Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov was a Russian-American novelist and entomologist. His first nine novels were in Russian, and he achieved prominence after he began writing English prose. He was a finalist for the National Book Award for Fiction seven times, Nabokov was an expert lepidopterist and composer of chess problems. Nabokov was born on 22 April 1899, in Saint Petersburg, b to a wealthy and his father was a leader of the pre-Revolutionary liberal Constitutional Democratic Party and authored numerous books and articles about criminal law and politics. His cousins included the composer Nicolas Nabokov and his paternal grandfather, Dmitry Nabokov, had been Russias Justice Minister in the reign of Alexander II. His paternal grandmother was the Baltic German Baroness Maria von Korff, Vladimir was the familys eldest and favorite child, with four younger siblings, Olga and Kiril. Sergey would be killed in a Nazi concentration camp in 1945, Olga is recalled by Ayn Rand as having been a supporter of constitutional monarchy who had first awakened Rands interest in politics.
Nabokov spent his childhood and youth in Saint Petersburg and at the country estate Vyra near Siverskaya and his childhood, which he had called perfect and cosmopolitan, was remarkable in several ways. The family spoke Russian and French in their household and he relates that the first English book his mother read to him was Misunderstood by Florence Montgomery. In fact, much to his fathers chagrin, Nabokov could read. While the family was nominally Orthodox, they felt no religious fervor, Nabokovs adolescence was the period in which his first serious literary endeavors were made. In 1916, Nabokov had his first collection of published, Stikhi. At the time, Nabokov was attending Tenishev school in Saint Petersburg and they lived at a friends estate and in September 1918 moved to Livadiya, at the time part of the Ukrainian Republic, Nabokovs father became a minister of justice in the Crimean Regional Government. After the withdrawal of the German Army and the defeat of the White Army and they settled briefly in England and Vladimir enrolled in Trinity College, first studying zoology and Romance languages.
His examination results on the first part of the Tripos, taken at the end of year, were a starred first. He sat the second part of the exam in his third year, Nabokov feared that he might fail the exam, but his script was marked second-class. His final examination result was second-class, and his BA conferred in 1922, Nabokov drew on his Cambridge experiences to write several works, including the novels Glory and The Real Life of Sebastian Knight. In 1920, Nabokovs family moved to Berlin, where his set up the émigré newspaper Rul. Nabokov followed them to Berlin two years later, after completing his studies at Cambridge
Theodore Herman Albert Dreiser was an American novelist and journalist of the naturalist school. Dreisers best known novels include Sister Carrie and An American Tragedy, in 1930 he was nominated to the Nobel Prize in Literature. Dreiser was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, to Sarah Maria, John Dreiser was a German immigrant from Mayen in the Eifel region, and Sarah was from the Mennonite farming community near Dayton, Ohio. Her family disowned her for converting to Roman Catholicism in order to marry John Dreiser, Theodore was the twelfth of thirteen children. Paul Dresser was one of his brothers, Paul changed the spelling of his name as he became a popular songwriter. After graduating from school in Warsaw, Dreiser attended Indiana University in the years 1889–1890 before dropping out. Within several years, Dreiser was writing as a journalist for the Chicago Globe newspaper, Other interviewees included Lillian Nordica, Emilia E. Barr, Philip Armour and Alfred Stieglitz. After proposing in 1893, he married Sara Osborne White on December 28,1898 and they ultimately separated in 1909, partly as a result of Dreisers infatuation with Thelma Cudlipp, the teenage daughter of a colleague, but were never formally divorced.
In 1913, he began a relationship with the actress. In 1919 Dreiser met his cousin Helen Patges Richardson with whom he began an affair, through the following decades she remained the constant woman in his life, as other more temporary love affairs bloomed and perished. Helen tolerated Dreisers affairs, and they married on June 13,1944. Dreiser was going to return from his first European vacation on the Titanic but was talked out of going by an English publisher who recommended he board a cheaper boat. During 1899, the Dreisers stayed with Arthur Henry and his wife, Maude Wood Henry, at the House of Four Pillars, there Dreiser began work on his first novel, Sister Carrie, published in 1900. Unknown to Maude, Henry sold a half-interest in the house to Dreiser, in Sister Carrie, Dreiser portrayed a changing society, writing about a young woman who flees rural life for the city and struggles with poverty, complex relationships with men, and prostitution. It sold poorly and was considered controversial because of objections to his featuring a country girl who pursues her dreams of fame.
