Mohawk Valley region
The Mohawk Valley region of the U. S. state of New York is the area surrounding the Mohawk River, sandwiched between the Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains. As of the 2010 United States Census, the region's counties have a combined population of 622,133 people. In addition to the Mohawk River valley, the region contains portions of other major watersheds such as the Susquehanna River; the region is a suburban and rural area surrounding the industrialized cities of Schenectady and Rome, along with other smaller commercial centers. The 5,882 square miles area is an important agricultural center and encompasses the forested wilderness areas just to the north that are part of New York's Adirondack Park; the Mohawk Valley is a natural passageway connecting the Atlantic Ocean, by way of the Hudson Valley with the interior of North America. Native American Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy lived in the region, in the 17th century immigrants of Dutch, the 18th century German, Scottish settled the area, joined by Italians following the rapid industrialization of the mid-19th century.
During the 18th Century, the Mohawk Valley was a frontier of great political and economic importance. Colonists, such as Phillip Schuyler, Nicholas Herkimer, William Johnson, trading with the Iroquois set the stage for commercial and military competition between European nations, leading to the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution. 100 battles of the American Revolution were fought in New York State, including the Battle of Oriskany and defense of Fort Stanwix. A series of raids against valley residents took place during the war; the Erie Canal was completed in 1825 as the first commercial connection between the American East and West. During the French and Indian War, the Mohawk Valley was of prime strategic importance. In addition, many settlements of the Mohawk, Britain's crucial Indian ally at the time of the war, were located in or near the valley. At the beginning of the war, the major British stronghold in the Mohawk corridor was Fort Oswego, located on Lake Ontario; the French captured and destroyed the fort after a short siege in 1756, the Mohawk Valley lay open to French advance as a result.
Although the French did not directly exploit this avenue of attack, its impact swayed some of the Iroquois tribes to the French side. The original inhabitants of common day Mohawk Valley are traced back as far as 10,000 plus years and included Algonquian people that relocated from the newly established Fort Orange Dutch trading post region as early as 1624, otherwise as the name implies, the inhabitants were and remained Mohawks; the name Mohawk Valley had its origins in the time period of 1614 and 1624-25 following the settlement of Dutch traders who established a post among the region of the Mohawk of Mohawk Valley as the Mohawk had become alliances and targets of the Indian Wars. The Mohawks of Mohawk Valley call themselves Kanien'keha'ka, "People of the Flint" in part due to their creation story of a powerful flinted arrow. Among other things, the traditional use of Mohawk Valley flint as Toolmaking Flint is only one attribution to the Mohawk Valley People of the Flint name. Schenectady Montgomery Fulton Herkimer Oneida OtsegoAlso, Schoharie County is sometimes considered to be part of the Mohawk Valley because the Schoharie Creek located in Schoharie County, is a major tributary that empties into the Mohawk River at Fort Hunter in Montgomery County.
