Grasshoppers are a group of insects belonging to the suborder Caelifera. They are among what is the most ancient living group of chewing herbivorous insects, dating back to the early Triassic around 250 million years ago. Grasshoppers are ground-dwelling insects with powerful hind legs which allow them to escape from threats by leaping vigorously; as hemimetabolous insects, they do not undergo complete metamorphosis. At high population densities and under certain environmental conditions, some grasshopper species can change color and behavior and form swarms. Under these circumstances, they are known as locusts. Grasshoppers are plant-eaters, with a few species at times becoming serious pests of cereals and pasture when they swarm in their millions as locusts and destroy crops over wide areas, they protect themselves from predators by camouflage. Other species such as the rainbow grasshopper have warning coloration. Grasshoppers are affected by parasites and various diseases, many predatory creatures feed on both nymphs and adults.
The eggs are subject to attack by predators. Grasshoppers have had a long relationship with humans. Swarms of locusts can have devastating effects and cause famine, in smaller numbers, the insects can be serious pests, they are used as food in countries such as Indonesia. They feature in art and literature. Grasshoppers belong to the suborder Caelifera. Although, "grasshopper" is sometimes used as a common name for the suborder in general, some sources restrict it to the more "advanced" groups, they may be placed in the infraorder Acrididea and have been referred-to as "short-horned grasshoppers" in older texts to distinguish them from the also-obsolete term "long-horned grasshoppers" with their much longer antennae. The phylogeny of the Caelifera, based on mitochondrial ribosomal RNA of thirty-two taxa in six out of seven superfamilies, is shown as a cladogram; the Ensifera and all the superfamilies of grasshoppers except Pamphagoidea appear to be monophyletic. In evolutionary terms, the split between the Caelifera and the Ensifera is no more recent than the Permo-Triassic boundary.
The group diversified during the Triassic and have remained important plant-eaters from that time to now. The first modern families such as the Eumastacidae and Tridactylidae appeared in the Cretaceous, though some insects that might belong to the last two of these groups are found in the early Jurassic. Morphological classification is difficult because many taxa have converged towards a common habitat type; this information is not available from fossil specimens, the palaentological taxonomy is founded principally on the venation of the hindwings. The Caelifera includes about 11,000 known species. Many undescribed species exist in tropical wet forests; the Caelifera have a predominantly tropical distribution with fewer species known from temperate zones, but most of the superfamilies have representatives worldwide. They are exclusively herbivorous and are the oldest living group of chewing herbivorous insects; the most diverse superfamily is the Acridoidea, with around 8,000 species. The two main families in this are the Acrididae with a worldwide distribution, the Romaleidae, found chiefly in the New World.
The Ommexechidae and Tristiridae are South American, the Lentulidae and Pamphagidae are African. The Pauliniids are nocturnal and can swim or skate on water, the Lentulids are wingless. Pneumoridae are native to Africa southern Africa, are distinguished by the inflated abdomens of the males. Grasshoppers have the typical insect body plan of head and abdomen; the head is held vertically at an angle with the mouth at the bottom. The head bears a large pair of compound eyes which give all-round vision, three simple eyes which can detect light and dark, a pair of thread-like antennae that are sensitive to touch and smell; the downward-directed mouthparts are modified for chewing and there are two sensory palps in front of the jaws. The thorax and abdomen are segmented and have a rigid cuticle made up of overlapping plates composed of chitin; the three fused thoracic segments bear two pairs of wings. The forewings, known as tegmina, are narrow and leathery while the hindwings are large and membranous, the veins providing strength.
The legs are terminated by claws for gripping. The hind leg is powerful; the posterior edge of the tibia bears a double row of spines and there are a pair of articulated spurs near its lower end. The interior of the thorax houses the muscles that control the legs; the abdomen has eleven segments, the first of, fused to the thorax and contains the tympanal organ and hearing system. Segments two to eight are joined by flexible membranes. Segments nine to eleven are reduced in siz
The first round of AFC matches for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification was played from 12 to 23 March 2015. A total of 12 teams played home-and-away over two legs; the six winners advanced to the second round. The draw for the first round was held on 10 February 2015, 15:30 MST, at the AFC House in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; the seeding was based on the FIFA World Rankings of January 2015. The 12 teams were seeded into two pots: Pot A contained the teams ranked 1–6. Pot B contained the teams ranked 7–12; each tie contained a team from Pot A and a team from Pot B, with the team from Pot A hosting the first leg. Note: Bolded teams qualified for the second round. Notes India advanced to the second round. Yemen advanced to the second round. Timor-Leste won the first leg 4–1 and the second leg 1–0, thus winning 5–1 on aggregate and advancing to the Second Round. On 12 December 2017 FIFA awarded both matches 3–0 to Mongolia due to Timor-Leste fielding numerous ineligible players. However, this was long after the Second Round had been played so Timor-Leste advanced and Mongolia were not reinstated.
Cambodia advanced to the second round. Chinese Taipei advanced to the second round. Bhutan advanced to the second round. There were 24 goals scored for an average of 2 goals per match. 2 goals 1 goal Official FIFA World Cup website Qualifiers – Asia: Round 1, FIFA.com FIFA World Cup, the-AFC.com AFC Asian Cup, the-AFC.com Preliminary Joint Qualification 2018, stats.the-AFC.com
Marian, Again is a two-part British psychological thriller serial, written by Ben Court and Caroline Ip and directed by David Drury, that broadcast across two consecutive nights on ITV from 5 September 2005. Filmed in and around Manchester and on Ballaugh and Douglas on the Isle of Man during May and June 2005, the serial is based upon the real-life kidnapping of Colleen Stan in the United States. Taking inspiration from the cases of Marc Dutroux and Natascha Kampusch, Again follows married father of three Chris Bevan, who whilst taking his daughter to school exam catches sight of his first girlfriend, Marian Walsh, who mysteriously disappeared fifteen years ago and has not been seen or heard from since. Marian, Again broadcast over two consecutive nights, with parts one and two attracting 6.76 million and 5.95 million viewers respectively. The serial was released on DVD in Denmark on 13 September 2006, but this remains the only official release worldwide. Mark Cunliffe for Letterboxd, who viewed the serial in 2015, wrote.
Marian, Again may look a teensy bit dated in terms of today's TV movies - it's drowned by an unnecessary score - a common complaint with TV from this period - but it remains a absorbing and uncomfortable watch. Be warned though, its content may not be for everyone." Fifteen years after her disappearance, Chris Bevan encounters his first love, Marian Walsh once again. Now a married father of three daughters, he'd learned to accept Marian's disappearance and move on. Intrigued and confused, he is eager to know the reasoning behind her sudden departure all those years ago. What he doesn't know is that she was abducted by Bernie, a creepy regular at her father's D. I. Y. Store. After years of physical and mental torture at the hands of Bernie, Marian is now a shadow of her wild former self and is convinced her name is Susie. Chris must now fight to save the woman he loved but it is a lot more difficult than he first suspected. Stephen Tompkinson as Chris Bevan Kelly Harrison as Marian Walsh Owen Teale as Bernie Sullivan Samantha Beckinsale as Josie Bevan Paul Copley as Philip Walsh Katie Ross as Olivia Bevan Grace Cassidy as Esme Bevan Amy Lythgoe as Tilly Bevan Jack Harrison-Cooper as Brandon Brison Stuart McQuarrie as Jim Natalie Richards as Frances Junaid Iqbal-Wahid as Sonny Shahed Ali as Suraj Sian Gibson as Fiona Patrick Connolly as PC Quinn Peter Slater as PC Sanders Marian, Again on IMDb Official website