Roger Federer is a Swiss professional tennis player, ranked world No. 4 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals. He has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles—the most in history for a male player—and has held the world No. 1 spot in the ATP rankings for a record total of 310 weeks, including a record 237 consecutive weeks. After turning professional in 1998, he was continuously ranked in the top ten from October 2002 to November 2016, he re-entered the top ten following his victory at the 2017 Australian Open. In majors, Federer has won a record eight Wimbledon titles, six Australian Open titles, five US Open titles, one French Open title, he is one of eight men to have achieved a Career Grand Slam. Federer has reached a record 30 men's singles Grand Slam finals, including 10 consecutively from the 2005 Wimbledon Championships to the 2007 US Open. Federer has won a record six ATP Finals titles, 28 ATP Tour Masters 1000 titles, a record 22 ATP Tour 500 titles. Federer is the only player after Jimmy Connors to have won 100 or more career singles titles in the Open Era.
Federer's all-court game and versatile style of play involve exceptional shot-making. Effective both as a base-liner and a volleyer, his apparent effortlessness and efficient movement on the court have made Federer popular among tennis fans, he has received the tour Sportsmanship Award 13 times and been named the ATP Player of the Year and ITF World Champion five times. He has won the Laureus World Sportsman of the Year award a record five times, including four consecutive awards from 2005 to 2008 and the most recent one in 2018, he is the only individual to have won the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year award four times. Federer was born in Switzerland, his father, Robert Federer, is a Swiss-German from Berneck in the Canton of St. Gallen, his mother, Lynette Federer, is an Afrikaner from Kempton Park, Gauteng, in South Africa. Federer has one sibling, his older sister, the mother of a set of twins. Since his mother is South African, he holds both South African citizenship, he grew up in nearby Birsfelden, Münchenstein, close to the French and German borders, he speaks Swiss German, Standard German and French fluently, as well as functional Italian and Swedish.
Federer served as a ball boy at his hometown Basel tournament, the Swiss Indoors, in 1992 and 1993. Like all male Swiss citizens, Federer was subject to compulsory military service in the Swiss Armed Forces. However, in 2003 he was ruled "unsuitable" and was subsequently not required to fulfill his military obligation. Instead, he served in the civil protection force and was required to pay 3% of his taxable income as an alternative, he grew up supporting F. C. Basel and the Swiss national football team. Federer credits his hand-eye coordination to the wide range of sports he played as a child, including badminton and basketball Federer is married to former Women's Tennis Association player Miroslava Federer, whom he met while they were both competing for Switzerland at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. Called Mirka, she retired from the tour in 2002 because of a foot injury, they were married at Wenkenhof Villa in Riehen near Basel on 11 April 2009, surrounded by a small group of close friends and family.
In 2009, Mirka gave birth to identical twin girls. The Federers had another pair of identical twins in this time boys. In 2003, he established the Roger Federer Foundation to help disadvantaged children and to promote their access to education and sports. Since May 2004, citing his close ties with South Africa he has been supporting the South Africa-Swiss charity IMBEWU, which helps children better connect to sports as well as social and health awareness. In 2005, Federer visited South Africa to meet the children. In 2005, he auctioned his racquet from his US Open championship to aid victims of Hurricane Katrina. At the 2005 Pacific Life Open in Indian Wells, Federer arranged an exhibition involving several top players from the ATP and WTA tour called Rally for Relief; the proceeds went to the victims of the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. In December 2006, he visited Tamil Nadu, one of the areas in India most affected by the tsunami.. He was appointed a Goodwill Ambassador by UNICEF in April 2006 and has appeared in UNICEF public messages to raise public awareness of AIDS.
In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Federer arranged a collaboration with fellow top tennis players for a special charity event during the 2010 Australian Open called'Hit for Haiti', in which proceeds went to Haiti earthquake victims. He participated in a follow-up charity exhibition during the 2010 Indian Wells Masters, which raised $1 million; the Nadal vs. Federer "Match for Africa" in 2010 in Zurich and Madrid raised more than $4 million for the Roger Federer Foundation and Fundación Rafa Nadal. In January 2011, Federer took part in an exhibition, Rally for Relief, to raise money for the victims of the Queensland floods. In 2014, the "Match for Africa 2" between Federer and Stan Wawrinka, again in Zurich, raised £850,000 for education projects in Southern Africa. On 24 November 2017, Federer received an honorary doctorate awarded to him by his home university, the University of Basel, he received the title in recognition for his role in increasing the international reputation of Basel and Switzerland, his engagement for children in Africa through his charitable foundation.