The book has since acquired a considerable reputation and it has been called the greatest of all American urban novels. It was adapted as a 1952 film by the name, directed by William Wyler. In response to witnessing a lynching in 1893, Dreiser wrote the story, Nigger Jeff
Light in August
Light in August is a 1932 novel by the Southern American author William Faulkner. It belongs to the Southern gothic and modernist literary genres, the woman on whose property Christmas and Burch have been living, Joanna Burden, a descendant of Yankee abolitionists hated by the citizens of Jefferson, is murdered. Burch is caught at the scene of the crime and reveals that Christmas had been involved with her and is part black. While Burch sits in jail awaiting his reward for turning in Christmas, Lena is assisted by Byron Bunch, Bunch seeks the aid of another outcast in the town, the disgraced former minister Gail Hightower, to help Lena give birth and protect Christmas from being lynched. Though Hightower refuses the latter, Christmas escapes to his house and is shot, in a loose, unstructured modernist narrative style that draws from Christian allegory and oral storytelling, Faulkner explores themes of race, sex and religion in the American South. By focusing on characters that are misfits, outcasts, or are otherwise marginalized in their community, he portrays the clash of alienated individuals against a Puritanical, early reception of the novel was mixed, with some reviewers critical of Faulkners style and subject matter.
However, over time, the novel has come to be considered one of the most important literary works by Faulkner, the novel is set in the American South in the 1930s, during the time of Prohibition and Jim Crow laws that legalized racial segregation in the South. It begins with the journey of Lena Grove, a young pregnant white woman from Doanes Mill, who is trying to find Lucas Burch, the father of her unborn child. He has been fired from his job at Doanes Mill and moved to Mississippi, not hearing from Burch and harassed by her older brother for her illegitimate pregnancy, Lena walks and hitchhikes to Jefferson, Mississippi, a town in Faulkners fictional Yoknapatawpha County. There she expects to find Lucas working at another planing mill and those who help her along her four-week trek are skeptical that Lucas Burch will be found, or that he will keep his promise when she catches up with him. When she arrives in Jefferson, Lucas is there, but he has changed his name to Joe Brown, looking for Lucas, trusting Lena meets shy, mild-mannered Byron Bunch, who falls in love with Lena but feels honor-bound to help her find Joe Brown.
Thoughtful and quietly religious, Byron is superior to Brown in every way, the novel switches to the second plot strand, the story of Lucas Burch/Joe Browns partner Joe Christmas. The surly, psychopathic Christmas has been on the run for years, although he has light skin, Christmas suspects that he is of African American ancestry. Consumed with rage, he is a bitter outcast who wanders between black and white society, constantly provoking fights with blacks and whites alike. Christmas comes to Jefferson three years prior to the events of the novel and gets a job at the mill where Byron. The job at the mill is a cover for Christmass bootlegging operation and he has a sexual relationship with Joanna Burden, an older woman who descended from a formerly powerful abolitionist family whom the town despises as carpetbaggers. Though their relationship is passionate at first, Joanna begins menopause and turns to religion, at the end of her relationship with Christmas, Joanna tries to force him, at gunpoint, to kneel and pray.
Joanna is murdered soon after, her throat is slit and she is nearly decapitated, the novel leaves readers uncertain whether Joe Christmas or Joe Brown is the murderer
The Western canon is the body of books and art that scholars generally accept as the most important and influential in shaping Western culture. Some examples of media such as cinema have attained a precarious position in the canon. There has been a debate over the nature and status of the canon since at least the 1960s, much of which is rooted in critical theory, critical race theory. The Bible, a product of Middle Eastern culture, has been a force in shaping Western culture, and has inspired some of the great monuments of human thought, literature. Although the term is associated with the Western canon, it can be applied to works of literature and art, etc. from all traditions. Historically, the word refers to a work of a high standard produced in order to obtain membership of a Guild or Academy. The first writer to use the classic was Aulus Gellius. Such classification began with the Greeks’ ranking their cultural works, with the word canon, the Western canon defines the best of Western culture.
