, 0.48% from two or more races. 1.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.5 % were of 10.0 % Irish, 9.6 % American and 9.2 % English ancestry. There were 1,020 households out of which 24.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 6.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.40% were non-families.
32.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.77. The county population contained 21.80% under the age of 18, 4.60% from 18 to 24, 22.70% from 25 to 44, 27.00% from 45 to 64, 24.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,458, the median income for a family was $32,546. Males had a median income of $21,495 versus $17,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,414. About 10.80% of families and 14.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.00% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. Like much of the Nebraska Panhandle, Garden County has been a Republican-leaning county since the late 20th century, it was one of only two counties that Ben Nelson failed to carry in 1994.
In Presidential elections the last Democratic candidate to carry the county was Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932; as part of Nebraska's 3rd congressional district it has been represented by Republicans since 1961. Oshkosh Lewellen Lisco Mumper Rackett National Register of Historic Places listings in Garden County, Nebraska
Hooker County, Nebraska
Hooker County is a county in the U. S. state of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 736, its county seat is Mullen, the county's only community of substantial size. In the Nebraska license plate system, Hooker County is represented by the prefix 93, because it had the smallest number of registered vehicles out of the state's 93 counties when the licensing system was established in 1922. Hooker County was formed in 1889 with construction of a line for Chicago and Quincy Railroad into the territory, it was named for Civil War General Joseph Hooker. The terrain of Hooker County consists of low rolling hills running east-west; the Middle Loup River flows eastward through the upper part of the county. The county has a total area of 721 square miles, of which 721 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. Most of Nebraska's 93 counties observe Central Time. Hooker County is the easternmost of the Nebraska counties to observe Mountain Time. Nebraska Highway 2 Nebraska Highway 97 Carr Lake Jefford Lake As of the 2000 United States Census,<refe="GR2">"American FactFinder".
US Census Bureau. Retrieved 31 January 2008.</ref> There were 783 people, 335 households, 220 families in the county. The population density was 1.0 person per square mile. There were 440 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.72% White, 0.38% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.13% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 335 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 3.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.30% were non-families. 33.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.90. The county population contained 24.00% under the age of 18, 4.10% from 18 to 24, 21.60% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 26.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 83.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,868, the median income for a family was $35,114. Males had a median income of $25,234 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,513. About 4.90% of families and 6.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.30% of those under age 18 and 13.10% of those age 65 or over. Mullen Dunwell Hooker County voters are traditionally Republican. In only three national elections since 1900 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hooker County, Nebraska County website
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for