Federer's main accomplishments as a junior player came at Wimbledon in 1998, where he won bot
Antalya is the eighth-most populous city in Turkey and the capital of Antalya Province. Located on Anatolia's southwest coast bordered by the Taurus Mountains, Antalya is the largest Turkish city on the Mediterranean coast with over one million people in its metropolitan area; the city, now Antalya was first settled around 200 BC by the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon, soon subdued by the Romans. Roman rule saw Antalya thrive, including the construction of several new monuments, such as Hadrian's Gate, the proliferation of neighboring cities; the city has changed hands several times, including to the Seljuk Sultanate in 1207 and an expanding Ottoman Empire in 1391. Ottoman rule brought relative stability for the next five hundred years; the city was transferred to Italian suzerainty in the aftermath of World War I, but was recaptured by a newly independent Turkey in the War of Independence. Antalya is Turkey's biggest international sea resort, located on the Turkish Riviera. Large-scale development and governmental funding has promoted tourism.
A record 12.5 million tourists passed through the city in 2014. The city was founded as "Attaleia", named after its founder Attalos II, king of Pergamon; this name, still in use in Greek, was evolved in Turkish as Adalia and Antalya. Attaleia was the name of a festival at Delphi and Attalis was the name of an old Greek tribe at Athens. Despite the close similarity, there is no connection with the name Anatolia. King Attalus II of Pergamon is looked on as founder of the city in about 150 BC, during the Hellenistic period, it was named Attalia in his honour. The city served as a naval base for Attalus's powerful fleet. Excavations in 2008, in the Doğu Garajı plot, uncovered remains dating to the 3rd century BC, suggesting that Attalea was a rebuilding and expansion of an earlier town. Attalea became part of the Roman Republic in 133 BC when Attalus III, a nephew of Attalus II bequeathed his kingdom to Rome at his death in 133 BC; the city grew and prospered during the Ancient Roman period and was part of the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda, whose capital was Perga.
Christianity started to spread to the region in the 1st century: Antalya was visited by Paul of Tarsus and Barnabas, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles: "Then they passed through Pisidia and came to Pamphylia. And when they had spoken the word in Perga, they went down to Attalia, from there they sailed to Antioch"; some of the bishops attributed to the episcopal see of Attalea in Pamphylia may instead have been bishops of Attalea in Lydia, since Lequien lists them under both sees. No longer a residential bishopric, Attalea in Pamphylia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see; the 13th-century Seljuk mosque at Attalea, now in ruins, had been a Christian Byzantine basilica from the 7th century. The Great Mosque had been a Christian basilica and the Kesik Minare Mosque had been the 5th-century Christian Church of the Panaghia or Virgin and was decorated with finely carved marble; the archaeological museum at Attalia houses some sarcophagi and mosaics from nearby Perga and a casket of bones reputed to be those of St. Nicholas, the bishop of Myra, further down the Turquoise coast.
Antalya was a major city in the Byzantine Empire. It was the capital of the Byzantine Theme of the Cibyrrhaeots, which occupied the southern coasts of Anatolia. According to the research of Speros Vryonis, it was the major naval station on the southern Anatolian coast, a major commercial center, the most convenient harbor between the Aegean Sea and Cyprus and points further east. Besides the local merchants, "one could expect to see Armenians, Saracens and Italians."At the time of the accession of John II Comnenus in 1118 Antalya was an isolated outpost surrounded by Turkish beyliks, accessible only by sea. Following the fall of Constantinople in 1204, Niketas Choniates records that one Aldebrandus, "an Italian by birth, raised according to Roman tradition" controlled Antalya as his own fief; when Kaykhusraw, sultan of the Seljuk Turks attempted to capture the city in 1206, Aldebrandus sent to Cyprus for help and received 200 Latin infantry who defeated the attackers after a siege of less than 16 days.
Kaykhusraw would build its first mosque. The city and the surrounding region were conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the early 13th century. Antalya was the capital of the Turkish beylik of Teke until its conquest by the Ottomans, except for a period of Cypriot rule between 1361 and 1373; the Arabic traveler Ibn Battuta, who visited the city in 1335–1340, noted: From Alanya I went to Antaliya, a most beautiful city. It covers an immense area, though of vast bulk is one of the most attractive towns to be seen anywhere, besides being exceedingly populous and well laid out; each section of the inhabitants lives in a separate quarter. The Christian merchants live in a quarter of the town known as the Mina, are surrounded by a wall, the gates of which are shut upon them from without at night and during the Friday service; the Greeks, who were its former inhabitants, live by themselves in another quarter, the Jews in another, the king and his court and Mamluks in another, each of these quarters being walled off likewise.
