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In digital photography, computer-generated imagery, colorimetry, a grayscale or greyscale image is one in which the value of each pixel is a single sample representing only an amount of light, that is, it carries only intensity information. Grayscale images, a kind of black-and-white or gray monochrome, are composed of shades of gray; the contrast ranges from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest. Grayscale images are distinct from one-bit bi-tonal black-and-white images which, in the context of computer imaging, are images with only two colors: black and white. Grayscale images have many shades of gray in between. Grayscale images can be the result of measuring the intensity of light at each pixel according to a particular weighted combination of frequencies, in such cases they are monochromatic proper when only a single frequency is captured; the frequencies can in principle be from anywhere in the electromagnetic spectrum. A colorimetric grayscale image is an image that has a defined grayscale colorspace, which maps the stored numeric sample values to the achromatic channel of a standard colorspace, which itself is based on measured properties of human vision.

If the original color image has no defined colorspace, or if the grayscale image is not intended to have the same human-perceived achromatic intensity as the color image there is no unique mapping from such a color image to a grayscale image. The intensity of a pixel is expressed within a given range between a minimum and a maximum, inclusive; this range is represented in an abstract way as a range from 0 and 1, with any fractional values in between. This notation is used in academic papers, but this does not define what "black" or "white" is in terms of colorimetry. Sometimes the scale is reversed, as in printing where the numeric intensity denotes how much ink is employed in halftoning, with 0% representing the paper white and 100% being a solid black. In computing, although the grayscale can be computed through rational numbers, image pixels are quantized to store them as unsigned integers, to reduce the required storage and computation; some early grayscale monitors can only display up to sixteen different shades, which would be stored in binary form using 4-bits.

But today grayscale images intended for visual display are stored with 8 bits per sampled pixel. This pixel depth allows 256 different intensities to be recorded, simplifies computation as each pixel sample can be accessed individually as one full byte. However, if these intensities were spaced in proportion to the amount of physical light they represent at that pixel, the differences between adjacent dark shades could be quite noticeable as banding artifacts, while many of the lighter shades would be "wasted" by encoding a lot of perceptually-indistinguishable increments. Therefore, the shades are instead spread out evenly on a gamma-compressed nonlinear scale, which better approximates uniform perceptual increments for both dark and light shades making these 256 shades enough to avoid noticeable increments. Technical uses require more levels, to make full use of the sensor accuracy and to reduce rounding errors in computations. Sixteen bits per sample is a convenient choice for such uses, as computers manage 16-bit words efficiently.

The TIFF and PNG image file formats support 16-bit grayscale natively, although browsers and many imaging programs tend to ignore the low order 8 bits of each pixel. Internally for computation and working storage, image processing software uses integer or floating-point numbers of size 16 or 32 bits. Conversion of an arbitrary color image to grayscale is not unique in general. A common strategy is to use the principles of photometry or, more broadly, colorimetry to calculate the grayscale values so as to have the same luminance as the original color image. In addition to the same luminance, this method ensures that both images will have the same absolute luminance when displayed, as can be measured by instruments in its SI units of candelas per square meter, in any given area of the image, given equal whitepoints. Luminance itself is defined using a standard model of human vision, so preserving the luminance in the grayscale image preserves other perceptual lightness measures, such as L*, determined by the linear luminance Y itself which we will refer to here as Ylinear to avoid any ambiguity.

To convert a color from a colorspace based on a typical gamma-compressed RGB color model to a grayscale representation of its luminance, the gamma compression function must first be removed via gamma expansion to transform the image to a linear RGB colorspace, so that the appropriate weighted sum can be applied to the linear color components ( R l i n e a r, G l i n


Vilmorin is a French seed producer. The company has a long history in France, where it was family-controlled for two centuries, today exists as a publicly traded company owned principally by agro-industrial cooperative Groupe Limagrain, the largest plant breeding and seed company in the European Union. Vilmorin was founded as a plant and seed boutique in 1743 by seed expert Claude Geoffroy and her husband Pierre Andrieux, the chief seed supplier and botanist to King Louis XV; the store was located on a street in the 1st arrondissement of Paris. In 1774, their daughter married botany enthusiast Philippe-Victoire Levêque de Vilmorin. Together, they revived the stores and created the Vilmorin-Andrieux House, which became Vilmorin-Andrieux and Company under the leadership of their son, Philippe André de Vilmorin. Philippe-Victoire de Vilmorin began importing trees and exotic plants into Europe in 1766, starting with the American tulip tree, the domesticated beet, the rutabaga; such plants were unknown in Europe prior to Vilmorin-Andrieux's commercial promotion of them for food and ornamentation.