Furthermore, the northern border of Schoharie County with Montgomery County is close to the Mohawk River. Montgomery CountyAmsterdam Canajoharie Fonda Fort Plain Fultonville Nelliston Palatine Bridge St. JohnsvilleFulton CountyGloversville JohnstownHerkimer CountyFrankfort Herkimer Ilion Little Falls MohawkOneida CountySherrill Rome UticaOtsego CountyCooperstown OneontaSchenectady CountyRotterdam SchenectadySchoharie CountyMiddleburgh Schoharie Cobleskill Mohawk Valley formula Burning of the Valleys Military Association Fort Johnson in the Mohawk Valley Mohawk Valley Heritage Corridor Commission For a fictional account of Mohawk prowess, see Moss, Robert; the Interpreter. New York City, NY: Tom Doherty. Pp. 53–65, 69, 94–96. ISBN 0-312-85739-X. Mohawk Valley is an important site in the video game Assassin's Creed III published by Ubisoft; the game takes place during the Revolutionary War era and features an assassin tasked with playing a role in the history of early America. The Mohawk Valley has an official preliminary to Miss New York and Miss America, Miss Mohawk Valley Scholarship Organization Mohawk Valley Views Video on YouTube
Schunemunk Mountain is the highest mountain in Orange County, New York. The 1,664-foot summit is located in the town of Blooming Grove, with other portions in Cornwall and Woodbury; the community of Mountain Lodge Park is built up its western slope. The mountain is a popular recreational resource in the area. While only the northeastern quadrant and summit are part of the created Schunnemunk State Park, some popular hiking trails and access routes have long crossed the owned lands elsewhere on the mountain. Conservationists hope that the state will be able to acquire the whole mountain. Schunemunk is a long ridge running northeast-southwest between Smith's Clove and Salisbury Mills. Along the more northerly of its length, the mountain has a double crest, with Barton Swamp lying between the two ridges; the summit lies on the more southeasterly ridge. Barton Swamp is drained by Perry Creek on Baby Brook on the north. Much of the eastern side of the mountain is drained by Dark Hollow Brook; these are part of the Moodna Creek watershed, which encompasses all but the southeastern tip of the mountain.
Moodna Creek drains into the Hudson River. The southeastern part of the mountain drains into the watershed of the Ramapo River. About midway along its length, on the southeastern side of the mountain, is a spur known as High Knob or High Point, which overlooks Woodbury, New York. To the northwest, across a clove, lies Woodcock Mountain or Woodcock Hill, which reaches 1,030 feet; the New York State Thruway runs alongside Schunemunk's eastern side for the length of the mountain just north of its Harriman exit. In addition to Mountain Lodge Park, two other hamlets in the area are associated with the mountain: Mountainville to the northeast and Central Valley to the southeast. Due to its height and length, Schunemunk can be seen from much of the rest of Orange County and some other nearby areas. Schunemunk is geologically dissimilar from nearby mountains in the Hudson Highlands, being formed from sedimentary deposits including conglomerate. Faulting created the long cleft, now Barton Swamp; the name "Schunemunk" means "excellent fireplace" in Lenape, the Lenni Lenape had a village on the northern tip of the mountain.
During the American Revolution, the mountain was the site of skirmishing between Tory and Patriot irregulars. The mountain is under increasing development pressure, but the northern part has become Schunnemunk State Park, a small portion of the southern part forms Woodbury Park; the Long Path ascends the mountain by way of High Knob, crosses Perry Creek. When it reaches the Jessup and Highland trails it joins them to Gonzaga Park; the Highlands Trail makes use of several trails on the mountain, ascending the eastern side of the mountain along the Sweet Clover Trail, following the more southeasterly ridge and crossing the summit by way of the Jessup Trail, which continues along the crest to the southwestern tip of the mountain, ending in Gonzaga Park. The Dark Hollow, Barton Swamp, Western Ridge, Otterkill trails are located on the mountain. While Schunemunk, like many of the lesser mountains of the American East Coast, is devoid of the usual mountaineering hazards, one fatality has occurred in the recent past.
On May 22, 2002, a group of hikers was bushwhacking on a boulder field on the southeastern side of the mountain, above Dark Hollow Brook. Styranovski had passed the boulder field and gone back to help some of his fellow hikers who were less steady at about noon on May 22, state police said; the field was part of a pre-existing rock slide where boulders came to rest after falling down a steeper slope, said Edward Goodell, the executive director of the New York-New Jersey Trail Conference, an organization that helps maintain the area’s hiking paths. A large boulder came loose from above and hit Styranovski and four others, police said; the informal hiking group – known as the Wednesday Hikers – conducts weekly outings to the Appalachian Mountains and other regional hiking trails, Goodell said. As they hike they discuss their plans for the next week’s hikes, he said. Although the ages and experience levels of the members vary, they are retired people who are skilled hikers, he said. “They are a great group of people,” Goodell said.
