United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Benton County, Washington
Benton County is a county in the south-central portion of the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 175,177; the county seat is Prosser, its largest city is Kennewick. The Columbia River demarcates the county's north and east boundaries. Benton County was created from what were larger versions of Klickitat County and Yakima County on 8 March 1905. and was named after U. S. Senator from Missouri and U. S. Representative Thomas Hart Benton. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,760 square miles, of which 1,700 square miles is land and 60 square miles is water; the highest point of land elevation within the county is the summit of Rattlesnake Mountain at 3,527 feet. Columbia River - Surrounds and forms the county's boundary on three sides. Barge trafficking is possible upriver to anchorage sites in northern Richland, the upstream extent of Lake Wallula which forms behind McNary Dam. Yakima River - Bisects the county from west to east; as a water source, the Yakima is the lifesource for agriculture in the Yakima Valley.
A shallow river, the Yakima is suitably navigable only for personal watercraft. The Yakima River supported some of the most bountiful migratory fish populations in the entire Columbia Basin, many of those legendary salmon runs are now rebounding after decades of demise. Amon Creek is the most notable tributary of the Yakima River in Benton County, emptying into the mainstem river near the Yakima River Delta in Richland. Horse Heaven Hills Rattlesnake Hills Lookout Summit Rattlesnake Mountain Jump Off Joe Badger Mountain Candy Mountain Red Mountain Emerson Nipple Grant County - north Franklin County - northeast Walla Walla County - east Umatilla County, Oregon - southeast Morrow County, Oregon - southwest Klickitat County - southwest Yakima County - west Hanford Reach National Monument Manhattan Project National Historical Park Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge Interstate 82 Interstate 182 U. S. Route 12 U. S. Route 395 Washington State Route 14 Washington State Route 240 As of the census of 2000, there were 142,475 people, 52,866 households, 38,063 families residing in the county.
The population density was 84 people per square mile. There were 55,963 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 86.25% White, 0.93% Black or African American, 0.82% Native American, 2.20% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 7.01% from other races, 2.69% from two or more races. 12.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.1 % were of American and 8.4 % Irish ancestry. 86.4 % spoke 10.3 % Spanish as their first language. There were 52,866 households out of which 38.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.70% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 98.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $47,044, the median income for a family was $54,146. Males had a median income of $45,556 versus $27,232 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,301. About 7.80% of families and 10.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.30% of those under age 18 and 6.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 175,177 people, 65,304 households, 45,699 families residing in the county; the population density was 103.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 68,618 housing units at an average density of 40.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.4% white, 2.7% Asian, 1.3% black or African American, 0.9% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 9.0% from other races, 3.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 18.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 22.3% were German, 13.4% were English, 12.5% were Irish, 7.9% were American. Of the 65,304 households, 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families, 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.17. The median age was 35.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,354 and the median income for a family was $69,834. Males had a median income of $57,496 versus $36,575 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,161. About 9.3% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Benton County is one of the 33 counties in Washington that operates under the non-chartered "commission" or "plural executive" form of government. Three commissioners share administrative aegis with several other partisan officials independently-elected to four-year terms of office.
Judges of the superior court are als
Dryland farming and dry farming encompass specific agricultural techniques for the non-irrigated cultivation of crops. Dryland farming is associated with drylands, areas characterized by a cool wet season, followed by a warm dry season, they are associated with arid conditions or areas prone to drought or having scarce water resources. Additionally, arid-zone agriculture is being developed for this purpose. Dryland farming is used in the Great Plains, the Palouse plateau of Eastern Washington, other arid regions of North America such as in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, the Middle East and in other grain growing regions such as the steppes of Eurasia and Argentina. Dryland farming was introduced to southern Russia and Ukraine by Ukrainian Mennonites under the influence of Johann Cornies, making the region the breadbasket of Europe. In Australia, it is practiced in all states but the Northern Territory. Dryland farmed crops may include winter wheat, beans, sunflowers or watermelon.
