Graphology is the analysis of the physical characteristics and patterns of handwriting claiming to be able to identify the writer, indicating the psychological state at the time of writing, or evaluating personality characteristics. It is considered a pseudoscience; the term is sometimes incorrectly used to refer to forensic document examination, due to the fact that aspects of the latter dealing with the examination of handwritten documents are referred to as graphanalysis. Graphology has been controversial for more than a century. Although supporters point to the anecdotal evidence of positive testimonials as a reason to use it for personality evaluation, empirical studies fail to show the validity claimed by its supporters; the word "graphology" is derived from grapho- and logos. Jean-Charles Gille-Maisani stated in 1991 that Juan Huarte de San Juan's 1575 Examen de ingenios para las ciencias was the first book on handwriting analysis. In American graphology, Camillo Baldi's Trattato come da una lettera missiva si conoscano la natura e qualita dello scrittore from 1622 is considered to be the first book.
Around 1830 Jean-Hippolyte Michon became interested in handwriting analysis. He published his findings shortly after founding Société Graphologique in 1871; the most prominent of his disciples was Jules Crépieux-Jamin who published a series of books that were soon published in other languages. Starting from Michon's integrative approach, Crépieux-Jamin founded a holistic approach to graphology. Alfred Binet was convinced to conduct research into graphology from 1893 to 1907, he called it "the science of the future" despite rejection of his results by graphologists. After World War I, interest in graphology continued to spread in Europe as well as the United States. In Germany during the 1920s, Ludwig Klages founded and published his finding in Zeitschrift für Menschenkunde, his major contribution to the field can be found in Handschrift und Charakter. Thea Stein Lewinson and J. Zubin modified Klage's ideas, based upon their experience working for the U. S. government, publishing their method in 1942.
In 1929 Milton Bunker founded. This organization and its system split the American graphology world in two. Students had to choose between holistic graphology. While hard data is lacking, anecdotal evidence indicates that 10% of the members of International Graphoanalysis Society were expelled between 1970 and 1980. Regarding a proposed correlation between gender and handwriting style, a paper by published by James Hartley in 1989 concluded that there was some evidence in support of this hypothesis. Although graphology had some support in the scientific community before the mid-twentieth century, more recent research rejects the validity of graphology as a tool to assess personality and job performance. Today it is considered to be a pseudoscience. Graphology is used as a recruiting tool to screen candidates during the evaluation process. Many studies have been conducted to assess its effectiveness to predict personality and job performance. Recent studies testing the validity of using handwriting for predicting personality traits and job performance have been negative.
In a 1987 study, graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire using writing samples from the same people. In a 1988 study, graphologists were unable to predict scores on the Myers-Briggs test using writing samples from the same people. A 1982 meta-analysis drawn from over 200 studies concludes that graphologists were unable to predict any kind of personality trait on any personality test. Measures of job performance appear unrelated to the handwriting metrics of graphologists. Professional graphologists using handwriting analysis were just as ineffective as lay people at predicting performance in a 1989 study. A broad literature screen done by King and Koehler confirmed dozens of studies showing the geometric aspects of graphology are worthless predictors of job performance. Rowan Bayne, a British psychologist who has written several studies on graphology, summarized his view of the appeal of graphology: "t's seductive because at a crude level someone, neat and well behaved tends to have neat handwriting", adding that the practice is "useless... hopeless".
The British Psychological Society ranks graphology alongside astrology, giving them both "zero validity". Graphology was dismissed as a pseudo-science by the skeptic James Randi in 1991. In his May 21, 2013 Skeptoid podcast episode titled "All About Graphology," scientific skeptic author Brian Dunning reports:In his book The Write Stuff, Barry Beyerstein summarized the work of Geoffrey Dean, who performed the most extensive literature survey of graphology done. Dean did a meta-analysis on some 200 studies: Dean showed that graphologists have failed unequivocally to demonstrate the validity or reliability of their art for predicting work performance, aptitudes, or personality. Graphology thus fails according to the standards a genuine psychological test must pass before it can ethically be released for use on an unsuspecting public. Dean found that no particular school of graphology fared better than any other... In fact, no graphologist of any stripe was able to show reliably better performance than untrained amateurs making guesses from the same materials.
In the vast majority of studies, neither group exceeded chance expectancy. Dunning concludes:Other divining techniques like iridology, phrenology and astrology have differing schools of thought, require
Pompeys Pillar is an unincorporated community in Yellowstone County, United States and has a postal ZIP code. The town of Pompeys Pillar was founded in 1907 and was named after and situated less than a mile east of Pompeys Pillar National Monument, a 150 ft. tall sedimentary rock formation best known for William Clark's inscription of his name and the date July 25, 1806 on its surface. The site has significant evidence of human activity spanning an estimated 11,000 years; the town of Pompeys Pillar was first planned out as a railroad station within the Huntley Project, an irrigation project managed by the United States Bureau of Reclamation. A Catholic church and a Union Congregational church once existed in Pompeys Pillar; the Northern Pacific Railroad connected the town to Billings, about 29 miles southwest. A post office operates in the community. Pompeys Pillar National Monument was created in 2001 and placed under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management. In 2006 a new visitor's center and museum complex opened, coinciding with the bicentennial of the Lewis and Clark expedition.