The Vilmorin estate in the Paris suburb of Verrières-le-Buisson, a former hunting lodge of Louis XIV of France, became known for its gardens and arboretum, the Vilmorin company was headquartered in Verrières-le-Buisson, where it was led by a succession of Vilmorin heirs, including Louis de Vilmorin, Henry de Vilmorin, Maurice de Vilmorin, Philippe de Vilmorin, Jacques de Vilmorin, Louis de Vilmorin, Louise de Vilmorin, Olivier de Vilmorin, Roger de Vilmorin, André de Vilmorin. The company produced the first seed catalog for academics. In 1856, Louis de Vilmorin published "Note on the Creation of a New Race of Beetroot and Considerations on Heredity in Plants", establishing the theoretical groundwork for the modern seed-breeding industry; the company's leaders continued to publish numerous botanical academic articles throughout the company's early history. In 1972 the company was acquired by René Hodée, a farmer from the Anjou region who relocated the company to La Ménitré, a town to the southwest of Paris.

Three years in 1975, he sold the company to Groupe Limagrain, which changed the name from Vilmorin-Andrieux to Vilmorin SA in 1986, in 1989 created the Oxadis division to specialize in Vilmorin's home vegetable garden activities, including vegetable seeds and trees, plant health products, various pet and garden supplies for the amateur market. Following this restructuring, Vilmorin focused on vegetable trees for professionals. Gustave Heusé, Les Vilmorin: Philippe Victoire Levêque de Vilmorin. Corporate site Corporate history

Mahakuta Pillar

Mahakuta Pillar in the town of Mahakuta in present-day Bagalkot district of India's Karnataka state is the source of an important Badami Chalukya inscription called Mahakuta pillar inscription ascribed to king Mangalesha, second son of Pulakeshin I. It is made of fine grained sandstone. Dated 595 CE, the inscription is written in Sanskrit language and old Kannada script and details important information about the Chalukya lineage, their military expeditions, their conquests and early monuments; the pillar was found lying near the Mahakutesvara temple and was transferred to the Bijapur Archaeological museum in 1920. The alternate date suggested for the inscription is 602According to the Mahakuta pillar inscription, Pulakeshin I had two sons, Kirtivarman I and Mangalesha and the Mukuteshvara temple was built by Pulakeshin I and that this was the first major monument built during their rule; the inscription confirms that Pulakeshin I was called Ranavikrama and that he was the first king of the dynasty to take a title of Satyashraya.

The inscription describes Mangaleshas proposed plans of a major invasion up to the Gangetic region and in possible exaggeration, claims his elder brother Kirtivarman I the conqueror of fourteen nations including Vanga, Anga, Vattura and Madraka all located north of Badami and the nations of Kerala, Mushaka, Dramila, Choliya and Vaijayanti. K. V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vatapi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi "The Mahakuta Pillar and Its Temples, Carol Radcliffe Bolon". JSTOR 3249519

Benetton B196

The Benetton B196 is a Formula One racing car with which the Benetton team competed in the 1996 Formula One World Championship. It was driven by the experienced pairing of Jean Alesi and Gerhard Berger, who both moved from Ferrari to replace departing 1994 and 1995 champion Michael Schumacher and his number two, Johnny Herbert. Many thought and Alesi included, that this could well be the Frenchman's year to challenge for the title - something many had been predicting he would do since he signed for Ferrari in 1991. However, after achieving the double of Drivers' and Constructors' Championships in 1995, the 1996 season saw the team slip from its position of eminence. A direct development of the B195, the new drivers found the B196 difficult to drive, as it had been designed with Schumacher's driving style in mind, but managed to score a series of points and podium finishes; the biggest disappointment was not winning a race for the first time since 1988, although Alesi led in Monaco until he suffered a mechanical failure, Berger led in Germany until his engine failed with three laps remaining.