Successful dryland farming is possible with as little as 230 millimetres of precipitation a year. Native American tribes in the arid Southwest survived for hundreds of years on dryland farming in areas with less than 250 millimetres of rain; the choice of crop is influenced by the timing of the predominant rainfall in relation to the seasons. For example, winter wheat is more suited to regions with higher winter rainfall while areas with summer wet seasons may be more suited to summer growing crops such as sorghum, sunflowers or cotton. Dryland farming has evolved as a set of techniques and management practices used by farmers to continually adapt to the presence or lack of moisture in a given crop cycle. In marginal regions, a farmer should be financially able to survive occasional crop failures for several years in succession. Survival as a dryland farmer requires careful husbandry of the moisture available for the crop and aggressive management of expenses to minimize losses in poor years.
Dryland farming involves the constant assessing of the amount of moisture present or lacking for any given crop cycle and planning accordingly. Dryland farmers know that to be financially successful they have to be aggressive during the good years in order to offset the dry years. Dryland farming is dependent on natural rainfall, which can leave the ground vulnerable to dust storms if poor farming techniques are used or if the storms strike at a vulnerable time; the fact that a fallow period must be included in the crop rotation means that fields cannot always be protected by a cover crop, which might otherwise offer protection against erosion. Some of the theories of dryland farming developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries claimed to be scientific but were in reality pseudoscientific and did not stand up to empirical testing. For example, it was alleged that tillage would seal in moisture, but such "dust mulching" ideas are based on what people imagine should happen, or have been told, rather than what testing confirms.
The book Bad Land: An American Romance explores the effects that this had on people who were encouraged to homestead in an area with little rainfall. Capturing and conservation of moisture – In regions such as Eastern Washington, the average annual precipitation available to a dryland farm may be as little as 220 millimetres. Moisture must be captured until the crop can utilize it. Techniques include summer fallow rotation, preventing runoff by terracing fields. "Terracing" is practiced by farmers on a smaller scale by laying out the direction of furrows to slow water runoff downhill by plowing along either contours or keylines. Moisture can be conserved by leaving crop residue to shade the soil. Effective use of available moisture – Once moisture is available for the crop to use, it must be used as as possible. Seed planting depth and timing are considered to place the seed at a depth at which sufficient moisture exists, or where it will exist when seasonal precipitation falls. Farmers tend to use crop varieties which are heat-stress tolerant.
Thus the likelihood of a successful crop is hedged. Soil conservation – The nature of dryland farming makes it susceptible to erosion wind erosion; some techniques for conserving soil moisture are at odds with techniques for conserving topsoil. Since healthy topsoil is critical to sustainable dryland agriculture, its preservation is considered the most important long-term goal of a dryland farming operation. Erosion control techniques such as windbreaks, reduced tillage or no-till, spreading straw, strip farming are used to minimize topsoil loss. Control of input costs – Dryland farming is practiced in regions inherently marginal for non-irrigated agriculture; because of this, there is an increased risk of crop failure and poor yields which may occur in a dry year. Dryland farmers must evaluate the potential yield of a crop throughout the growing season and be prepared to decrease inputs to the crop such as fertilizer and weed control if it appears that it is to have a poor yield due to insufficient moisture.
Conversely, in years when moisture is abundant, farmers may increase their inpu
Washington's 4th congressional district
Washington's 4th congressional district encompasses a large area of central Washington, covering the counties of, Okanogan, Yakima, Franklin and Adams. The district is dominated by the Tri-Cities areas; the 4th District was represented in the U. S. House of Representatives by Dan Newhouse since 2015, a Republican from Sunnyside; the Fourth District is predominantly rural, is more conservative than the western part of the state. It has been dominated by the Republican Party for several decades; the last Democrat to represent the district was Jay Inslee, who held the seat during the 103rd Congress. Doc Hastings, Inslee's Republican opponent in 1992, defeated Inslee in a 1994 rematch and served in Congress until he retired in 2014. After losing to Hastings in 1994, Inslee moved to Bainbridge Island and was sent back to Congress representing the First District in the central Puget Sound area. Inslee was elected the state's governor in 2012, took office in January 2013. In the 2008 election, Hastings defeated challenger George Fearing.
