In agriculture, grazing is a method of animal husbandry whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat, milk and other products on land unsuitable for arable farming. Farmers may employ many different strategies of grazing for optimum production: grazing may be continuous, seasonal, or rotational within a grazing period. Longer rotations are found in ley farming. Patch-burn sets up a rotation of fresh grass after burning with two years of rest. Conservation grazing deliberately uses grazing animals to improve the biodiversity of a site. Grazing has existed since the birth of agriculture. Grazing's ecological effects can be positive and include redistributing nutrients, keeping grasslands open or favouring a particular species over another. There can be negative effects to the environment. Sheep, goats cattle, pigs were domesticated early in the history of agriculture. Sheep were domesticated soon followed by goats. Cattle and pigs were domesticated somewhat around 7000 BC, once people started to live in fixed settlements.
In America, livestock were grazed on public land from the Civil War. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 was enacted after the Great Depression to regulate the use of public land for grazing purposes. Grazing by livestock is a means of deriving food and income from lands which are unsuitable for arable farming: for example in the United States, some 85% of grazing land is not suitable for crops. According to a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization, about 60% of the world's grassland is covered by grazing systems, it states that "Grazing systems supply about 9 percent of the world's production of beef and about 30 percent of the world's production of sheep and goat meat. For an estimated 100 million people in arid areas, a similar number in other zones, grazing livestock is the only possible source of livelihood." Grazing management has two overall goals, each of, multifaceted: Protecting the quality of the pasturage against deterioration by overgrazing In other words, maintain the sustainability of the pasturage Protecting the health of the animals against acute threats, such as: Grass tetany and nitrate poisoning Trace element overdose, such as molybdenum and selenium poisoning Grass sickness and laminitis in horses Milk sickness in calves A proper land use and grazing management technique balances maintaining forage and livestock production, while still maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
It does this by allowing sufficient recovery periods for regrowth. Producers can keep a low density on a pasture. Controlled burning of the land can help in the regrowth of plants. Although grazing can be problematic for the ecosystem, well-managed grazing techniques can reverse damage and improve the land. On commons in England and Wales, rights of pasture and pannage for each commoner are defined by number and type of animal, by the time of year when certain rights could be exercised. For example, the occupier of a particular cottage might be allowed to graze fifteen cattle, four horses, ponies or donkeys, fifty geese, while the numbers allowed for their neighbours would be different. On some commons, the rights are not limited by numbers, instead a'marking fee' is paid each year for each animal'turned out'. However, if excessive use was made of the common, for example, in overgrazing, a common would be'stinted', that is, a limit would be put on the number of animals each commoner was allowed to graze.
These regulations were responsive to economic pressure. Thus, rather than let a common become degraded, access was restricted further. Ranchers and range science researchers have developed grazing systems to improve sustainable forage production for livestock; these can be contrasted with intensive animal farming on feedlots. With continuous grazing, livestock is allowed access to the same grazing area throughout the year. Seasonal grazing incorporates "grazing animals on a particular area for only part of the year"; this allows the land, not being grazed to rest and allow for new forage to grow. Rotational grazing "involves dividing the range into several pastures and grazing each in sequence throughout the grazing period". Utilizing rotational grazing can improve livestock distribution while incorporating rest period for new forage. In ley farming, pastures are not permanently planted, but alternated between fodder crops and/or arable crops. Rest rotation grazing "divides the range into at least four pastures.