“They love nature and they get out there and they have had incident-free hikes for about 30 years.” The mistake these hikers made was to get spread out with some hikers above others on a field of loose rock so that if a rock was knocked loose it was able to gain enough momentum to injure. Had they all been at the same level a loose rock would be unlikely to hurt someone
Harrisburg is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, the county seat of Dauphin County. With a population of 49,192, it is the 15th largest city in the Commonwealth, it lies on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, 107 miles west of Philadelphia. Harrisburg is the anchor of the Susquehanna Valley metropolitan area, which had a 2017 estimated population of 571,903, making it the fourth most populous in Pennsylvania and 96th most populous in the United States. Harrisburg played a notable role in American history during the Westward Migration, the American Civil War, the Industrial Revolution. During part of the 19th century, the building of the Pennsylvania Canal and the Pennsylvania Railroad allowed Harrisburg to become one of the most industrialized cities in the Northeastern United States; the U. S. Navy ship USS Harrisburg, which served from 1918 to 1919 at the end of World War I, was named in honor of the city. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the city's economic fortunes fluctuated with its major industries consisting of government, heavy manufacturing and food services.
The Pennsylvania Farm Show, the largest free indoor agriculture exposition in the United States, was first held in Harrisburg in 1917 and has been held there every early-to-mid January since then. Harrisburg hosts an annual outdoor sports show, the largest of its kind in North America, an auto show, which features a large static display of new as well as classic cars and is renowned nationwide, Motorama, a two-day event consisting of a car show, motocross racing, remote control car racing, more. Harrisburg is known for the Three Mile Island accident, which occurred on March 28, 1979, near Middletown. In 2010 Forbes rated Harrisburg as the second best place in the U. S. to raise a family. Despite the city's recent financial troubles, in 2010 The Daily Beast website ranked 20 metropolitan areas across the country as being recession-proof, the Harrisburg region landed at No. 7. The financial stability of the region is in part due to the high concentration of state and federal government agencies.
Harrisburg's site along the Susquehanna River is thought to have been inhabited by Native Americans as early as 3000 BC. Known to the Native Americans as "Peixtin", or "Paxtang", the area was an important resting place and crossroads for Native American traders, as the trails leading from the Delaware to the Ohio rivers, from the Potomac to the Upper Susquehanna intersected there; the first European contact with Native Americans in Pennsylvania was made by the Englishman, Captain John Smith, who journeyed from Virginia up the Susquehanna River in 1608 and visited with the Susquehanna tribe. In 1719, John Harris, Sr. an English trader, settled here and 14 years secured grants of 800 acres in this vicinity. In 1785, John Harris, Jr. made plans to lay out a town on his father's land, which he named Harrisburg. In the spring of 1785, the town was formally surveyed by William Maclay, a son-in-law of John Harris, Sr. In 1791, Harrisburg became incorporated, in October 1812 it was named the Pennsylvania state capital, which it has remained since.
The assembling here of the sectional Harrisburg Convention in 1827 led to the passage of the high protective-tariff bill of 1828. In 1839, Harrison and Tyler were nominated for President of the United States at the first national convention of the Whig Party of the United States, held in Harrisburg. Before Harrisburg gained its first industries, it was a scenic, pastoral town, typical of most of the day: compact and surrounded by farmland. In 1822, the impressive brick capitol was completed for $200,000, it was Harrisburg's strategic location. It was settled as a trading post in 1719 at a location important to Westward expansion; the importance of the location was. The Susquehanna River flowed west to east at this location, providing a route for boat traffic from the east; the head of navigation was a short distance northwest of the town, where the river flowed through the pass. Persons arriving from the east by boat had to exit at Harrisburg and prepare for an overland journey westward through the mountain pass.
