A caboose is a manned North American railroad car coupled at the end of a freight train. Cabooses provide shelter for crew at the end of a train required in switching and shunting, keeping a lookout for load shifting, damage to equipment and cargo, overheating axles. Flatcars fitted with cabins or modified box cars, they became purpose-built with projections above or to the sides of the car to allow crew to observe the train from shelter; the caboose served as the conductor's office, on long routes included accommodation and cooking facilities. A similar railroad car design, the brake van, was used on Commonwealth railways; these provided the additional function of serving as a supplemental braking system for trains not fitted with a continuous braking system, keeping chain couplings taut. Cabooses were used on every freight train in the USA until the 1980s, when safety laws requiring the presence of cabooses and full crews were relaxed. Developments in monitoring and safety technology such as lineside defect detectors and end-of-train devices resulted in crew reductions and the phasing out of caboose cars.
Nowadays, they are only used on rail maintenance or hazardous materials trains, or on heritage and tourist railroads. Use of cabooses began in the 1830s, when railroads housed trainmen in shanties built onto boxcars or flatcars; the caboose provided the train crew with a shelter at the rear of the train. The crew could exit the train for to protect the rear of the train when stopped, they inspected the train for problems such as shifting loads, broken or dragging equipment, hot boxes. The conductor handled business from a table or desk in the caboose. For longer trips, the caboose provided minimal living quarters, was personalized and decorated with pictures and posters. Early cabooses were nothing more than flat cars with small cabins erected on them, or modified box cars; the standard form of the American caboose had a platform at either end with curved grab rails to facilitate train crew members' ascent onto a moving train. A caboose was fitted with red lights called markers to enable the rear of the train to be seen at night.
This has led to the phrase "bringing up the markers" to describe the last car on a train. These lights were what made a train a "train", were lit with oil lamps. With the advent of electricity caboose versions incorporated an electrical generator driven by belts coupled to one of the axles, which charged a lead-acid storage battery when the train was in motion; the addition of the cupola, a lookout post atop the car, was introduced in 1863. Coal or wood was used to fire a cast-iron stove for heat and cooking giving way to a kerosene heater. Now rare, the old stoves can be identified by several essential features, they were without legs, bolted directly to the floor, featured a lip on the top surface to keep pans and coffee pots from sliding off. They had a double-latching door, to prevent accidental discharge of hot coals caused by the rocking motion of the caboose. Cabooses are nonrevenue equipment and were improvised or retained well beyond the normal lifetime of a freight car. Tradition on many lines held that the caboose should be painted a bright red, though on many lines it became the practice to paint them in the same corporate colors as locomotives.
The Kansas City Southern Railway was unique in that it bought cabooses with a stainless steel car body, so was not obliged to paint them. Until the 1980s, laws in the United States and Canada required all freight trains to have a caboose and a full crew, for safety. Technology advanced such that the railroads, in an effort to save money and reduce crew members, stated that a caboose was unnecessary, since bearings were improved and lineside detectors were used to detect hot boxes and better-designed cars avoided problems with the loads; the railroads claimed a caboose was a dangerous place, as slack run-ins could hurl the crew from their places and dislodge weighty equipment. Railroads proposed the end-of-train device as an alternative. An ETD could be attached to the rear of the train to detect the train's air brake pressure and report any problems to the locomotive; the ETD detects movement of the train upon start-up and radios this information to the engineers so they know all of the slack is out of the couplings and additional power could be applied.
The machines have blinking red lights to warn following trains that a train is ahead. With the introduction of the ETD, the conductor moved up to the front of the train with the engineer. A 1982 Presidential Emergency Board convened under the Railway Labor Act directed United States railroads to begin eliminating caboose cars where possible to do so. A legal exception was the state of Virginia, which had a 1911 law mandating cabooses on the ends of trains, until the law's final repeal in 1988. With this exception aside, year by year, cabooses started to fade away. Few cabooses remain in operation today, though they are still used for some local trains where it is convenient to have a brakeman at the end of the train to operate switches, on long reverse movements, are used on trains carrying hazardous materials. CSX Transportation is one of the only Class 1 railroads that still maintains a fleet of modified cabooses for regular use. Employed as "shoving platforms" at the rear of local freight trains which must perform long reverse moves or heavy switching, these are rebuilt bay-window cabooses with their cabin doors welded shut.
