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Grape

A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, grape juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes both for eating and wine production.

The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.

Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Raw grapes are 81% water, 18% carbohydrates, 1% protein, have negligible fat. A 100 gram reference amount of raw grapes supplies 69 calories and a moderate amount of vitamin K, with no other micronutrients in significant content. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural"; the area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding.

Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight. Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings; because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction. It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been spe

Hôtel de la Marine

The hôtel de la Marine is a historic building on place de la Concorde in Paris, to the east of rue Royale. It was built between 1757 and 1774 on what was known as place Louis XV, with a façade by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, First Architect to the King and designer of the square; the identical building to its west now houses the hôtel de Crillon. The construction was led by Jacques-Germain Soufflot, its two pediments contain allegories of Magnificence and Felicity by Guillaume II Coustou and Michel-Ange Slodtz. The building belonged wholly to the Crown, at first being used by the Garde-Meuble, whose galleries were open to the public from 9 am to 1 pm on the first Tuesday of each month between Easter and All Saints' Day, it housed a chapel, a library, workshops and many apartments, including those of the intendant of the Garde-Meuble – at first Pierre Élisabeth de Fontanieu Marc-Antoine Thierry de Ville-d'Avray. When the government was forced to join Louis XVI in quitting Versailles and setting up in the palais des Tuileries, the secrétaire d'État à la Marine, César Henri de la Luzerne, was hosted at the Garde-Meuble by his cousin Thierry de Ville d'Avray.

Thus, from 1789, it housed the naval ministry. Led by Admiral Decrès, the ministry expanded its offices until it occupied the whole building; the magnificent interior decor by Jacques Gondouin, inspired by Piranesi, was an important step forward in 18th-century taste, but it was profoundly distorted by changes under the Second French Empire, although the grands salons d'apparat and the Galerie Dorée still maintain some of the original elements. The building housed the French naval staff until 2015, after which a program of renovation was begun

Fragilaria

Fragilaria is a genus of freshwater and saltwater diatoms. It is a colonial diatom, forming filaments of cells mechanically joined by protrusions on the face and in the center of their valves; the individual diatoms appear swollen in their centers. The genus grows as free living in colonies or epiphytic; some species are bloom forming diatoms in eutrophic lakes. The type species is Fragilaria pectinalis Lyngbye from designating a lectotype from Conferva pectinalis O. F. Müller; the taxonomy of the genus is still uncertain. The Fragilaria have a pseudoraphe, rather than a true longitudinal groove in their valves; the valves are symmetrical with transverse striae. F. acidoclinata F. aconicinnum F. acus F. acutirhombica F. acutiuscula F. alpestris F. amphicephaloides F. annulata F. aquaplus F. arctica F. austriaca F. barbararum F. barbatula F. bidens F. bipunctata F. birostris F. brevistriata F. bronkei F. californica F. canariensis F. cassubica F. constricta F. construens F. crassirhombica F. crotonensis F. demerarae F. denticulata F. dibolos F. dzonoticola F. ehrenbergii F. eichornii F. excissa F. famelica F. flexura F. foliolum F. fragilarioides F. fremontii F. gedanensis F. germanii F. glebula F. gnathastoma F. goulardii F. gracilis F. gracillicima F. gracillima F. grandis F. grunowii F. hantzschiana F. henryi F. hirosakiensis F. hoelii F. husvikensis F. hyalina F. improbula F. incisa F. incognita F. interstincta F. islandica F. kriegeriana F. labei F. lacus-baikalensis F. lacus-baikali F. lenzii F. leptarthra F. longiceps F. longifusiformis F. magocsyi F. marina F. mazamaensis F. micra F. microvaucheriae F. miniscula F. nanana F. nanoides F. nevadensis F. northumbrica F. oblongata F. opacolineata F. pacifica F. pantocsekii F. paradoxa F. pararumpens F. parva F. patagonica F. pelta F. pennsylvanica F. perdelicatissima F. perminuta F. pseudoconstruens F. pseudolaevissima F. ptagonica F. punctata F. punctiformis F. quebecensis F. radians F. recapitellata F. rhodana F. riesgoviensis F. robusta F. rolandschmidtii F. rostrata F. rotundissima F. sandellii F. santaremensis F. saxoplanctonica F. schulzi F. schulzii F. similis F. sinuata F. smithiana F. socia F. sopotensis F. spinarum F. striatula F. submicroscopica F. suboldenburgiana F. tenera F. tenuicollis F. toxoneides F. turgens F. uliginosa F. ulna F. ulnus F. utermoehlii F. vaucheriae F. viereckiana F. virescens F. vitrea F. zeilleri "Fragilaria Lyngbye".

AlgaeBase. Retrieved 2016-01-02