Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Clash is a music and fashion magazine and website based in the United Kingdom. It is published four times a year by Music Republic Ltd, its predecessor Clash Music Ltd having gone into liquidation; the magazine won the Best New Magazine award in 2004 at the PPA Magazine Awards and has won further awards in England and Scotland. Most notably, it won Magazine Of The Year at the 2011 Record Of The Day Awards. Clash was founded by Simon Harper, Iain Carnegie and Jon-Paul Kitching, it emerged from long-running free listings magazine Vibe based in Scotland. Re-launching as Clash Magazine in 2004, it won Best New Magazine award at the PPA Magazine Awards and Music Magazine of the Year – Record of the Day Awards 2005 and 2011. At the turn of 2011, Clash took on an new look, ditching the previous glossy feel and music led design, for an altogether more artistically-led approach. In 2013 Clash launched a Smartphone channel which went on to win'Best Music Magazine' at the Digital Magazine Awards for their iOS Apple Magazine app.
In February 2014 it expanded onto Android handsets. In November 2014, the magazine published its 99th edition, but withdrew from print publication in favour of moving to an online-first operation; the Web-based service continued throughout the magazine's absence from the news-stands. In late 2015 it was announced that Clash would return to print as a bimonthly magazine from February 2016, beginning the revived run with a 100th issue special; the publication draws on the larger Clash brand, which extends to live events around the country and festival partnerships/parties, the website, ClashMusic.com. 2011 saw Clash partner Levi's and Spotify to bring Primal Scream to London's Electric Brixton for one of their final shows with the former Stone Roses member, Mani. The Clash Live brand's London activity used to incorporate a once-monthly club night at The Lexington, part of their tastemaking Ones To Watch section, which has played host to acts including Swimming, Three Trapped Tigers and Wild Palms.
More this activity re-branded to be called'Next Wave' in order to reflect internal changes in the magazine and now enjoys a residency at Hackney's new Oslo venue. ClashMusic.com launched in early 2008. The website encompasses a wider variety of genres than its parent magazine, with pieces on left field acts like Gonjasufi and Perfume Genius, as well as emerging artists, appearing alongside content that ties in with magazine-featured artists; the website features numerous ongoing features such as "DJ Disasters", "Rapture & Verse" and "A Letter From...". It runs a Track of the Day feature from Monday to Friday; the website enjoyed a redesign, bringing it in line with the look of the print magazine, in October 2012. On 30 March 2009, ClashMusic began publishing the Essential 50 – fifty albums which the website considered "the 50 greatest, most significant, downright brilliant albums of Clash's lifetime". Made up of albums released in the past five years, the list was published in sections of three, with the top ten being released individually between 15–24 April 2009.
Music Magazine of the Year – Digital Magazine Awards 2013 Magazine of the Year – Record Of The Day Awards 2011 Magazine of the Year – PPA Scotland Magazine Awards 2008 Consumer Magazine of the Year – PPA Scotland Magazine Awards 2008 Consumer Magazine Editor of the Year – PPA Scotland Magazine Awards 2007 Best Magazine Design of the Year – PPA Scotland Magazine Awards 2007 Music Magazine of the Year – Record Of The Day Awards 2005 Best New Magazine – PPA Scottish Magazine Awards 2004ClashMusic.com was nominated for Best Music Magazine and Best Podcast at the 2008 BT Digital Music Awards. List of magazines published in Scotland Music magazine Official website
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
Alessandro Cortini is an Italian musician best known for being the keyboard player in the American band Nine Inch Nails, Cortini is the frontman for the Los Angeles-based electronic-alternative band SONOIO. He was a touring member of The Mayfield Four from 2000 to 2002, he was a founding member of Modwheelmood, an electronic/alternative band from Los Angeles, with former Abandoned Pools guitarist Pelle Hillström. He completed a small Canadian tour with blindoldfreak. Cortini was born in Bologna, raised in Forlì. Cortini moved from Italy to the United States to study guitar at the Musicians Institute. After graduating, straying away from the guitar, he decided to focus on keyboards and synths. From 2001 to 2002, Cortini acted as touring guitarist for The Mayfield Four in support of their album Second Skin. While teaching at the Musicians Institute, he saw an ad for open auditions for Nine Inch Nails. Reznor stated that Alessandro Cortini "fit in immediately." Reznor stated that: My first thought when Alessandro walked in was that he didn't look like what I had in mind.