In presidential elections, the 4th District is a Republican stronghold. George W. Bush carried the district in 2004 with 62 % and 63 % of the vote, respectively; the 4th District gave John McCain 58% of the vote in 2008, his strongest showing in Washington. United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2014 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present. Washington State Redistricting Commission Find your new congressional district: a searchable map, Seattle Times, January 13, 2012
Northern Pacific Railway
The Northern Pacific Railway was a transcontinental railroad that operated across the northern tier of the western United States, from Minnesota to the Pacific Northwest. It was approved by Congress in 1864 and given nearly forty million acres of land grants, which it used to raise money in Europe for construction. Construction began in 1870 and the main line opened all the way from the Great Lakes to the Pacific when former President Ulysses S. Grant drove in the final "golden spike" in western Montana on September 8, 1883; the railroad had about 6,800 miles of track and served a large area, including extensive trackage in the states of Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon and Wisconsin. In addition, the NP had an international branch to Winnipeg, Canada; the main activities were shipping wheat and other farm products, cattle and minerals. The Northern Pacific was headquartered in Minnesota, first in Brainerd in Saint Paul, it had a tumultuous financial history. Congress chartered the Northern Pacific Railway Company on July 2, 1864 with the goals of connecting the Great Lakes with Puget Sound on the Pacific, opening vast new lands for farming, ranching and mining, linking Washington and Oregon to the rest of the country.
Congress granted the railroad a potential 60 million acres of land in exchange for building rail transportation to an undeveloped territory. Josiah Perham was elected its first president on December 7, 1864, it could not use all the land and in the end took just under 40 million acres. For the next six years, backers of the road struggled to find financing. Though John Gregory Smith succeeded Perham as president on January 5, 1865, groundbreaking did not take place until February 15, 1870, at Carlton, Minnesota, 25 miles west of Duluth, Minnesota; the backing and promotions of famed financier Jay Cooke in the summer of 1870 brought the first real momentum to the company. Over the course of 1871, the Northern Pacific pushed westward from Minnesota into present-day North Dakota. Surveyors and construction crews had to maneuver through swamps and tamarack forests; the difficult terrain and insufficient funding delayed by six months the construction phase in Minnesota. The NP began building its line north from Kalama, Washington Territory, on the Columbia River outside of Portland, towards Puget Sound.
Four small construction engines were purchased, the Minnetonka, Ottertail and St. Cloud, the first of, shipped to Kalama by ship around Cape Horn. In Minnesota, the Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad completed construction of its 155-mile line stretching from Saint Paul to Lake Superior at Duluth in 1870, it was leased to the Northern Pacific in 1876, was absorbed by the Northern Pacific. The Northern Pacific Railroad reached Fargo, Dakota Territory, early in June 1872; the following year, in June 1873, the N. P. reached the shores of the Missouri River, at Edwinton D. T. In the west, the track extended 25 miles north from Kalama. Surveys were carried out in North Dakota protected by 600 troops under General Winfield Scott Hancock. Headquarters and shops were established in Brainerd, Minnesota, a town named for the President John Gregory Smith's wife Anna Elizabeth Brainerd. A severe stock market crash and financial collapse after 1873, led by the Credit Mobilier Scandal and the Union Pacific Railroad fraud, stopped further railroad building for twelve years.
In 1886, the company put down 164 miles of main line across North Dakota, with an additional 45 miles in Washington. On November 1, General George Washington Cass became the third president of the company. Cass had been a vice-president and director of the Pennsylvania Railroad, would lead the Northern Pacific through some of its most difficult times. Attacks on survey parties and construction crews by Sioux, Cheyenne and Kiowa warriors in North Dakota and Minnesota became so prevalent that the company received protection from units of the U. S. Army. In 1886 the Northern Pacific opened colonization offices in Germany and Scandinavia, attracting farmers with cheap package transportation and purchase deals; the success of the NP was based on the abundant crops of wheat and other grains and the attraction to settlers of the Red River Valley along the Minnesota-North Dakota border between 1881 and 1890. The Northern Pacific reached Dakota Territory at Fargo in 1872, began its career as one of the central factors in the economic growth of North Dakota.