One pasture remains rested throughout the year and grazing is rotated amongst the residual pastures." This grazing system can be beneficial when using sensitive grass that requires time for rest and regrowth. Deferred rotation "involves at least two pastures with one not grazed until after seed-set". By using deferred rotation, grasses can achieve maximum growth during the period when no grazing occurs. Patch-burn grazing burns a third of no matter the size of the pasture; this burned patch attracts grazers that graze the area because of the fresh grasses that grow as a result. The other patches receive little to no grazing. During the next two years the next two patches are burned consecutively the cycle begins anew. In this way, patches rec
Prickett's Fort State Park is a 188-acre West Virginia state park north of Fairmont, near the confluence of Prickett's Creek and the Monongahela River. The park features a reconstructed refuge fort and commemorates life on the Virginia frontier during the late 18th century. Historic Prickett’s Fort was built to defend early European settlers of what today is West Virginia from raids by hostile Native Americans, a portion of whose territory the settlers appropriated after the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. After a band of settlers led by Daniel Greathouse perpetrated the Yellow Creek massacre in 1774, initiating Lord Dunmore's War, all settlers in the Ohio River Valley were in peril from Native American attack; because there was safety in numbers, the settlers built a number of refuge forts, including one on the homestead of Jacob Prickett. Simple in design, Prickett’s Fort was little more than a hundred-foot-square log palisade built around Prickett’s house. Native Americans tended preferring to ambush small work parties.
When the frontiersmen believed they were in danger of Native American attack, families gathered at such a fortified area, a procedure called “forting up.” In 1774, there were at least a hundred such palisades, “stations” in the Monongahela Valley, many within a thirty-mile radius of Prickett’s Fort. As many as eighty families—several hundred people—gathered at Prickett’s Fort during crisis periods, where they stayed for days or weeks. Prickett’s Fort was never attacked, although militiamen from the confluence area were killed by Native Americans elsewhere; the last written mention of Prickett’s Fort occurred in 1780. In 1916, the Sons of the American Revolution dedicated a monument in honor of settlers who built the fort. When, in 1973, the traditional site of the fort was threatened by a Department of Natural Resources parking lot, the Marion County Historical Society created the Prickett’s Fort Memorial Foundation and announced plans to reconstruct the historic structure. Discovering that the original fort site had been destroyed by the building of a railroad bridge in 1905, the Foundation decided to put the reconstruction on a small hill overlooking the river.
Many old buildings donated to the project were torn down to provide timbers for the reconstruction. A Reconstruction Details Committee decided to design the fort reconstruction on the basis of a description by Stephen Morgan, the son of an early settler; the current reconstruction is 110 feet square with two-story blockhouses at each corner, fourteen small cabins lining internal walls, a meeting house and store house in the common area. The Morgan account was an inaccurate even fraudulent, guide; the Prickett’s Fort Memorial Foundation describes the 1974 reconstruction as “much more elaborate” than the original but claims that every feature in the reconstruction might have been found at some refuge fort in the region. In the reconstructed fort, the Foundation presents third-person interpretation of such 18th-century crafts as carpentry and spinning. A visitor center—managed by the Foundation under long-term contract with the state—includes a research library, a gift shop, a gallery with an orientation exhibit and video.
South of the fort reconstruction, the Job Prickett House, built in 1859 by a great-grandson of Jacob Prickett, displays original furnishings and tools. This typical 19th-century farmhouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Recreational facilities at Pricketts Fort include a 400-seat outdoor amphitheater, picnic areas, nature trails, a boat launch; the outdoor amphitheater is used by the Fairmont State University theatre department each summer for musicals and dramatic productions. Prickett’s Fort State Park provides access to both the MCPARC trail to Fairmont and the Mon River Trail to Morgantown. An accessibility study by West Virginia University determined that most park features were accessible to persons with disabilities. Jacob Prickett, Jr. Log House List of West Virginia state parks State park Official website Biographical sketch of Jacob Prickett, 1722-1799 at wikitree.com
Henson Park is a multi purpose sports ground in Marrickville, New South Wales, Australia. It was established in 1933 on the site of Daley's brick pit, Thomas Daley operated the Standsure Brick Company from 1886 to 1914; the brickworks occupied 9 acres and employed 60 people. When the brickworks closed the pits filled with ground water; the largest waterhole was known as "The Blue Hole"and was 40 to 80 feet in places. Marrickville Council purchased the site in 1923. Nine young boys drowned in the old water hole. In 1932 a grant was received to level the ground and work commenced as part of the Unemployment Relief Scheme; the oval is set within a shallow hollow, formed by the upper edges of the former brickpit. This is the only one of the many parks formed on the sites of former brickpits which has retained evidence of its former use in its shape. Henson Park was named after William Henson, Mayor of Marrickville in 1902, 1906 to 1908 and his son Alfred Henson, an Alderman of Marrickville Council from 1922 to 1931.
