Great Apostasy

The Great Apostasy is a concept within Christianity, identifiable at least from the time of Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation, to describe a perception that the early apostolic Church has fallen away from the original faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles. Protestants used the term to describe the perceived fallen state of traditional Christianity the Roman Catholic Church, because they claim it changed the doctrines of the early church and allowed traditional Greco-Roman culture into the church on its own perception of authority; because it made these changes using claims of tradition and not from scripture, the Church -- in the opinion of those adhering to this concept -- has fallen into apostasy. A major thread of this perception is the suggestion that, to attract and convert people to Christianity, the church in Rome incorporated pagan beliefs and practices within the Christian religion Graeco-Roman rituals and festivals. For example, Easter has been described as a pagan substitute for the Jewish Passover, although neither Jesus nor his Apostles enjoined the keeping of this or any other festival.

The term is derived from the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, in which the Apostle Paul informs the Christians of Thessalonica that a great apostasy must occur before the return of Christ, when "the man of sin is revealed, the son of destruction". The Catholic Church, Anglican Church and Oriental Orthodox Churches have interpreted this chapter as referring to a future falling-away, during the reign of the Antichrist at the end of times; some modern scholars believe that the Church in the early stages picked up pagan oral teachings from Palestinian and Hellenistic sources, which formed the basis of a secret oral tradition, which in the 4th century came to be called the disciplina arcani. Mainstream theologians believe it contained liturgical details and certain other pagan traditions which remain a part of some branches of mainstream Christianity. Important esoteric influences on the church were the Christian theologians Clement of Alexandria and Origen, the main figures of the Catechetical School of Alexandria.

Protestants and evangelical Christians have formally taught that the Bishop of Rome, along with the Catholic Church abused the original teachings and practices of the primitive or original Christian Church. They hold that it brought in pagan festivals and rites, as well as the worship of Mary, as well as doctrines such as Purgatory and Hell which were not of the Early Church, they teach that the Papacy became corrupted as it strove to attain great dominion and authority, both civil and ecclesiastical. For example, they say, it reinstated the pagan ceremonies and obligations of the Collegium Pontificum and the position of Pontifex Maximus and created Christian religious orders to replace the ancient Roman ones such as the Vestal Virgins and the flamines, it brought into the Church the ancient pagan festivals and made them'Holy Days', allowed the celebration of the Pasch or Passover to continue till the following Sunday, the day of the ancient pagan day of Easter so Christians could celebrate the Spring Equinox festival as they had done before.

It used Easter as a tool to bring more pagans into the church, but instead of having them shed their pagan ways and ceremonies, it allowed them into the Church. Catholics as well as the Reformers pointed to the office of the Papacy as responsible for the fallen state of the church as they considered the conduct of those in power had grown so spiritually or morally corrupt to the point that it was called the Antichrist power by those within as well as outside of the church. Following the Protestant Reformation, the denominations spawned from the Reformation have considered their own teachings to be restorative in nature, returning to the basic tenets of Biblical Christianity and sola scriptura; these views are taught in the modern descendant denominations and these doctrinal stances account for their continuing separation from the Catholic Church. Although Protestant Christianity, as a whole, rejects the overall concept that the original church was thrown into complete anarchy and chaos through Catholicism, it does assert that there was gross abuse of Biblical authority and a wandering from clear Biblical teachings prior to the Reformation.

Some Christian groups see themselves as uniquely restoring original Christendom. Such groups use the term "Great Apostasy" in a sweeping way, over all of Christendom, beyond themselves; such groups tend to differ on when the Great Apostasy took place, what the exact errors or changes were. Such groups claim that true Christianity was lost until it was disclosed again in them; the term "Great Apostasy" appears to have been coined in this narrower, technical sense, by "Restorationists". The term may sometimes be used in this sense by other groups claiming their unique position as representing Christianity. Many Protestant reformers, including Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Cotton Mather, felt the early church had been led into apostasy by the Papacy and identified it as the Antichrist; the reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin and others disagreed with the papacy's claim of temporal power over all secular governments and the autocratic character of the papal office and challenged papal authority as it was a corruption from the early church and questioned the Catholic Church's ab


Negoto was a Japanese electronic rock band from Chiba Prefecture. Negoto formed in 2007. In 2008, the band won a special jury prize at the 1st Senkō riot, a music festival features teen bands in Japan; the band debuted in 2010. They are best known for the 2010 hit song "Loop" reached number 3 in Billboard Japan Hot 100, the 2011 hit song "Charon" reached number 6 in Billboard Japan Hot 100 and the 2012 hit song "sharp ♯" reached number 11 in Billboard Japan Hot 100; the band's other anime theme contributions include Galilei Donna, Shimajirou to Kujira no Uta, Gintama°. On December 28, 2018, Negoto published a message on their official website stating that they will disband on July 20, 2019, they will embark on their last tour on May 28 and end on July 20. Sachiko Aoyama – vocals, keyboards Mizuki Masuda – guitar Yū Fujisaki – bass guitar Sayako Sawamura – drums Official website Sony Music official artist page

Lung counter

A Lung counter is a system consisting of a radiation detector, or detectors, associated electronics, used to measure radiation emitted from radioactive material, inhaled by a person and is sufficiently insoluble as to remain in the lung for weeks, months, or years. Such a system is housed in a low background counting chamber whose thick walls will be made of low-background steel and will be lined with ~1 cm of lead perhaps thin layers of cadmium, or tin, with a final layer of copper; the purpose of the lead and copper is to reduce the background in the low energy region of a gamma spectrum As a lung counter is measuring radioactive materials that emit low energy gamma rays or x-rays, the phantom used to calibrate the system must be anthropometric. An example of such a phantom is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom. Bomab