The climate, although cold, was suitable for wheat, in high demand in the cities of the United States and Europe. Most of the settlers were German and Scandinavian immigrants who bought the land cheaply, raised large families, they shipped huge quantities of wheat to Minneapolis, while buying all sorts of equipment and home supplies to be shipped in by rail. The NP used its federal land grants as security to borrow money to build its system; the federal government kept every other section of land, gave it away free to homesteaders. At first the railroad sold much of its holdings at low prices to land speculators in order to realize quick cash profits, to eliminate sizable annual tax bills. By 1905 the railroad company's land policies changed, after it was judged a costly mistake to have sold much of the land at wholesale prices. With better railroad service and improved methods of farming the Northern Pacific sold what had been heretofore "worthless" land directly to farmers at good
A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk. Preferably there are few obstructions such as trees to avoid. Bridges must have sufficient clearance. High water speed may make a channel unnavigable. Waters may be unnavigable because of ice in winter. Navigability depends on context: A small river may be navigable by smaller craft, such as a motorboat or a kayak, but unnavigable by a cruise ship. Shallow rivers may be made navigable by the installation of locks that increase and regulate water depth, or by dredging. Inland Water Transport Systems have been used for centuries in countries including India, Egypt, the Netherlands, the United States and Bangladesh. In the Netherlands, IWT handles 46% of the nation's inland freight. What constitutes'navigable' waters can not be separated from the context in which the question is asked. Numerous federal agencies define jurisdiction based on navigable waters, including admiralty jurisdiction, pollution control, to the licensing of dams, property boundaries.
The numerous definitions and jurisdictional statutes have created an array of case law specific to which context the question of navigability arises. Some of the most discussed definitions are listed here. Navigable waters, as defined by the US Army Corps of Engineers as codified under 33 CFR 329, are those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide, those inland waters that are presently used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce while the waterway is in its ordinary condition at the time of statehood. Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, approved 3 March 1899, prohibits the unauthorized obstruction of a navigable water of the U. S; this statute requires a permit from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for any construction in or over any navigable water, or the excavation or discharge of material into such water, or the accomplishment of any other work affecting the course, condition, or capacity of such waters.
However, the ACOE recognizes that only the judiciary can make a definitive ruling as to which are navigable waters.33 CFR 329 For the purposes of transferring property title into public property, the definition of a Navigable waterways follows 33 CFR 329. For the purpose of establishing which river is public and therefore state-owned, what is navigable is a constitutional question defined by Federal case law. See PPL Montana v Montana. If a river was considered navigable at the time of statehood, the land below the navigable water was conveyed to the state as part of the transportation network in order to facilitate commerce. Most states retained title to these navigable rivers in trust for the public; some states divested themselves of title to the land below navigable rivers, but a federal navigable servitude remains if the river is a navigable waterway. Title to the lands submerged by smaller streams are considered part of the property through which the water flows and there is no'public right' to enter upon private property based on the mere presence of water.
The scope of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission authority was granted under the Federal Power Act, 1941. Such authority is based on congressional authority to regulate commerce. Therefore, FERC's permitting authority extends to the flow from non-navigable tributaries in order to protect commerce downstream; the Clean Water Act has introduced the terms "traditional navigable waters," and "waters of the United States" to define the scope of Federal jurisdiction under the Clean Water Act. Here, "Waters of the United States" include not only navigable waters, but tributaries of navigable waters and nearby wetlands with "a significant nexus to navigable waters". Therefore, the Clean Water Act establishes Federal jurisdiction beyond "navigable waters" extending a more limited federal jurisdiction under the Act over private property which may at times be submerged by waters; because jurisdiction under the Clean Water Act extends beyond public property, the broader definitions of "traditional navigable" and "significant nexus" used to establish the scope of authority under the Act are still ambiguously defined and therefore open to judicial interpretation as indicated in two U.