The rest of the Muslims live in the main city. Round the whole town and all the quarters mentioned; the town contains orchards and produces fine fruits, including an admirable kind of apricot, called by them Qamar ad-Din, which has a sweet almond in its kernel. This fruit is exported to Egypt, where it is regarded as a great luxury. In the second half of the 17th century Evliya Çelebi wr
Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King is an American former World No. 1 professional tennis player. King won 39 Grand Slam titles: 12 in singles, 16 in women's doubles, 11 in mixed doubles, she won the singles title at the inaugural WTA Tour Championships. She represented the United States in the Federation Cup and the Wightman Cup, she was a member of the victorious United States team in seven Federation Cups and nine Wightman Cups. For three years, she was the United States' captain in the Federation Cup. King has long been a pioneer for equality and social justice. In 1973, at age 29, she won the "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match against the 55-year-old Bobby Riggs, she was the founder of the Women's Tennis Association and the Women's Sports Foundation. She was instrumental in persuading cigarette brand Virginia Slims to sponsor women's tennis in the 1970s and went on to serve on the board of their parent company Philip Morris in the 2000s. Regarded by many in the sport as one of the greatest tennis players of all time, King was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1987.
The Fed Cup Award of Excellence was bestowed on her in 2010. In 1972, she was the joint winner, with John Wooden, of the Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year award and was one of the Time Persons of the Year in 1975, she has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Sunday Times Sportswoman of the Year lifetime achievement award. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1990, in 2006, the USTA National Tennis Center in New York City was renamed the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. In 2018, she won the BBC Sports Personality of the Year Lifetime Achievement Award. Billie Jean Moffitt was born in Long Beach, into a conservative Methodist family, the daughter of Betty, a housewife, Bill Moffitt, a firefighter, her family was athletic. Her younger brother, Randy Moffitt, became a Major League Baseball pitcher, pitching for 12 years in the major leagues for the San Francisco Giants, Houston Astros, Toronto Blue Jays, she excelled at baseball and softball as a child, playing shortstop at 10 years old on a team with girls 4–5 years older than her.
The team went on to win the Long Beach softball championship. She switched from softball to tennis at age 11, because her parents suggested she should find a more ladylike sport, she saved her own money – $8 – to buy her first racket. She learned tennis on the many free public courts in Long Beach, taking advantage of the free lessons tennis professional Clyde Walker offered at those courts. One of the city's tennis facilities has subsequently been named the Billie Jean Moffitt King Tennis Center; as a kid playing in her first tennis tournaments, she was hindered by her aggressive playing style. Bob Martin, sportswriter for the Long Beach, Press-Telegram wrote about her success in a weekly tennis column, she attended Long Beach Polytechnic High School. After graduating, she attended Los Angeles, she did not graduate. While attending Cal State, she met Larry King in a library; the pair became engaged while still in school when Billie Jean was 20 and Larry 19 years old and married on September 17, 1965 in Long Beach.
King's triumph at the French Open in 1972 made her only the fifth woman in tennis history to win the singles titles at all four Grand Slam events, a "career Grand Slam." She won a career Grand Slam in mixed doubles. In women's doubles, only the Australian Open eluded her. King won a record 20 career titles at Wimbledon – six in singles, 10 in women's doubles, four in mixed doubles. King played 51 Grand Slam singles events from 1959 through 1983, reaching at least the semifinals in 27 and at least the quarterfinals in 40 of her attempts. King was the runner-up in six Grand Slam singles events. An indicator of her mental toughness in Grand Slam singles tournaments was her 11–2 career record in deuce third sets, i.e. third sets that were tied 5–5 before being resolved. King won 129 singles titles, 78 of which were WTA titles, her career prize money totaled US$1,966,487. In Federation Cup finals, she was on the winning United States team seven times, in 1963, 1966, 1967, 1976 through 1979, her career win–loss record was 52–4.
She doubles. In Wightman Cup competition, her career win -- loss record was 22 -- 4; the United States won the cup ten of the 11 years. In singles, King was 6–1 against Ann Haydon-Jones, 4–0 against Virginia Wade, 1–1 against Christine Truman Janes; as King began competing in 1959, she began working with new coaches including Frank Brennan and Alice Marble, who had won 18 Grand Slam titles as a player herself. She made her Grand Slam debut at the 1959 U. S. Championships at age 15, she lost in the first round. She began playing at local and international tennis championships. Sports Illustrated claimed her as "one of the most promising youngsters on the West Coast." She won her first tournament the next year in Philadelphia at the 1960 Philadelphia and District Grass Court Championships. At her second attempt at the U. S. Championships, King made it to the third round. In 1960, she reached the final of the National Girl's 18 and Under Championships, losing to Karen Hantze Susmen, her national tennis ranking improved from number 19 in 1959 to number 4 1960.