Harrisburg assumed importance as a provisioning stop at this point where westward bound pioneers transitioned from river travel to overland travel. It was because of its strategic location that the state legislature selected the small town of Harrisburg to become the state capital in 1812; the grandeur of the Colonial Revival capitol dominated the quaint town. The streets were orderly and platted in grid pattern; the Pennsylvania Canal was coursed the length of the town. The residential houses were situated on only a few city blocks stretching southward from the capitol, they were one story. No factories were present but there were blacksmith shops and other businesses. During the American Civil War, Harrisburg was a significant training center for the Union Army, with tens of thousands of troops passing through Camp Curtin, it was a major rail center for the Union and a vital link between the Atlantic coast and the Midwest, with several railroads running through the city and spanning the Susquehanna River.
As a result of this importance, it was a target of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during its two invasions; the first time during the 1862 Maryland Campaign, when Lee planned to capture the city after taking Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, but was prevented from d
The Wallkill River, a tributary of the Hudson, drains Lake Mohawk in Sparta, New Jersey, flowing from there northeasterly 88.3 miles to Rondout Creek in New York, just downstream of Sturgeon Pool, near Rosendale, with the combined flows reaching the Hudson at Kingston. The river is unusual because it flows north between two major south-flowing rivers, the Hudson and the Delaware River, it has the unusual distinction of being a river that drains into a creek, due to being impounded shortly before the Rondout confluence into a small body of water called Sturgeon Pool near Rifton, what reaches the Rondout from there is the lesser flow. The broad valley of the Wallkill River nestles between the main Appalachian Mountains and the New York-New Jersey Highlands, supporting much local agriculture, it is a part of the Great Appalachian Valley. In the beginning of its course it drains the eastern section of Sussex County, New Jersey flows through the Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge at the New Jersey/New York state line.
Most of the New Jersey portion is navigable by canoe. It is diverted as it flows through the rich Black Dirt Region of Warwick; until drainage projects were built here, this region was known as the Drowned Lands. After lending its name to the town of Wallkill, in northern Orange County, it begins to regain its volume as it passes by Orange County Airport and through Walden, where dams have been built in the past to provide power for local industry; the largest, in Walden, still is used by Gas today. After serving as the line between Orange and Ulster counties, it passes by Wallkill, the second community to take its name from the river, the striking scenery of the Shawangunk Ridge is visible as it winds past the Ulster County Fairgrounds and New Paltz, where its floodplain becomes more noticeable, on the way to its mouth at the Rondout; the Wallkill tends to cross political borders much more than it forms them, at least in New York. Other than the brief segment that follows the Orange-Ulster line, there is only southern Orange County, where it divides the towns of Minisink and Wallkill on its west from Warwick and Goshen to the east.
Two villages and New Paltz, are bounded by the river in part. In addition to the town and hamlet in New York, two school districts take their name from the river: Wallkill Valley Regional School District, in New Jersey and Wallkill Central in New York. Native Americans knew the river as Twischsawkin. At least three prehistoric rock shelters have been found in archaeological digs in the region. For the indigenous peoples, it was not only important for its arable land but for its geological resources; the river and its valley are abundant in flint and chert, from which they made spear points and arrowheads. European settlers of the region named it after New Paltz; when it was clear that the river continued well beyond the original New Paltz patent, it took after the Waal river in their native Netherlands. They worked their way down it from the Hudson Valley in the 17th century, were followed by the British after the colony changed hands. Settlers recognized the agricultural possibilities of the Drowned Lands as soon as they moved in.
Efforts to divert the river and create more farmland appear to have begun as early as 1760. It would take 66 years, before a canal succeeded in draining the land and making enough available to profitably cultivate. By that time industry was beginning to harness the river, too, as Jacob Walden established his mill in the village downriver that would take his name. Millers in the Black Dirt Region clashed with farmers in what were known as the Muskrat and Beaver Wars for decades afterwards, since the millers needed the water to flow while the farmers depended on keeping it diverted. In 1871 the farmers won. What industry there was would be confined to Walden where the railroad ran nearby. In Ulster, vacationers frequented the Springtown neighborhood of New Paltz during the late 19th to early 20th century, making use of the Wallkill for recreation. Many of the larger older homes still on Springtown Road were boarding houses for these people escaping from the summer heat to the cool banks of the Wallkill River.