BNSF maintains a fleet of former wide-visio
Rogers is located in Northwest Arkansas, United States, one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country. Rogers was the location of the first Walmart store, whose corporate headquarters is located in neighboring Bentonville. Rogers is a city in the Ozarks in Benton County. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, has both its headquarters and its Airgun Museum in Rogers; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 55,964. In 2017 the estimated population was 66,430. Rogers is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, one of the fastest growing in the nation; the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, more known as Northwest Arkansas, is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States, with 465,776 inhabitants as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Rogers was named after Captain Charles Warrington Rogers, vice-president and general manager of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway known as the Frisco; the town was established in 1881, the year.
The community was incorporated on June 6, 1881. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers as 18th in its list of the 25 best affordable suburbs in the American South, and in 2010, CNN Money ranked Rogers #10 on their list of 100 Best Places to Live. The first retail business owned by the Stroud family was a store in Pea Ridge, co-owned by Allen Bryant Stroud and his son Harlan Lafayette Stroud; that business was established prior to 1879 and Allen Stroud served as postmaster at Pea Ridge for a time. In 1884, H. L. Stroud sold his interest in the Stroud store in Pea Ridge and purchased a dry goods store at the corner of First and Walnut Streets in Rogers which he named Stroud's Mercantile. In 1887 he brought in his brother Evan Giesen. In 1891 H. L. Stroud moved his business into a storefront on the north side of the 100 block of Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to prosper, in 1899 H. L. built the brick building at 114–116 West Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to be the leading retail business in Rogers up into the 1960s, when in 1962 Sam Walton opened the first location of what would become the retail giant Walmart just seven blocks away.
Walton's new store combined with the nationwide movement of retail centers from aged downtowns to malls and shopping centers eroded Stroud's customer base, leading the locally beloved retailer to permanently close in 1993 after 109 years in business. In 1912 the city council formed a commission of local businessmen to facilitate the paving of downtown Rogers. Despite the constant complaints of dusty and muddy streets, the enthusiastic support of prominent citizens such as Coin Harvey, bickering over the cost and method of paving delayed the start of the project until July 1924; the downtown area was paved with concrete and overlaid with bricks in rows, changing to a basket weave pattern at the intersections of streets. The work was completed in December 1924, the brick pavement remains today, with renovations done to the streets in 2010. Rogers is located at 36°19′46″N 94°8′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.6 square miles, of which 33.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by warm, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rogers has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2010 Rogers had a population of 55,964. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 62.0% non-Hispanic white, 1.3% non-Hispanic black, 1.0% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanics of some other race, 3.0% from two or more races and 31.5% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,829 people, 14,005 households, 10,209 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,158.0 people per square mile. There were 14,836 housing units at an average density of 442.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.75% White, 0.47% Black or African American, 1.05% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.43% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 19.29% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 14,005 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,474, the median income for a family was $45,876. Males had a median income of $30,911 versus $22,020 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,761. About 9.4% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
In addition to the Rogers Commercial Historic District, Rogers has numerous properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, with the oldest being the Pea Ridge National Military Park. Ro
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Springdale is the fourth-largest city in Arkansas, United States. It is located in both Benton counties in Northwest Arkansas. Located on the Springfield Plateau deep in the Ozark Mountains, Springdale has long been an important industrial city for the region. In addition to several trucking companies, the city is home to the world headquarters of Tyson Foods, the world's largest meat producing company. Named Shiloh, the city changed its name to Springdale when applying for a post office in 1872; the four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau. The city had a population of 69,797 at the 2010 Census. Springdale has been experiencing a population boom in recent years, as indicated by a 133% growth in population between the 1990 and 2010 censuses. During this period of rapid growth, the city has seen a new Shiloh Museum of Ozark History, the establishment of a Springdale campus of Northwest Arkansas Community College and the Northwest Arkansas Naturals minor league baseball team move into Arvest Ballpark.