Despite the success, Marble terminated her professional relationship with King because for reasons stemming from King's ambi
Serena Jameka Williams is an American professional tennis player. The Women's Tennis Association ranked her world No. 1 in singles on eight separate occasions between 2002 and 2017. She reached the No. 1 ranking for the first time on July 8, 2002. On her sixth occasion, she held the ranking for 186 consecutive weeks, tying the record set by Steffi Graf. In total, she has been No. 1 for 319 weeks, which ranks third in the "Open Era" among female players behind Graf and Martina Navratilova. Williams holds the most Grand Slam titles in singles and mixed doubles combined among active players, her 39 major titles puts her joint-third on the all-time list and second in the Open Era: 23 in singles, 14 in women's doubles, two in mixed doubles. She is the most recent female player to have held all four Grand Slam singles titles and the third player to achieve this twice, after Rod Laver and Graf, she is the most recent player to have won a Grand Slam title on each surface in one calendar year. She is together with her sister Venus, the most recent player to have held all four Grand Slam women's doubles titles simultaneously.
Her total of 23 Grand Slam singles titles marks the record for the most Grand Slam tournament wins in the Open Era, is second on the all-time list behind Margaret Court. She has won an all-time record of 13 Grand Slam singles titles on hard court. Williams holds the Open Era record for most titles won at the Australian Open and shares the Open Era record for most titles won at the US Open with Chris Evert, she holds the all-time record for the most women's singles matches won at majors with 335 matches. Williams has won 14 Grand Slam doubles titles, all with her sister Venus, the pair are unbeaten in Grand Slam doubles finals; as a team and Venus have the third most women's doubles Grand Slam titles, behind the 18 titles of Natasha Zvereva and the record 20 titles won by Martina Navratilova and Pam Shriver. Williams is a five-time winner of the WTA Tour Championships in the singles division, she has won four Olympic gold medals, one in women's singles and three in women's doubles—an all-time record shared with her sister, Venus.
The arrival of the Williams sisters has been credited with ushering in a new era of power and athleticism on the women's professional tennis tour. She is ranked at No.11 in the world by the WTA. Earning $29 million in prize money and endorsements, Williams was the highest paid female athlete in 2016, she repeated this feat in 2017 when she was the only woman on Forbes' list of the 100 highest paid athletes with $27 million in prize money and endorsements. She has won the'Laureus Sportswoman of the Year' award four times, in December 2015, she was named Sportsperson of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine. Williams was born in Saginaw, Michigan, to Oracene Price and Richard Williams, is the youngest of Price's five daughters: half-sisters Yetunde and Isha Price, full older sister Venus, she has at least seven paternal half-siblings. When the children were young, the family moved to Compton, where Williams started playing tennis at the age of four, her father home-schooled her sister, Venus. While he and subsequently her mother have been the official coaches, other mentors who helped her learn the game included Richard Williams, a Compton man who shared her father's name and would go on to found The Venus and Serena Williams Tennis/Tutorial Academy.
When Williams was nine and her family moved from Compton to West Palm Beach, Florida, so that she could attend the tennis academy of Rick Macci. Macci did not always agree with Williams's father, but respected that "he treated his daughters like kids, allowed them to be little girls". Richard stopped sending his daughters to national junior tennis tournaments when Williams was 10, since he wanted them to go and to focus on school work. Experiences of racism drove this experience, as Richard Williams had heard white parents talk about the Williams sisters in a derogatory manner during tournaments. At that time, Williams had a 46–3 record on the United States Tennis Association junior tour and was ranked number one among under-10 players in Florida. In 1995, when Williams was in the ninth grade, her father pulled his daughters out of Macci's academy and, from on, took over all coaching at their home; when asked in 2000 whether having followed the normal path of playing on the junior circuit would have been beneficial, Williams responded: "Everyone does different things.
I think for Venus and I, we just attempted a different road, it worked for us." Williams is a baseline player, her game is built around taking immediate control of rallies with her powerful and consistent serve, return of serve, forceful groundstrokes from both her forehand and backhand swings. Williams's forehand is considered to be among the most powerful shots in the women's game, as is her double-handed backhand. Williams strikes her backhand groundstroke using an open stance, uses the same open stance for her forehand. Williams's aggressive play, a "high risk" style, is balanced in part by her serve, which most say is the greatest in women's tennis history, she projects great pace and placement with her serves. What makes her serve more deadly is her ball placement and her ability to place powerful shots with gr
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original