Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography and illustration. The field is considered a subset of visual communication and communication design, but sometimes the term "graphic design" is used synonymously. Graphic designers create and combine symbols and text to form visual representations of ideas and messages, they use typography, visual arts, page layout techniques to create visual compositions. Common uses of graphic design include corporate design, editorial design, wayfinding or environmental design, web design, communication design, product packaging, signage; the term graphic design was coined by William Addison Dwiggins in 1922. However, the origins of graphic design can be traced from the origins of human existence, from the caves of Lascaux, to Rome's Trajan's Column to the illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages, to the neon lights of Ginza, Tokyo. In "Babylon, artisans pressed cuneiform inscriptions into clay bricks or tablets which were used for construction.
The bricks gave information such as the name of the reigning monarch, the builder, or some other dignitary". This was the first known road sign announcing the name of the governor of a state or mayor of the city; the Egyptians developed communication by hieroglyphics that used picture symbols dating as far back as 136 B. C. found on the Rosetta Stone. "The Rosetta stone, found by one of Napoleon's engineers was an advertisement for the Egyptian ruler, Ptolemy as the "true Son of the Sun, the Father of the Moon, the Keeper of the Happiness of Men"" The Egyptians invented papyrus, paper made from reeds found along the Nile, on which they transcribed advertisements more common among their people at the time. During the "Dark Ages", from 500 AD to 1450 AD, monks created illustrated manuscripts. In both its lengthy history and in the recent explosion of visual communication in the 20th and 21st centuries, the distinction between advertising, graphic design and fine art has disappeared, they share many elements, principles, practices and sometimes the same benefactor or client.
In advertising, the ultimate objective is the sale of services. In graphic design, "the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas and feeling to artifacts that document human experience."Graphic design in the United States began with Benjamin Franklin who used his newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette, to master the art of publicity to promote his own books and to influence the masses. "Benjamin Franklin's ingenuity gained in strength as did his cunning and in 1737 he had replaced his counterpart in Pennsylvania, Andrew Bradford as postmaster and printer after a competition he instituted and won. He showed his prowess by running an ad in his General Magazine and the Historical Chronicle of British Plantations in America that stressed the benefits offered by a stove he invented, named the Pennsylvania Fireplace, his invention is known as the Franklin stove. "American advertising imitated British newspapers and magazines. Advertisements were printed in scrambled type and uneven lines.
Franklin better organized this by adding 14-point type for the first line of the advertisement. Franklin added something that London printers had not attempted. Franklin was the first to utilize logos, which were early symbols that announced such services as opticians by displaying golden spectacles. Franklin taught advertisers; some advertisements ran for 10-20 lines, including color, names and sizes of the goods that were offered. During the Tang Dynasty wood blocks were cut to print on textiles and to reproduce Buddhist texts. A Buddhist scripture printed in 868 is the earliest known printed book. Beginning in the 11th century, longer scrolls and books were produced using movable type printing, making books available during the Song dynasty. During the 17th-18th century movable type was used for handbills or trade cards which were printed from wood or copper engravings; these documents announced its location. English painter William Hogarth used his skill in engraving was one of the first to design for business trade.
In Mainz Germany, in 1448, Johann Gutenberg introduced movable type using a new metal alloy for use in a printing press and opened a new era of commerce. This made graphics more available since mass printing dropped the price of printing material significantly. Most advertising was word of mouth. In France and England, for example, criers announced products for sale just as ancient Romans had done; the printing press made books more available. Aldus Manutius developed the book structure that became the foundation of western publication design; this era of graphic design is called Old Style. Additionally, William Caxton, England's first printer produced religious books, but had trouble selling them, he discovered the use of leftover pages and used them to announce the books and post them on church doors. This practice was termed "squis" or "pin up" posters, in 1612, becoming the first form of print advertising in Europe; the term Siquis came from the Roman era when public notices were posted stating "if anybody...", which in Latin is "si quis".
These printed announcements were followed by public registers of wants called want ads and in some areas such as the first periodical in Paris advertising was termed "advices". The "Advices" were what we k
Cedarlane is a Canadian private corporation headquartered in Burlington, Canada, that manufactures and distributes life science research products. Cedarlane's manufactured products include monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, cell separation media, complement for tissue typing, immunocolumns. Cedarlane is ISO 13485:2003 registered company. Cedarlane has become a multi-national corporation with over 100 employees in Canada and the United States; the two main locations are in Burlington, Ontario and coincidentally, in Burlington, North Carolina, US. In recent years, Cedarlane has partnered with a number of charitable Canadian organizations to raise funding for cancer research, economically impoverished children, men's health initiatives and much more. Cedarlane has partnered with the likes of the Canadian Cancer Society, Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation, SickKids Foundation, others. In 2017, Cedarlane will celebrate its 60th anniversary after being founded in 1957 by Richard Course. Cedarlane was incorporated in 1975 by three Canadian researchers originating from the University of Toronto and Ontario Cancer Institute.