In the ancient world, at the Alexandrian Library, scholars coined the Greek term Hoi enkrithentes to identify the writers in the canon. There has been a debate over the nature and status of the canon since at least the 1960s, much of which is rooted in critical theory, critical race theory. Classicist Bernard Knox made direct reference to this topic when he delivered his 1992 Jefferson Lecture, some intellectuals have championed a high conservative modernism that insists that universal truths exist, and have opposed approaches that deny the existence of universal truths. Many argued that law was the repository of timeless truths. Bloom further comments, But one thing is certain, wherever the Great Books make up a part of the curriculum. His book was cited by some intellectuals for its argument that the classics contained universal truths. Defenders maintain that those who undermine the canon do so out of political interests. Ironically, the tradition is now regarded as oppressive. The texts once served a function, now we are told that it is the texts which must be unmasked.
One of the objections to a canon of literature is the question of authority
Colonial history of the United States
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, France, small early attempts often disappeared, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. Everywhere, the rate was very high among the first arrivals. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established several decades. European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups, few aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers and tradesmen arrived. They built colonies with distinctive social, political, non-British colonies were taken over and most of the inhabitants were assimilated, unlike in Nova Scotia, where the British expelled the French Acadian inhabitants. There were no civil wars among the 13 colonies. The colonies developed legalized systems of slavery, based largely in the Atlantic slave trade from Africa or by way of the Caribbean, Wars were recurrent between the French and the British—the French and Indian Wars especially—and involved French support for Native American attacks on the British frontiers.
By 1760, France was defeated and the British seized its colonies, on the eastern seaboard of what became the United States, the four distinct British regions were, New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies, and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region of the Frontier which was never separately organized, see timeline of Colonial America for list of historical events. Colonizers came from European kingdoms that had highly developed military, naval and these efforts were managed respectively by the Casa de Contratación and the Casa da Índia. England and the Netherlands had started colonies in both the West Indies and North America and they had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Portugal and Spain. However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a foundation of merchant-based investment that seemed to need much less government support, matters concerning the colonies were dealt with primarily by the Privy Council and its committees.
The Commission of Trade was set up in 1625 as the first special body convened to advise on colonial questions, mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies from the 1660s. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold, the government took its share through duties and taxes, with the remainder going to merchants in Britain. The government spent much of its revenue on a superb Royal Navy which protected the British colonies, the British Navy captured New Amsterdam in 1664. The colonies were captive markets for British industry, and the goal was to enrich the mother country, the prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. People fleeing persecution by King Charles I were responsible for settling most of New England, anonymous Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to map the future eastern seaboard of the U. S. from New York to Florida, as documented in the Cantino planisphere of 1502
J. D. Salinger
Jerome David J. D. Salinger was an American writer who is known for his widely-read novel, The Catcher in the Rye. Following his early success publishing short stories and Catcher in the Rye and he published his final original work in 1965 and gave his last interview in 1980. Salinger was raised in Manhattan and began writing stories while in secondary school. Several were published in Story magazine in the early 1940s before he serving in World War II. In 1948, his acclaimed story A Perfect Day for Bananafish appeared in The New Yorker magazine. In 1951, his novel The Catcher in the Rye was a popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential, the novel remains widely read and controversial, selling around 250,000 copies a year. The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public attention, Salinger became reclusive, publishing new work less frequently. His last published work, a novella entitled Hapworth 16,1924, in 1996, a small publisher announced a deal with Salinger to publish Hapworth 16,1924 in book form, but amid the ensuing publicity the release was indefinitely delayed.