Tyson remains the city's top employer, is visible throughout the city. Many public features bear the Tyson name, including the Randal Tyson Recreational Complex, Don Tyson Parkway, Helen Tyson Middle School, John Tyson Elementary and Don Tyson School of Innovation. Governor Mike Beebe signed an act into law recognizing Springdale as "The Poultry Capital Of The World" in 2013. Springdale was called "Shiloh", after the local Shiloh church, under the latter name was platted in 1866. In 1878, the town was incorporated with the name of Springdale. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 108.9 square miles, of which, 108.3 square miles of it is land and 0.7 square miles of it, or 0.62%, is water. The city limits extend north into southern Benton County. Springdale is bordered by the cities of Cave Springs and Bethel Heights to the north, by Elm Springs and Tontitown to the west, by Johnson and Fayetteville to the south; the city is located in both Benton and Washington counties along Interstate 49/US Highway 62/US Highway 71.
This is the only controlled access route through the area, which replaced the winding US 71 in the 1990s. An interstate connection with Fort Smith to the south and Kansas City, Missouri to the north has helped to grow Springdale. Within Washington County, Springdale is bordered along the south by Johnson. In some locations, this transition is seamless; the city extends east along Highway 412 toward Tontitown and Beaver Lake, respectively. Springdale is located on the Springfield Plateau, a subset of The Ozarks which run through northwest Arkansas, southern Missouri, Northeastern Oklahoma. In the Springdale area and shales were deposited on top of the Springfield Plateau during the Pennsylvanian Period; these were eroded after the Ouachita orogeny and uplift, exposing Mississippian limestone formations of the Springfield Plateau visible today. The Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area consists of three Arkansas counties: Benton and Washington, McDonald County, Missouri; the area had a population of 347,045 at the 2000 census which had increased to 463,204 by the 2010 Census.
Springdale lies in the humid subtropical climate zone with influence from the humid continental climate type. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 89 °F and an average low of 69 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are uncommon but not rare, occurring on average twice a year, with 57 days over 90 °F annually. January is the coldest month with an average high of 46 °F and an average low of 26 °F; the city's highest temperature was 111 °F, recorded in 1954. The lowest temperature recorded was −24 °F, in 1899. Precipitation is weakly seasonal, with a bimodal pattern: wet seasons in the spring and fall, drier summers and winters, but some rain in all months; as of the census of 2010, there were 69,797 people, 22,805 households, 16,640 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.7% White, 1.8% Black or black, 1.8% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 5.7% Pacific Islander, 22% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races.
35.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,678 households out of which 41.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.54. The median income for a household in the city was $26,523, the median income for a family was $46,407. Males had a median income of $31,495 versus $26,492 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,645. 21.3% of the population and 17.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 33.6% of those under the age of 18 and 6.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.56.8% of Springdale's population describes themselves as religious above the national average of 48.8%. 25.6% of people in Springdale who describe themselves as having a religion are Baptist.
12.5% of people holding a religion are Catholic. There are higher proportions of
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States. As of July 2016, the population was 413,505, an increase of 12,591 over that reported in the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 991,005 residents in the MSA and 1,251,172 in the CSA. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, with urban development extending into Osage and Wagoner counties. Tulsa was settled between 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. A robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy. Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa, it is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country".
Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities and Relocate America. FDi Magazine in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U. S. for cities of the future. In 2012, Tulsa was ranked among the top 50 best cities in the United States by BusinessWeek. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans"; the area where Tulsa now exists was considered Indian Territory when it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street; this area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Talisi, Alabama area.
They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which became "Tulsa". The area around Tulsa was settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes", relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations. Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting; the Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and a number of battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River, now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, Little Britches. On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.
Tulsa was still a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields. Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest; this migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.
In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous black communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder, with whites attacking blacks. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them black. Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.