The team lost second place in the Constructors' Championship to Ferrari at the final race of the season in Japan, at which Alesi crashed out early and Berger made mistakes. The B196 was the first Benetton car to race under Italian nationality, it was test-driven by former Benetton race driver Alessandro Nannini, six years after the helicopter crash which ended his F1 career. Henry, Alan. AUTOCOURSE 1996-97. Hazleton Publishing. Pp. 52–55. ISBN 1-874557-91-8. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list


The SKUD 18 is a class of racing sailing boat. It is a lead-assisted skiff with a tube-launched asymmetrical and a modern high performance stayed rig; the boat was created for trials held by the International Association for Disabled Sailing who were looking for a new two person boat for an additional medal allocated to sailing for the 2008 Paralympics. The class is an elegant examples of Universal Design and provide a pathway, within the mainstream, for entry level sailors right through to elite competition. Allowing both able-bodied and disabled athletes alike to enjoy this keelboat. More disabled sailors will welcome the ability to compete on an equitable level. Created as a concept for International Association for Disabled Sailing selected trials for a new boat for new two-person Paralympic competition in Beijing, the SKUD 18 is a strict one design class. Sailors are seated on the centerline for Paralympic events, but the boat can be sailed with or without either of the seats and configured to suit different sailors’ needs.

Perfect for training younger sailors before they move into high performance skiffs or dinghies, the SKUD18 is ideal for those not-so-young sailors who cannot hike like they used to but still want the excitement of high performance racing. The SKUD 18 is a result of collaboration between Chris Mitchell of Access Sailing and Julian Bethwaite of Bethwaite Design, both in Australia, along with Argentine naval architect Martin Billoch. By combining Mitchell's unique experience and ideology of ‘sailing for everyone’ with 20 years of Bethwaite research and technology, the result is an innovative lead assisted skiff, the SKUD 18. “The design evolved as a 5.8m LAS, capable of carrying weight whilst maintaining a high level of performance and control. Cost has been kept low, is easy to stack and containerize, requires simple maintenance and offers ease of use; the boat will be a challenge for disabled sailors alike. The SKUD 18 has been designed from a performance basis to offer scintillating and snappy response to sailors regardless of their mobility.”

- Julian Bethwaite, designer of the Olympic class 49er skiff “The SKUD 18 is versatile and can be handled by a variety of crew configurations. The helmsperson can transfer manually and be steering with tillers, or be in a fixed seat on the centreline using a manual joystick, push/pull rods, or a servo assist joystick with full control of all functions; the forward crew can either be seated on trapeze. As the name reflects, the SKUD 18 is a SKiff of Universal Design and can be sailed for fun or serious competition by people of all levels of physical ability.” - Chris Mitchell, designer of a range of accessible sailcraft Universal Design is related to "inclusive design", "design for all" and “accessible design”. Universal Design differs from accessible design as accessible design means products and buildings that are accessible and usable by people with disabilities. Universal design means products and buildings that are accessible and usable by everyone—older people as well as young, women as well as men, left-handed persons as well as right-handed persons.

It acknowledges disability and other differences as a part of everyday life. SKUD 2P in Paralympic format. “The purpose of servo systems is to allow the more disabled people to sail and to level up the playing field.” - Chris Mitchell, SKUD 18 servo assist system developer Servo motors sailboats are used to allow people with mobility problems to enjoy the freedom and independence of sailing by themselves, sailing solo, something that many don’t achieve in any other aspect of their lives. On two-person boats like the SKUD 18, the helmsperson may be a disabled sailor so needs servo assisted steering, while the crew would control the sheets, but it is achievable to have a full servo system so that the SDS helmsperson can adjust sheets and other controls like the cunningham and outhaul as well. Access Sailing Systems servo assist equipment can be converted for manual use by disengaging the steering winch clutch and winding out all but a few inches of sheet and hauling in the sheets by hand. On the SKUD 18, sheets are double ended and can be adjusted in either mode.