The site has a small gift shop and other amenities
Giorgos Apostolidis is a Greek professional footballer who plays as a left winger for Super League 2 club Doxa Drama. Apostolidis started his football career in the youth ranks of PAOK, before moving to city rivals' Iraklis youth system. A string of good performances with Iraklis' U–20 team earned him his first professional contract with the side, he made his debut for Iraklis, coming on as a late substitute for Benjamin Onwuachi, in a 2–1 home win against Aiginiakos. In the summer of 2014, after being released from Iraklis, he signed for Football League 2 club Kampaniakos. Myplayer.gr profile
Yiyang Town is a historic town and the former county seat of Changning City in Hunan, China. The town was established in 1935 and it was divided into 3 subdistricts and ceased to be as a separate town in 2008, it had an area of 67.5 km2 with a population of 67,354. It had 19 villages and 13 communities under its jurisdiction in 2007; the town of Yiyang was established in 1935. From 1949 to 1952, it was a part of the first district in Changning County, Chengguan Town was established in 1953; the town of Chengguan was reorganized as Hongqi People's Commune in 1958 and Chengguan Town was restored in 1961. In May 1995, the town of Chengguan was renamed to Yiyang. Villages of Dali and Jinqiao from the former Tonghuang Township, villages of Huxi, Tangshan and Huangzhi from Zhengtong Township, villages of Xialian and Chajian from Qutan Township and villages of Qingshi and Qushi from Yaotang Township, the 11 villages were placed under the jurisdiction of Yiyang Town, its area expanded from 16.51 km2 to 67.5 km2.
In 1998, the town had 20 villages under its jurisdiction. In 2000, it was divided into 19 villages and 13 communities, 186 villager's groups and 68 residential groups; as of 2000 census, it had a population of 67,354. The town of Yiyang was divided into 3 subdistricts of Peiyuan and Yiyang in 2008
James Wallace, of Carleton Hall, was an English barrister, Member of Parliament, Solicitor General and Attorney General. The son of Thomas Wallace, of Asholme, attorney-at-law, Wallace entered Lincoln's Inn and was called to the Bar in 1757. In 1770, he was elected as one of the Members of Parliament for Horsham in Sussex. In 1778, he was appointed Solicitor General in 1780 Attorney General, he was buried in Exeter Cathedral. On 8 January 1767 Wallace had married Elizabeth, only daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Simpson, Esquire, of Carleton Hall and they had two children, his son and heir Thomas Wallace, 1st Baron Wallace who married Jean Hope, Elizabeth who died unmarried
Carrie Mac is a Canadian author and illustrator specializing in young adult fiction. She is a winner of the CBC Creative Nonfiction Prize, the Sheila A. Egoff Children's Literature Prize, the Arthur Ellis Award, as well as various other awards and recognitions. Although known for her YA writing, Mac writes adult fiction, leads writing workshops for adults and youth, contributes to literary journals, she is the resident writer/reader for The Story Forest, a collection of audio stories for children. Mac was born in Kamloops, British Columbia. During her childhood and youth, Mac lived in Vancouver, Grand Forks, Abbotsford and on the Sunshine Coast. Mac's first job, at age seven, was to read the Bible to an ex-Son of Freedom. Mac dropped out of high school in Grade eleven, completing her secondary education by correspondence, she trained as a paramedic at the Justice Institute of British Columbia. Mac worked at various times as a sign language interpreter, a bookstore clerk, a child and youth advocate in a transition house.
A self-confessed book-aholic, Mac credits Louise Fitzhugh, author of Harriet the Spy, with the realization of "what kind of power words carry, how they can be used to sharpen your own identity and injure others." Other influences include: Anne Cameron, Margaret Atwood, Alice Munro. Mac explains that Raymond Carver showed her that "the lives of working class people are filled with stories worth writing about too, that you don't need to go on and on and on and on to relate human emotions when you can nail it down so adroitly with less." Pain and Wastings, Jacked and Crush were written for Orca Book Publisher for the Soundings Series. The Soundings series is written for reluctant or difficult to engage readers known as hi-lo readers, it features contemporary themes including what might be considered controversial material and language. All of Mac's YA novels have gay or questioning characters, she says of her work "I know for myself that I can't leave queer characters out of my writing if they're gay and only I know it, or I don't spell it out."
Quill and Quire describe Mac as a "powerhouse" and her novel The Opposite of Tidy as "irresistible and not to be missed." C. J. Bott, in VOYA, said of The Beckoners, "The powerful intensity in this book will either keep the reader riveted or forced to take breaks from the haunting discomfort.""Mac's experience as a paramedic gives her portrayal of their work an easy authority, she sketches Ethan and his group home with a certain amount of precision and humour. The fluidity of the storytelling, as well as the dramatic circumstances of the story, are to attract Orca Soundings readers."Mac's book Charmed, about a girl, trapped into prostitution, was banned by the Plano Independent School District in Texas, in 2006/2007. The book "was challenged due to profanity, sexual content and violence." However, according to Dave Jenkinson, Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Education, the University of Manitoba, "Mac's authentic treatment of her subject matter carries through to the book's conclusion… Charmed is the gold standard of what hi-lo titles can be.
Recommended." Mac lives in Vancouver with her children. She is a queer attachment parent. Triskelia trilogy: The Droughtlanders Retribution Storm Standalone works: The Beckoners The Gryphon Project The Opposite of Tidy 10 Things I Can See From Here Wildfire Orca Soundings: Charmed Crush Pain and Wastings Jacked The Way Back Canadian Council for the Arts grants Arthur Ellis Award: Best Young Adult Crime Book Canadian Library Association Honour Book International Children's and Youth Literature White Raven list for The Beckoners International Reading Association Young Adult Choices list for The Beckoners Young Adult Canadian Book Award Honour Book for The Droughtlanders Sunburst Award shortlist in young-adult category for The Beckoners and for Retribution Stellar Book Award nomination for The Droughtlanders Sheila A. Egoff Book Prize for The Gryphon Project Canadian Library Association Young-Adult Honor Book selection for The Gryphon Project CBC Non-fiction Literary Prize Carri Mac Official Website Orca Soundings CBC Literary Prizes