In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66," began his
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Northwest Arkansas includes Fayetteville, Springdale and Bentonville, the third, fourth and tenth largest cities in Arkansas. These cities are located within Washington counties; as per the 2016 United States Census Bureau estimates, NWA is the 105th largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. and the 22nd fastest growing in the United States. The MSA covers 3,213.01 sq mi, located within the Boston Mountains and Springfield Plateau subsets of The Ozarks. Northwest Arkansas doubled in population between 1990 and 2010. Growth has been driven by the three Fortune 500 companies based in NWA: Walmart, Tyson Foods, J. B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc. as well as over 1,300 suppliers and vendors drawn to the region by these large businesses and NWA's business climate. The region has seen significant investment in amenities, including the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, the Walmart AMP, the NWA Razorback Regional Greenway. Constituent counties of the MSA include: Benton County Madison County Washington County Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County and home to the University of Arkansas.
As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 76,899. The city is the third most populous in Arkansas and serves as the county seat of Washington County. It's known for Dickson Street the most prominent entertainment district in the state of Arkansas, which itself contains the Walton Arts Center. Blocks from Dickson Street is the Fayetteville Historic Square, which hosts the nation's number one ranked Fayetteville's Farmer's Market. Fayetteville was ranked 8th on Forbes Magazine's Top 10 Best Places in America for Business and Careers in 2007. Business insider named Fayetteville the 2nd best place to live in the South in 2016. Springdale is a city in Benton Counties. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 73,123. Springdale is Arkansas's fourth-largest city, behind Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville. Springdale is the location of the headquarters of Tyson Foods Inc. the largest meat producing company in the world, has been dubbed the "Chicken Capital of the World" by several publications.
In 2008, the Wichita Wranglers of AA minor league baseball's Texas League moved to Springdale and play in Arvest Ballpark as the Northwest Arkansas Naturals. Rogers is a city in Benton County; as of the 2010 census, the city is the eighth most populous in the state, with a total population of 58,895. Rogers is famous as the location of the first Wal-Mart. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers 18th in the 25 best affordable suburbs in the South. In 2010, CNN Money magazine ranked Rogers as the 10th Best Place to Live in the United States. Two of the city's biggest attractions are the outdoor concert venue the Walmart AMP and the open air shopping mall the Pinnacle Hills Promenade; the city is the home town of American country music singer/songwriter Joe Nichols, Marty Perry, as well as David Noland. It is where comedian Will Rogers married Betty Blake. Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County. At the 2010 census, the population was 38,284, up from 20,308 in 2000 ranking it as the state's 10th largest city.
Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County and home to the headquarters of Walmart, the largest retailer in the world. Bentonville has the location of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. Founded by Sam Walton's daughter Alice Walton and designed by world-renowned architect Moshe Safdie, this museum is home to some of America's finest works of art. Southern Living magazine cited Bentonville as "the South's next cultural mecca." Northwest Arkansas is located in the Southern United States. It is within the Upper South, characterized by the Ozarks; the southern part of NWA is a high and dissected plateau, full of sparsely populated oak-hickory forest, separating the region from the Arkansas River Valley to the south. NWA is located within the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau within the U. S. Interior Highlands, the largest mountainous region between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains. Although the topography varies within the region, the Ozark geology is present throughout. At Fayetteville, the geology splits between the Boston Mountains to the south and the Springfield Plateau to the north.
The Ouachita orogeny exposed the older limestones of the Springfield Plateau, resulting in a softer terrain, while the Boston Mountains retained steep, sharp grade changes. The Ozarks are covered by an oak-hickory-pine forest, with large portions of protected forestland remaining NWA. 25% of this forest has been cleared for development and agricultural uses. Most of NWA is within the White River watershed, with the western portions being contained within the Illinois River watershed. Within NWA, the White River is impounded at several locations, the most important of, at Beaver Dam, forming the 13,700 acres Beaver Lake; this reservoir was created in the 1960s for flood control and energy production uses. It serves as the water supply for most of NWA, with Beaver Water District treating potable water and selling it directly to the four largest NWA municipalities; the Illinois River watershed is a sensitive watershed, the subject of controversy within the area for many years. The phosphorus load of the Illinois has been subject of controversy resulting in litigation between Oklahoma and Arkansas reaching the United States Supreme Court in 1992.
The Environmental Protection Agency has classified the Illino