Salinger died of natural causes on January 27,2010, at his home in Cornish, in November 2013, three unpublished stories by Salinger were briefly posted online. One of the stories, The Ocean Full of Bowling Balls, is said to be a prequel to The Catcher in the Rye, jerome David Salinger was born in New York City, on New Years Day,1919. His father, Sol Salinger, sold kosher cheese, and was from a Jewish family of Lithuanian descent, his father having been the rabbi for the Adath Jeshurun congregation in Louisville, Kentucky. Salingers mother, was born in Atlantic, Iowa, of Scottish and Irish descent, Salinger did not learn that his mother was not of Jewish ancestry until just after he celebrated his bar mitzvah. His only sibling was his older sister Doris, in youth, Salinger attended public schools on the West Side of Manhattan. Then in 1932, the moved to Park Avenue, and Salinger was enrolled at the McBurney School. At McBurney, he managed the team, wrote for the school newspaper. He showed a talent for drama, though his father opposed the idea of J. D. s becoming an actor.
Salinger had trouble fitting in at his new school and took measures to conform and his parents enrolled him at Valley Forge Military Academy in Wayne, Pennsylvania
The Great Gatsby
The story primarily concerns the young and mysterious millionaire Jay Gatsby and his quixotic passion and obsession for the beautiful former debutante Daisy Buchanan. Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924 and his editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was vague and persuaded the author to revise over the next winter. First published by Scribners in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly, in its first year, Fitzgerald died in 1940, believing himself to be a failure and his work forgotten. However, the experienced a revival during World War II. Today, The Great Gatsby is widely considered to be a literary classic, in 1998, the Modern Library editorial board voted it the 20th centurys best American novel and second best English-language novel of the same time period. Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its fictional narrative.
Fitzgerald educates his readers about the society of the Roaring Twenties by placing a timeless. Fitzgeralds visits to Long Islands north shore and his experience attending parties at mansions inspired The Great Gatsbys setting, there are a number of theories as to which mansion was the inspiration for the book. One possibility is Lands End, a notable Gold Coast Mansion where Fitzgerald may have attended a party, many of the events in Fitzgeralds early life are reflected throughout The Great Gatsby. Fitzgerald was a man from Minnesota, and like Nick, he was educated at an Ivy League school. Fitzgerald is similar to Jay Gatsby, in that he fell in love while stationed far from home in the military, Fitzgerald became a second lieutenant, and was stationed at Camp Sheridan, in Montgomery, Alabama. There he met and fell in love with a wild seventeen-year-old beauty named Zelda Sayre, Zelda finally agreed to marry him, but her preference for wealth and leisure led her to delay their wedding until he could prove a success.
Like Nick in The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald found this new lifestyle seductive and exciting, in many ways, The Great Gatsby represents Fitzgeralds attempt to confront his conflicting feelings about the Jazz Age. Like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love for a woman who symbolized everything he wanted, even as she led him toward everything he despised. In her book Careless People, Murder and the Invention of The Great Gatsby, based on her forensic search for clues, she asserts that the two victims in the Hall-Mills murder case inspired the characters who were murdered in The Great Gatsby. The main events of the novel take place in the summer of 1922, Nick Carraway, a Yale graduate and veteran of the Great War from the Midwest—who serves as the novels narrator—takes a job in New York as a bond salesman. Nick drives around the bay to East Egg for dinner at the home of his cousin, Daisy Fay Buchanan, and her husband and they introduce Nick to Jordan Baker, an attractive, cynical young golfer with whom Nick begins a romantic relationship.
She reveals to Nick that Tom has a mistress, Myrtle Wilson, who lives in the valley of ashes, not long after this revelation, Nick travels to New York City with Tom and Myrtle to an apartment Tom keeps for his affairs with Myrtle and others
Herman Melville was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period. His best known works include Typee, an account of his experiences in Polynesian life. His work was almost forgotten during his last thirty years and his writing draws on his experience at sea as a common sailor, exploration of literature and philosophy, and engagement in the contradictions of American society in a period of rapid change. Born in New York City as the child of a merchant in French dry goods, Melvilles formal education ended abruptly after his father died in 1832. Melville briefly became a schoolteacher before he took to sea in 1839 as a sailor on a merchant ship. In 1840 he signed aboard the whaler Acushnet for his first whaling voyage, after further adventures, he returned to Boston in 1844. His first book, Typee, a romanticized account of his life among Polynesians, became such a best-seller that he worked up a sequel. These successes encouraged him to marry Elizabeth Shaw, of a prominent Boston family and his first novel not based on his own experiences, Mardi, is a sea narrative that develops into a philosophical allegory, but was not well received.