In August 1955, the river experienced record-breaking flooding when hurricanes Connie and Diane brought heavy rainfall to the region. Heavy flooding of the river and its smaller tributaries from the April 2007 nor'easter forced a number of road closures and evacuations of homes in its flood plain in central Orange County. There have been several efforts in the late early 21st centuries to clean up the river. At the turn of the century, a Wallkill River Task Force was formed, with representatives from both Ulster and Orange counties. From the'Acknowledgements' of the "Wallkill River Watershed Conservation and Management Plan": "A crucial development in the history of Wallkill Watershed protection efforts was the scheduling of a Wallkill River conference in 1998. Held at Orange County Community College and organized by the Orange County Land Trust, this conference could be considered the birth of the Wallkill River Task Force – a ‘project’ of the OCLT. While some focus on this Watershed was occurring amongst government agencies, the WRTF created a non-governmental group that sought the volunteer participation of farmers, business people and other ‘ordinary’ citizens, in addition to government and conservation agency employees, to provide for broad-based leadership in protecting the Wallkill River and its watershed lands."
One result of that
The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U. S. state of Vermont. The range runs south to north and extends 250 miles from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada; the part of the same range, in Massachusetts and Connecticut is known as The Berkshires or the Berkshire Hills and the Quebec portion is called the Sutton Mountains, or Monts Sutton in French. All mountains in Vermont are referred to as the "Green Mountains". However, other ranges within Vermont, including the Taconics—in southwestern Vermont's extremity—and the Northeastern Highlands, are not geologically part of the Green Mountains; the best-known mountains—for reasons such as high elevation, ease of public access by road or trail, or with ski resorts or towns nearby—in the range include: Mount Mansfield, 4,393 feet, the highest point in Vermont Killington Peak, 4,241 feet Mount Ellen, 4,083 feet Camel's Hump, 4,083 feet Mount Abraham, 4,017 feet Pico Peak, 3,957 feet Stratton Mountain, 3,940 feet, the mountain at which the initial ideas of both the Long Trail and the Appalachian Trail were born Jay Peak, 3,862 feet, receives the most snowfall on average in the eastern United States.
Bread Loaf Mountain, 3,835 feet Mount Wilson, 3,780 feet Glastenbury Mountain, 3,748 feet The Green Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, a range that stretches from Quebec in the north to Alabama in the south. The Green Mountains are part of the New England/Acadian forests ecoregion. Three peaks—Mount Mansfield, Camel's Hump, Mount Abraham—support alpine vegetation; some of the mountains are developed for skiing and other snow-related activities. Others have hiking trails for use in summer. Mansfield, Killington and Ellen have downhill ski resorts on their slopes. All of the major peaks are traversed by the Long Trail, a wilderness hiking trail that runs from the southern to northern borders of the state and is overlapped by the Appalachian Trail for 1⁄3 of its length; the Vermont Republic known as the Green Mountain Republic, existed from 1777 to 1791, at which time Vermont became the 14th state. Vermont not only takes its state nickname from the mountains, it is named after them.
The French Monts Verts or Verts Monts is translated as "Green Mountains". This name was suggested in 1777 by Dr. Thomas Young, an American revolutionary and Boston Tea Party participant; the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College is referred to as UVM, after the Latin Universitas Viridis Montis. The Green Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger New England province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. Lemon Fair runs through the towns of Orwell, Shoreham and Cornwall, before flowing into Otter Creek; the story is that its name derives from early English-speaking settlers' phonetic approximation of'Les Monts Vert'. Green Mountain National Forest Green Mountain Boys—paramilitary infantry led by Ethan Allen that took Fort Ticonderoga during the American Revolution Green Mountain Club Griffith Lake U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Green Mountains "Green Mountains"; the New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.