S. Supreme Court decisions: "Carabell v. United States" and "Rapanos v. United States". However, because authority under the Act is limited to protecting only navigable waters, jurisdiction over these smaller creeks is not absolute and may require just compensation to property owners when invoked to protect downstream waters. A water-body is presumed non-navigable with the burden of proof on the party claiming it is navigable; the U. S. Forest Service considers a waterbody not navigable. See Whitewater v. Tidwell 770 F. 3d 1108. Therefore, public rights associated with navigability cannot be presumed to exist without a finding of navigability.'Navigability' is a legal term of art, which can lead to considerable confusion. In 2009, journalist Phil Brown of Adirondack Explorer defied private property postings to make a direct transit of Mud Pond by canoe, within a tract of private property surrounded by public land within the Adirondack Park. In New York State, waterways that are'navigable-in-fact' are considered public highways, meaning that they are subject to an easement for
Okanogan County, Washington
Okanogan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Washington along the Canada–US border. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,120; the county seat is Okanogan. Its area is the largest in the state. About a fifth of the county's residents live in the Greater Omak Area; the county forms a portion of the Okanogan Country. The first county seat was Ruby. Okanogan County was formed out of Stevens County in February 1888; the name derives from the Okanagan language place name ukʷnaqín. The name Okanogan refers to a part of southern British Columbia. Before Europeans arrived, the Okanogan County region was home to numerous indigenous peoples that would become part of three Indian reservations referred to as the Northern Okanogans or Sinkaietk, Tokoratums and Konkonelps, they spoke in seven types of Interior Salish languages related to the Puget Sound tribes. The Okanogans experienced a favorable climate, camping in the winter, hunting bears in the spring, catching fish in the summer and hunting deer in fall.
The camps consisted of teepee-like longhouses built with hides and bark. Women gathered berries. A popular destination for this was the Kettle Falls. Due to its remoteness, the Okanogan County area was one of the last in Washington settled by white people, it was an early thoroughfare used by prospectors to gain access to other communities, such as British Columbia. By the 21st century, the region specialized in agriculture and tourism. Electric producer Grand Coulee Dam was constructed between 1933 and 1942 with two power plants, around the Okanogan and Grant counties at the former's southern border. In July 2014, the Carlton Complex wildfire burned over 250,000 acres in Okanogan County, it destroyed over 300 homes including 100 in and around Pateros According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,315 square miles, of which 5,268 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water, it is the largest county in the state by area, it is larger than three states in land area. Cascade Mountains Columbia River Okanogan River North Gardner Mountain, the highest point in Okanogan County Beaner Lake U.
S. Route 97 State Route 20 State Route 153 Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail Nez Perce National Historical Park Okanogan National Forest Pasayten Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 39,564 people, 15,027 households, 10,579 families residing in the county; the population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 19,085 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 75.32% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 11.47% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.58% from other races, 2.84% from two or more races. 14.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 14.0% were of German, 9.5% English, 9.2% United States or American and 6.8% Irish ancestry. There were 15,027 households out of which 33.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.40% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.70% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 25.50% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,726, the median income for a family was $35,012. Males had a median income of $29,495 versus $22,005 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,900. About 16.00% of families and 21.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.20% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 41,120 people, 16,519 households, 10,914 families residing in the county; the population density was 7.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,245 housing units at an average density of 4.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 73.9% white, 11.4% American Indian, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 10.1% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 17.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 21.4% were German, 12.4% were Irish, 12.2% were English, 3.6% were American. Of the 16,519 households, 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families, 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age was 42.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,551 and the median income for a family was $48,418. Males had a median income of $37,960 versus $29,032 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,093. About 14.7% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.
Brewster Okanogan Omak Oroville Pateros Tonasket Conconully Coulee Dam Elmer City Nespelem Riverside Twisp Winthrop Disautel Loomis Malott Methow Nespelem Community North Omak Bodie Bolster Chesaw Molson