Redburn, a story of life on a merchant ship, and his 1850 expose of harsh life aboard a Man-of-War, White-Jacket yielded warmer reviews, Moby-Dick was another commercial failure, published to mixed reviews. Melvilles career as a popular author effectively ended with the reception of Pierre. His Revolutionary War novel Israel Potter appeared in 1855, from 1853 to 1856, Melville published short fiction in magazines, most notably Bartleby, the Scrivener, The Encantadas, and Benito Cereno. These and three stories were collected in 1856 as The Piazza Tales. In 1857, he voyaged to England, where he reunited with Hawthorne for the first time since 1852, the Confidence-Man, was the last prose work he published during his lifetime. He moved to New York to take a position as Customs Inspector, battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War was his poetic reflection on the moral questions of the Civil War. In 1867 his oldest child, died at home from a self-inflicted gunshot, Clarel, A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, a metaphysical epic, appeared in 1876.
In 1886, his son, Stanwix and Melville retired. Melvilles death from disease in 1891 subdued a reviving interest in his work. The 1919 centennial of his became the starting point of the Melville Revival
History of the United States
The date of the start of the history of the United States is a subject of debate among historians. In recent decades American schools and universities typically have shifted back in time to more on the colonial period. Indigenous people lived in what is now the United States for thousands of years before European colonists began to arrive, mostly from England, the Spanish built small settlements in Florida and the Southwest, and the French along the Mississippi River and the Gulf Coast. By the 1770s, thirteen British colonies contained two and a million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. After the end of the French and Indian Wars in the 1760s, Tax resistance, especially the Boston Tea Party, led to punitive laws by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. American Patriots adhered to an ideology called republicanism that emphasized civic duty, virtue. Armed conflict began in 1775 as Patriots drove the royal officials out of every colony and assembled in mass meetings, in 1776, the Second Continental Congress declared that there was a new, independent nation, the United States of America, not just a collection of disparate colonies.
With large-scale military and financial support from France and the leadership of General George Washington. The peace treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River, the central government established by the Articles of Confederation proved ineffectual at providing stability, as it had no authority to collect taxes and had no executive officer. Congress called a convention to meet secretly in Philadelphia in 1787 and it wrote a new Constitution, which was adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights, with Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief political and financial adviser, a strong central government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, a second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812. Encouraged by the notion of Manifest Destiny, federal territory expanded all the way to the Pacific, the U. S. always was large in terms of area, but its population was small, only 4 million in 1790.
Population growth was rapid, reaching 7.2 million in 1810,32 million in 1860,76 million in 1900,132 million in 1940, Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was even faster. However, compared to European powers, the military strength was relatively limited in peacetime before 1940. The expansion was driven by a quest for land for yeoman farmers. The expansion of slavery was increasingly controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, the 1860 presidential election of Republican Abraham Lincoln was on a platform of ending the expansion of slavery and putting it on a path to extinction. Seven cotton-based deep South slave states seceded and founded the Confederacy months before Lincolns inauguration, No nation ever recognized the Confederacy, but it opened the war by attacking Fort Sumter in 1861
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Harriet Elisabeth Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and author. She came from the Beecher family, a religious family. It depicts the life for African Americans under slavery. It reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential in the United States and it energized anti-slavery forces in the American North, while provoking widespread anger in the South. She wrote 30 books, including novels, three memoirs, and collections of articles and letters. She was influential for both her writings and her public stands on issues of the day. Harriet Elisabeth Beecher was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, on June 14,1811 and she was the seventh of 13 children born to outspoken Calvinist preacher Lyman Beecher and Roxana, a deeply religious woman who died when Stowe was only five years old. Roxanas maternal grandfather was General Andrew Ward of the Revolutionary War, among her classmates was Sarah P. Willis, who wrote under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. In 1832, at the age of 21, Harriet Beecher moved to Cincinnati, Ohio to join her father, who had become the president of Lane Theological Seminary.