The Richelieu River rises at Lake Champlain, from which it flows to the north in the province of Quebec and empties into the St. Lawrence river, it was known as the Iroquois River and the Chambly River. This river was a key route of water transport for cross-border trade between Canada and the United States, until the arrival of the railway in the mid-19th century; because of its strategic position between New France and New England, several military fortifications were erected on the course of the river. It served as a key pathway for several military tours and was the scene of several battles between the end of the 17th and early 19th centuries, first between the French and the Iroquois between the French and the English, during the regime of the New France and between the English and the Americans after 1760; the Richelieu River has a drainage basin of 23,720 square kilometres – including those of Lake Champlain 19,925 km2 and Missisquoi Bay. Of this, 19,600 km2 are in the United States, originating in the western slopes of the Green Mountains and the eastern slopes of the Adirondack Mountains of New York State.
The Champlain Valley makes up most of the drainage basin. With a length of 124 km, the Richelieu River takes its source at the north end of Lake Champlain on the border between Canada and the United States; the river flows through many towns: Lacolle, Île aux Noix, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Beloeil, Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu, Saint-Ours and Sorel-Tracy where the river empties into the Saint Lawrence River, around 40 km northeast of Montreal and southwest of Quebec City. The Richelieu River is the largest tributary of the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River and drains a large area of southern Quebec; the Quebec portion of the watershed includes 18 lakes and ponds, as well as forty rivers and tributary streams of the Richelieu. The main Richelieu tributaries are rivers: South Huron and Lacolle; the river's mean discharge is 330 cubic metres per second. Nearly 340,000 people across eight Regional county municipalities and 65 municipalities, live in the Quebec portion of the watershed of the river.
The population density is high compared to that of most other regions of the province of Quebec. Just over 70% of this area is used for agricultural purposes. With the opening of the Chambly Canal in 1843, navigation became possible on the Richelieu between the Saint Lawrence River and Lake Champlain. At the southern end of the lake, the Champlain Canal allows for navigation to the Hudson River and, the city of New York, where the river flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Beloeil, Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Sorel-Tracy are important communities on its route; the average slope of the Richelieu River is 0.19 metres per kilometre, but 24 metres in elevation between Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Chambly for an average flow of 330 cubic metres per second. By convention, the Richelieu is divided into three main sections: The Haut-Richelieu, it is characterized by a low drop. With a width of about 1.5 km at its southern end, it becomes narrow. It passes through the city of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, which now includes Saint-Luc.
The Chambly Canal. Due to its significant drop in this area – 25 m over 12 km – the river has many rapids; the channel consists of nine locks and a length of nearly 19 km, allowing boats to navigate past the rapids. In Chambly, the river forms the Chambly Basin, a popular area for nautical activities; the Bas-Richelieu. In this section, the river passes the cities of Otterburn Park, Mont-Saint-Hilaire and municipalities McMasterville, Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu and Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu. In Saint-Ours, the river is again characterized by a sudden drop before emptying into the Saint Lawrence River]] at Sorel-Tracy, southwest of Lake Saint-Pierre. Several river islands are along the route of the Richelieu River. Arguably the most famous, Île aux Noix is in the Haut-Richelieu and houses Fort Lennox, considered a national historic site of Canada. Downstream, the Sainte-Thérèse Island near Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, is the largest island on the Richelieu. Agricultural, it is now residential, it previously housed the Fort Sainte Thérèse, built in 1665, but abandoned at the end of the 18th century and now disappeared.
The Richelieu is one of three rivers flowing from Quebec south to north, the other two being the Châteauguay and Chaudière. Ice jams can form in the spring with the melting of ice in the south while the north is still frozen, causing floods. L'Acadie River, 82 km Mouth: Carignan. South River, 39.1 km. Mouth: Henryville. Amyot River, 11.7 km. Mouth: Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu. Lacolle River, 24 km. Mouth: Lacolle. Huron River, 33 km. Mouth: Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu. Iroquois River, 10.1 km. Mouth: Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. Bernier River, 12.9 km