His presence was intense but gentle, not the "I'm gonna attack you" energy fans might associate with NIN. He started, within 30 seconds I was like "That's the guy!" I never once regretted it. Without taking anything away from Charlie, Alessandro is into playing the studio parts as much as humanly possible. Cortini toured with Nine Inch Nails from 2005 to 2008, during the band's "Live: With Teeth", "Performance 2007" and "Lights In The Sky Over North/South America" tours, his primary role was that of touring keyboard player, although he played guitar and bass guitar on some songs. Besides touring with the band, Cortini contributed to the instrumental album Ghosts I-IV and the 2008 album The Slip. A Modwheelmood remix of "The Great Destroyer" was released on the Year Zero remix album Year Zero Remixed, Cortini features in the live DVD Beside You In Time, as well as the music videos for The Hand That Feeds and Survivalism, he left the band at the end of 2008. Cortini was the frontman of Los Angeles band Modwheelmood, which he led with former Abandoned Pools guitarist Pelle Hillstrom.
Together they have released two EPs,? and Enemies & Immigrants. In 2007, they released Things Will Change, the companion remix disc for Enemies & Immigrants, they released the first part of their new album Pearls to Pigs, Vol. 1 on December 25, 2007 as a digital release. In fall 2006, Cortini contributed to the Musicians Institute's Recording Artist Program by acting as advisor for one-on-one training with students. In 2009, he filled in for Morgan Nicholls while Nicholls took a leave of absence to be with his newborn son. Alessandro Cortini worked with Ladytron in the production of two of their albums and Gravity the Seducer, he co-produced the second track, "We Are the Sea", from the debut album Crystal World of Ladytron's main singer, Marnie. In 2010, he contributed electronic production to a song called "Birds of Prey" by pop artist Christina Aguilera, produced by Ladytron; the song is featured on the deluxe edition of her fourth studio album Bionic. In summer 2010, Cortini formed the project SONOIO.
The band name SONOIO comes from the Italian phrase "sono io", which means "it's me", as it is a solo project consisting of Alessandro Cortini. In July 2010 SONOIO released the album SONOIO Blue, followed up by a remix album in December 2010 NON SONOIO. In June 2011 SONOIO released the album SONOIO Red. Cortini joined How To Destroy Angels, a project consisted of Trent Reznor, Atticus Ross and Rob Sheridan and Mariqueen Maandig, as a touring member, he performs multiple instruments onstage and in addition has remixed their single "The Spaces in Between" under his SONOIO moniker, used as the show finale for the majority of the tour. In 2013, Cortini returned to Nine Inch Nails as their touring member, co-wrote the opening track of Hesitation Marks with Trent Reznor. In March 2017, Nine Inch Nails' official Twitter account announced Cortini would be part of the 2017 summer performance lineup; as himself2013: Forse 1 2013: Forse 2 2014: Sonno 2015: Forse 3 2015: Risveglio 2016: SPIE 2017: Avanti SONOIO2010: SONOIO 2011: SONOIO 2018: Fine Blindoldfreak2009: 1 Modwheelmood2003:?
2006: Enemies & Immigrants 2007: Things Will Change 2007: Pearls to Pigs, Vol. 1 2008: Pearls to Pigs, Vol. 2 2008: Pearls to Pigs, Vol. 3 2009: Pearls to Pigs With Nine Inch Nails2007: Beside You in Time 2007: Year Zero Remixed - "The Great Destroyer" 2008: Ghosts I-IV 2008: The Slip 2013: Hesitation MarksWith Jovanotti2008: SafariWith Ladytron2008: Velocifero 2008: Ghosts single 2011: Gravity the Seducer With Marnie2013: "We Are the Sea" With Yoav2008: Adore Adore 2008: Beautiful Lie With The Mayfield Four2001: Second SkinWith Puscifer2007: V is for Vagina 2011: Condition
Live at London Astoria 16.07.08
Live at London Astoria 16.07.08 is the first official Ladytron live album recorded during their Velocifero tour and released in 2009. Ladytron' show at Astoria on 15 May 2008 was cancelled because a power failure at the stage. Live at London Astoria 16.07.08 is the recording of the re-scheduled show from 16 July 2008. Pressed as a one-time 1000 copy run in a simple cardboard slipcase for sales off the stage, the band released this album on digipack format. Live at London Astoria 16.07.08 was recorded by Harm Schopman and James Gebhard and it was mixed by Daniel Woodwood at Whitewood Studios
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i