There, she joined the Semi-Colon Club, a literary salon and social club whose members included the Beecher sisters, Caroline Lee Hentz, Salmon P. Chase, Emily Blackwell. Areas of the city had been wrecked in the Cincinnati riots of 1829, Beecher met a number of African Americans who had suffered in those attacks, and their experience contributed to her writing about slavery. Riots took place again in 1836 and 1841, driven by native-born anti-abolitionists and it was in the literary club that she met Calvin Ellis Stowe, a widower who was a professor at the seminary. The two married on January 6,1836 and he was an ardent critic of slavery, and the Stowes supported the Underground Railroad, temporarily housing several fugitive slaves in their home. Most slaves continued north to freedom in Canada. The Stowes had seven children together, including twin daughters, in 1850, Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law, prohibiting assistance to fugitives and strengthening sanctions even in free states. At the time, Stowe had moved with her family to Brunswick and their home near the campus is protected as a national historic resource in her honor.
Stowe claimed to have a vision of a slave during a communion service at the college chapel. However, what more likely allowed her to empathize with slaves was the loss of her eighteen-month-old son and she even stated the following, Having experienced losing someone so close to me, I can sympathize with all the poor, powerless slaves at the unjust auctions
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in 1960. It was immediately successful, winning the Pulitzer Prize, and has become a classic of modern American literature. The plot and characters are based on Lees observations of her family, her neighbors and an event that occurred near her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama in 1936. The novel is renowned for its warmth and humor, despite dealing with the issues of rape. The narrators father, Atticus Finch, has served as a hero for many readers. As a Southern Gothic novel and a Bildungsroman, the themes of To Kill a Mockingbird involve racial injustice. Scholars have noted that Lee addresses issues of class, compassion, the book is widely taught in schools in the United States with lessons that emphasize tolerance and decry prejudice. Despite its themes, To Kill a Mockingbird has been subject to campaigns for removal from public classrooms, reaction to the novel varied widely upon publication. Despite the number of sold and its widespread use in education.
Author Mary McDonough Murphy, who collected individual impressions of To Kill a Mockingbird by several authors and public figures, in 2006, British librarians ranked the book ahead of the Bible as one every adult should read before they die. It was adapted into an Oscar-winning film in 1962 by director Robert Mulligan, since 1990, a play based on the novel has been performed annually in Harper Lees hometown. To Kill a Mockingbird was Lees only published book until Go Set a Watchman, Lee continued to respond to her works impact until her death in February 2016, although she had refused any personal publicity for herself or the novel since 1964. Born in 1926, Harper Lee grew up in the Southern town of Monroeville and she attended Huntingdon College in Montgomery, and studied law at the University of Alabama. While attending college, she wrote for literary magazines, Huntress at Huntingdon. At both colleges, she wrote stories and other works about racial injustice, a rarely mentioned topic on such campuses at the time.
Hoping to be published, Lee presented her writing in 1957 to a literary agent recommended by Capote, who bought the manuscript, advised her to quit the airline and concentrate on writing. Donations from friends allowed her to write uninterrupted for a year, “he spark of the true writer flashed in every line, ” she would recount in a corporate history of Lippincott. But as Hohoff saw it, the manuscript was by no means fit for publication
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. Among his novels are The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter and he became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise, the short story brought international attention and was even translated into classic Greek. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of financial setbacks. He chose to pay all his creditors in full, even though he had no legal responsibility to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halleys Comet, and he predicted that he would go out with it as well and he was lauded as the greatest American humorist of his age, and William Faulkner called him the father of American literature.
His parents met when his father moved to Missouri, and they were married in 1823, Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood, Orion and Pamela and his sister Margaret died when Twain was three, and his brother Benjamin died three years later. His brother Pleasant died at six months of age, slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, but he died of pneumonia in 1847, the next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printers apprentice. In 1851, he working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal. He educated himself in libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating there was but one permanent ambition among his comrades. Pilot was the grandest position of all, the pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay.
As Twain describes it, the pilots prestige exceeded that of the captain, bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans and St. Louis for $500, payable out of Twains first wages after graduating. It was more than two years before he received his pilots license, piloting gave him his pen name from mark twain, the leadsmans cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, which was safe water for a steamboat