J. Farmilo and R. C. Course. In 2006, Cedarlane opened a branch office in North Carolina, in the United States. In July 2007, Cedarlane became the exclusive distributor of ATCC products in Canada. In November, Cedarlane acquired CELLutions Biosystems Inc. a company founded by the University of Toronto Innovations Foundation. Cedarlane sells density-gradient cell separation media under the Lympholyte trade name. Cedarlane offers cell line platforms and various marker details for academic and commercial research programs. Cedarlane distributes over 5 million products on behalf of more than 1400 global Life Science manufacturing companies. Cedarlane company website
Participatory media is media where the audience can play an active role in the process of collecting, reporting and disseminating content. Citizen / Participatory journalism, citizen media and democratic media are related principles. Participatory media includes community media, wikis, RSS, tagging and social bookmarking, music-photo-video sharing, podcasts, participatory video projects and videoblogs. All together they can be described as "e-services, which involve end-users as active participants in the value creation process". However, "active uses of media are not exclusive to our times". "In the history of mediated communication we can find many variations of participatory practices. For instance, the initial phase of the radio knew many examples of non-professional broadcasters". Marshall MacLuhan discussed the participatory potential of media in the 1970s but in the era of digital and social media, the theory of participatory culture becomes more acute as the borders between audiences and media producers are blurring.
These distinctly different media share three common, interrelated characteristics: Many-to-many media now make it possible for every person connected to the network to broadcast and receive text, audio, software, discussions, computations, tags, or links to and from every other person. The asymmetry between broadcaster and audience, dictated by the structure of pre-digital technologies dictated has changed radically; this is a technical-structural characteristic. Participatory media are social media whose value and power derives from the active participation of many people; this is a social characteristic. One example is StumbleUpon. Social networks, when amplified by information and communication networks, enable broader and lower cost coordination of activities; this is an political characteristic. Full-fledged participatory news sites include NowPublic, OhmyNews, DigitalJournal.com, On the Ground News Reports and GroundReport. With participatory media, the boundaries between audiences and creators become blurred and invisible.
In the words of David Sifry, the founder of Technorati, a search engine for blogs, one-to-many "lectures" are transformed into "conversations" among "the people known as the audience". This changes the tone of public discussions; the mainstream media, says David Weinberger, a blogger and fellow at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society, "don't get how subversive it is to take institutions and turn them into conversations". That is because institutions are closed, assume a hierarchy and have trouble admitting fallibility, he says, whereas conversations are open-ended, assume equality and eagerly concede fallibility; some proposed that journalism can be more "participatory" because the World Wide Web has evolved from "read-only" to "read-write". In other words, in the past only a small proportion of people had the means to create content that could reach large audiences. Now the gap between the resources and skills needed to consume online content versus the means necessary to produce it have narrowed to the point that nearly anyone with a web-connected device can create media.
As Dan Gillmor, founder of the Center for Citizen Media declared in his 2004 book We the Media, journalism is evolving from a lecture into a conversation. He points out that new interactive forms of media have blurred the distinction between producers of news and their audience. In fact, some view the term "audience" to be obsolete in the new world of interactive participatory media. New York University professor and blogger Jay Rosen refers to them as "the people known as the audience." In "We Media", a treatise on participatory journalism, Shayne Bowman and Chris Willis suggest that the "audience" should be renamed "participants". One of the first projects encompassing participatory media prior to the advent of social media was The September 11 Photo Project; the exhibit was a not-for-profit community based photo project in response to the September 11 attacks and their aftermath. It provided a venue for the display of photographs accompanied by captions by anyone who wished to participate.
The Project aimed to preserve a record of the spontaneous outdoor shrines that were being swept away by rain or wind or collected by the city for historical preservation. Some proposed that "all mass media should be abandoned", extending upon one of the four main arguments given by Jerry Mander in his case against television: Corporate domination of television used to mould humans for a commercial environment, all mass media involve centralized power. Blogger Robin Good wrote, "With participatory media instead of mass media and corporations would be far less able to control information and maintain their legitimacy... To bring about true participatory media, it is necessary to bring about participatory alternatives to present economic and political structures... In order for withdrawal from using the mass media to become more popular, participatory media must become more attractive: cheaper, more accessible, more fun, more relevant. In such an atmosphere, nonviolent action campaigns against the mass media and in support of participatory media become more feasible."Although'participatory media' has been viewed uncritically by many writers, such as Daniel Palmer, have argued that media participation must "be understood in relation to defining characteristics of contemporary capitalism – namely its user-focused and individuated orientation."