With its debut in the 2008 Paralympics, this was the first of the 3 keelboat classes to use a spinnaker, as well as the first Paralympic class to specify a disabled sailor and a female in the crew, with both sailors secured to their centerline seats for safety purposes. With its 140 kg bulb and 1.7m draft, the 2-person SKUD 18 with both crew on the centerline, has exceptional stability and is fail safe. Important considerations in being fail safe with a Severely Disabled Sailor aboard in the worst situation, i.e. where the boat is broached/ lying on its side in wild conditions: SDS need to be strapped into a seat for body support. Their head must remain clear of the water if all systems fail. Considerable buoyancy required under the side decks, considering that the sailor could be strapped into a leeward canted seat. There is escalating potential for danger if the sailor is in a sliding or transversely mobile seat, either manual or servo powered. Further, as high level quadriplegics are restricted to helming and it's less complex to organise steering for a centreline seated quad, a fail safe seat for a quad should therefore be fixed on the centerline.

The forward crew for 2008 Paralympics were restricted to a centerline seat for same reasons. However this is not the ideal format for the boat, though it does allow those with limited mobility to attend to the other primary function of rig adjustments; the SKUD 18 is built by Extreme Sailing Products in Batam, Indonesia

Arkham (Gotham)

"Arkham" is the fourth episode of the television series Gotham. It was written by Ken Woodruff and directed by TJ Scott. In the episode, detectives Gordon and Bullock try to save the council of Gotham, threatened after a dispute for the known Arkham Plan is in progress. Meanwhile, Cobblepot indulges more in Maroni's mafia; the episode was watched by 6.39 million viewers, an improvement over the previous episode and received positive reviews. Critics criticized the poor choice of villain. Gordon berates Cobblepot after showing up at his apartment. Cobblepot tells him a mob war. It's revealed that Mayor James are backing the project. A councilman, Ron Jenkins is killed by a hitman. Gordon tells Essen that the Arkham District is a battlefield between Falcone and Maroni. Upon visiting a prisoner who knows the hitman and Bullock look for Richard Gladwell, a possible suspect, they find a paper that reads C. L. M. Bamonte's is attacked by three masked men, which forces Cobblepot to protect the money until they flee.

Cobblepot is promoted to restaurant manager by Maroni. It was discovered by Bullock that the real Gladwell was dead for five years and that the hitman was using his name. Gordon figures out that Mayor James will be the next target, due to the C. L. M. Referring to the initials of the officers sent to protect the mayor. While protecting James, Gordon fights the hitman; the hitman is killed by Gordon. Meanwhile, Mooney pairs up two possible females for her nightclub job opening against each other where a female named Liza wins. Mayor James holds a press conference about the Arkham Plan. Cobblepot reunites with the masked men who attacked Bamonte's, turning out he hired them so he could get the promotion, they die after Cobblepot serves them poisoned cannoli. The episode was watched with a 2.4 rating among 18-49 adults. With Live+7 DVR viewing factored in, the episode had an overall rating of 10.34 million viewers, a 4.1 in the 18–49 demographic. "Arkham" was well received by critics. The episode received a rating of 75% on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes based on 24 reivews, with the site's consensus stating: "A decent but forgettable episode of Gotham,'Arkham' shines when the focus shifts to Jim Gordon and Oswald'Penguin' Cobblepot."Matt Fowler of IGN gave the episode a "good" 7.7 out of 10 and wrote in his verdict, "Gotham was blissfully foreshadow-free this week, having Arkham be the actual item that our big villains were fighting over was an inspired way to bring that location into the show.

Plus, Fish Mooney and Cobblepot continue to delight as they both separately schemed to take over city. I felt like they could have done more with the hitman this week, "Gladwell," since he kept bringing up his own past and it was never fleshed out, and the idea that Falcone and Maroni wouldn't somehow know that they were paying the same guy to take shots at the other side didn't feel right. Why wouldn't one just pay Gladwell to kill three councilmen on the other side? Or kill the actual other boss? So I'm hoping though the guy got shot down, that we learn more about this."The A. V. Club's Oliver Sava gave the episode a "C" grade and wrote, "Gotham is a show that runs on abstract nouns; the dialogue is overblown in hopes that it will add gravitas to the story, but it strips the show of its humanity. These abstract concepts are what drive the plot, that makes it hard to connect to the characters on a personal level. While tonight's episode is an improvement over the last couple of chapters,'Arkham' is still wildly uneven and shallow.

Escalating the Gotham mob war gives this episode a stronger sense of forward momentum, but there are still plenty of developments that prevent this show from rising above mediocrity." "Arkham" on IMDb "Arkham" at