It was opened on 2 September 1933 with a cricket match between a representative Marrickville Eleven team and a North Sydney District team, which included Sir Don Bradman. The Mayor of Marrickville, Alderman Rushton, bowled the first ball, North Sydney won the match. Cricket may have been the first sport played on Henson Park but the park is better known as a rugby league field, it is the home ground of Newtown Jets Rugby League Club, one of the founding rugby league clubs. Newtown still has a team in the New South Wales Cup; the first premiership game of Rugby League was played on 1 April 1936, when Newtown defeated University 20-0. Apart from football, the ground has had a long association with cycling, it was the principal cycling venue for the 1938 British Empire Games, as well as the venue for the games closing ceremony. The Sydney Morning Herald reported the awesome scene of athletes and officials from all the competing nations standing in ordered lines under their country's banner on Henson Park.
During the games crowds exceeded 40 000. The velodrome surrounding the playing field was removed during the late 1970s and replaced by a grass running track used for local school athletics carnivals; the Henson Park gates on the Centennial Street entrance were named as the "Charlie Meader Memorial Gates" in 2001 as a dedication to the memory and the recognition of Mr Meader's work as caretaker/groundskeeper of Henson Park for many years. Mr Meader joined Marrickville Council at the age of 16, continued working there for another 53 years and was the longest serving council employee. Mr Meader was the son of a former employee of the brick pit. Jack Chaseling was one of the greatest of all Newtown Rugby League officials, he worked tirelessly for 32 years for the club. He was a delegate for NSWRL and served on many sub-committees with NSWRL, he was manager for the 1935 Australian Kangaroos tour of New Zealand. Marrickville Council acknowledged his work by naming the Sydenham Road entrance "Jack Chaseling Drive".
Henson Park has changed little. On the western side is the King George V Memorial Grandstand, which accommodates about 1000 people. During the 1980s, when the high-profile adman John Singleton was club's chief benefactor, attempts were made to take the traditionally working-class Bluebags up-market; the upper section, named the Jet Set Lounge, at one stage was enclosed with glass and waiters served members and their guests food and drinks. From the north west to the south-east side of the ground runs a grass hill - one of the largest in Sydney. From the south east to the west, there is a bitumen bank. About 200 cars can fit and it has always been popular to watch matches from your car seat. There is a brick scoreboard with a kiosk in the north-east corner. Media/Corporate centre with a kiosk to the northern side of the King George V Memorial Grandstand. Full Stadium lighting was installed in the late 1970s for the benefit of night games and for significant games to be televised. A $920,000 Henson Park upgrade was funded by the Australian Government Community Infrastructure Grants program.
And was announced prior to the 2010 federal election to upgrade facilities in the Park. Installation of electronic scoreboard. Replacement of asbestos roofing on grandstand and waterproofing and repainting of grandstand. Resurfacing of forecourt of grandstand to provide ramp access. Refurbishment of public toilets and the canteen. Since 1937, the ground has been known as the home of the Newtown Rugby League Football Club nicknamed "The Bluebags", today known as the Newtown Jets; the Jets played in the New South Wales Rugby League premiership, a forerunner to the National Rugby League, until 1983 when they were dropped from the competition for financial reasons. However the club was returned to play at the ground; the Jets compete in the NSW Cup and were the feeder team for the NRL side the Sydney Roosters until the end of the 2014 season after the Roosters announced they were ending a nine-year relationship with the club. In 2015, Newtown signed a contract to become Cronulla-Sutherland's feeder side with the deal finishing at the end of the 2023 season.
In 2019, Henson Park hosted a Magic Round which consisted of 3 Canterbury Cup NSW games played at the ground on the same day in Round 10 of the 2019 season. Henson Park is used for competition matches in soccer and Australian rules football, it hosts several matches per season in the Sydney AFL competition, including the finals and hosted games from the 2008 AFL Under 18 Championships and the Community Cup. The Argentine Rugby Union side used Henson Pa