Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Pretty Rock National Wildlife Refuge
Pretty Rock National Wildlife Refuge is an 800-acre National Wildlife Refuge in the U. S. state of North Dakota. Pretty Rock NWR is an easement refuge and is on owned land, but the landowners and U. S. Government work cooperatively to protect the resources; the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service oversees Pretty Rock NWR from their offices at Audubon National Wildlife Refuge; this isolated refuge is 10 mi south of New Leipzig, North Dakota and has been known as a temporary resting place for migrating whooping cranes. In 2002, six adults and one juvenile crane were spotted on the refuge. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge: About the Complex Oh Ranger: Pretty Rock National Wildlife Refuge
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Morton County, North Dakota
Morton County is a county in the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 27,471, making it the sixth-most populous county in North Dakota, its county seat is Mandan. Morton County is included in ND, Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was created on January 8, 1873 by the Dakota Territory legislature, using territory that had not been included in any county. The county organization was not completed at that time, but the new county was not attached to any other county for administrative or judicial matters, its organization was completed on November 5, 1878. It was named for Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton, governor of Indiana during the American Civil War and a United States Senator. Portions of the county were partitioned off on February 10, 1879, causing the county organization to be not organized; this lasted until February 1881, when the organizaton was again completed. The county's boundaries were adjusted in 1881 and in 1887. In 1916, a portion of Morton County was partitioned off to create Grant County, setting Morton County's boundaries to their present configuration.
After the Northern Pacific Railroad announced the location for the western approach to its Missouri River bridge, a new settlement appeared in December 1878. The US Post Office designated the riverside settlement "Morton" after the corresponding county; the Morton post office moved to the city center 3 miles west. The county was reorganized in 1881 after the detached land was returned to Morton County by the 1881 legislature; the town renamed Mandan, was named the county seat. The 1,172-mile long Dakota Access Pipeline route submitted in its final permit applications starting in September 2014 would include a 72-mile portion through Morton County; the county became a focus of DAPL protests in April 2016. In August 2016 the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe filed an injunction against United States Army Corps of Engineers to attempt to halt construction. In his 58-page decision by United States District Judge James E. Boasberg shows that the tribe failed to participate in the process of the USACE and Energy Transfer Partners to address the tribes complaints.
Furthermore, the tribe did not cite a fear of water contamination in the injunction. The injunction request was denied and failed on appeal. Amnesty International wrote a letter to Sheriff Kyle Kirchmeier on September 28, 2016, requesting that he investigate the use of force by private contractors, remove blockades and discontinue the use of riot gear by Morton County sheriff's deputies when policing protests in order to facilitate the right to peaceful protests in accordance with international law and standards; this letter was written in response to private security guards using guard dogs on advancing protesters on September 3, along with using pepper spray. On November 20, North Dakota police officers fired rubber bullets, tear gas, CS canisters and water from fire hoses at rioting protesters in subfreezing temperatures; the Missouri River flows south-southeastward along the east boundary line of Morton County, Cannonball River flows east-northeastward along the eastern portion of the county's south boundary line.
The county terrain consists of low rolling hills, etched by drainages. The terrain slopes to the east and south, but slopes into the river valleys, with the high point near the midpoint of the north boundary line, at 2,375' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,945 square miles, of which 1,926 square miles is land and 19 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 25,303 people, 9,889 households, 6,932 families in the county; the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 10,587 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.82% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 2.39% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 0.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 64.5% were of German and 10.6% Norwegian ancestry. There were 9,889 households out of which 34.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families.
25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.03. The county population contained 27.00% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 99.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,028, the median income for a family was $44,592. Males had a median income of $30,698 versus $21,301 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,202. About 6.80% of families and 9.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.00% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 27,471 people, 11,289 households, 7,523 families in the county; the population density was 14.3 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 12,079 housing units at an average density of 6.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.6% white, 3.6% American Indian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic o
Sioux County, North Dakota
Sioux County is a county located along the southern border of the U. S. state of North Dakota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,153, its eastern border is the Missouri River and its county seat is Fort Yates. The county was created by proclamation of Governor Louis B. Hanna on September 3, 1914, it was named for the Native American Lakota. The county government organization was completed on September 12 of that year; the county lies within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation, forming the northernmost 30 percent of the reservation. It is the only county in North Dakota, within an Indian reservation. Sioux County is included in ND Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sioux County lies on the south line of North Dakota, its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of South Dakota. Its north boundary line is formed by the east-northeastward-flowing Cedar Creek, which discharges into the Missouri River at the county's northeast corner, its east boundary line is formed by the south-southeast-flowing Missouri River, which forms Lake Oahe along the county boundary line.
Porcupine Creek flows southeastward into the Missouri River. The county terrain consists of low rolling hills etched with drainages; the terrain slopes to the south. The county has a total area of 1,128 square miles, of which 1,094 square miles is land and 34 square miles is water; the southwest corner counties of South Dakota observe Mountain Time. The counties of McKenzie and Sioux are split, observing Mountain Time in their western portions. Cedar River National Grassland Froelich Dam State Game Management Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,044 people, 1,095 households, 871 families in the county; the population density was 3.70/sqmi. There were 1,216 housing units at an average density of 1.11/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 84.59% Native American, 14.34% White, 0.02% Black or African American, 0.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 1.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.5% were of German ancestry.
There were 1,095 households out of which 48.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.10% were married couples living together, 29.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.40% were non-families. 16.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.63 and the average family size was 3.98. The county population contained 40.30% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 16.20% from 45 to 64, 5.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females there were 104.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,483, the median income for a family was $24,000. Males had a median income of $22,039 versus $19,458 for females; the per capita income for the county was $7,731. About 33.60% of families and 39.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.40% of those under age 18 and 25.80% of those age 65 or over.
The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States. As of the 2010 Census, there were 4,153 people, 1,158 households, 900 families in the county; the population density was 3.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,311 housing units at an average density of 1.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 84.1% American Indian, 12.6% white, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.5% were German, 0.3% were American. Of the 1,158 households, 54.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.5% were married couples living together, 31.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.3% were non-families, 17.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.55 and the average family size was 3.89. The median age was 26.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $30,990 and the median income for a family was $31,098.
Males had a median income of $31,894 versus $26,619 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,542. About 39.0% of families and 47.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 58.4% of those under age 18 and 36.1% of those age 65 or over. Fort Yates Selfridge Solen Cannon Ball Porcupine Menz With its population being Native American, Sioux County is one of the most Democratic counties in North Dakota, having last backed a Republican presidential candidate in 1980. In 2016, Hillary Clinton won the votes in Sioux County, one of only two counties she won in the state. National Register of Historic Places listings in Sioux County, North Dakota
German Americans are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey; the group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world. None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia. Immigration continued in large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000. There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.
S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, others for the chance to start fresh in the New World; the arrivals before 1850 were farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities. German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America; the great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and can hardly be distinguished by the untrained eye.
German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Milwaukee, San Antonio, St. Louis; the Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing cultural values. Lutherans and Catholics opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs, they opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I. On the other hand, there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; the first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer.
He was followed in 1608 by three carpenters or house builders. The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, founded near Philadelphia on October 6, 1683. Large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination, they migrated to America for a variety of reasons. Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, military conscription. Immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants. Large sections of Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia attracted Germans. Most were German Reformed. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812. In 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of poverty, traveling first to Rotterdam and to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped; the trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus.
Many immigrants children, died before reaching America in June 1710. The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River in work camps. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans occupied a strip some 12 miles long along both sides of the Mohawk River; the soil was excellent. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats", they kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm owner