Great Church

The term "Great Church" is a term of the historiography of early Christianity describing its rapid growth and structural development 180–313 AD and its claim to represent Christianity within the Roman Empire. The term is associated with the Roman Catholic account of the history of Christian theology, but is used by non-Catholic historians; the "epoch of the Great Church" is counted as beginning around the end of the second century when, despite the persecution of Christians, the religion became established numerically and organizationally becoming the state church of the Roman Empire in 380. However, the Church of East and Oriental Orthodoxy parted ways at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, both due to Christological differences. In contrast, in modern Catholic usage, the "Great Church" broadly means the "one, holy and apostolic" unity of the Catholic Church - continuing in authority from the apostles to today - and all bishops who remained in fellowship with the Pope; the sees of Rome and Constantinople, both applying the Chalcedonian Definition, remained in full communion throughout the First seven ecumenical councils and until the East–West Schism.

The groups from the Church of East, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Eastern Orthodox Church that returned to full communion with Rome from the 16th century onwards, came to termed as the Eastern Catholic churches. Cunningham, separately and Greer state that Irenaeus's statement in Against Heresies Chapter X 1–2 is the first recorded reference to the "Great Church" as the existence of a worldwide Christian church with a core set of shared beliefs. Irenaeus states: The Church, though dispersed through the whole world to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith:... As I have observed, the Church, having received this preaching and this faith, although scattered throughout the whole world, yet, as if occupying but one house preserves it.... For the churches which have been planted in Germany do not believe or hand down anything different, nor do those in Spain, nor those in Gaul, nor those in the East, nor those in Egypt, nor those in Libya, nor those which have been established in the central regions of the world.

But as the son, that creature of God, is one and the same throughout the whole world, so the preaching of the truth shineth everywhere, enlightens all men that are willing to come to a knowledge of the truth. Cunningham states. First, that Irenaeus distinguished the Church singular from "the churches" plural, more Irenaeus holds that only in the larger singular Church does one find the truth handed down by the apostles of Christ. At the beginning of the 3rd century the Great Church that Irenaeus and Celsus had referred to had spread across a significant portion of the world, with most of its members living in cities; the growth was less than uniform across the world. The Chronicle of Arbela stated that in 225 AD, there were 20 bishops in all of Persia, while at the same time, surrounding areas of Rome had over 60 bishops, but the Great Church of the 3rd century was not monolithic, consisting of a network of churches connected across cultural zones by lines of communication which at times included personal relationships.

The Great Church grew in the 2nd century and entered the 3rd century in two empires: the Roman and the Persian, with the network of bishops acting as the cohesive element across cultural zones. In 313, the Edict of Milan ended the persecution of Christians, by 380 the Great Church had gathered enough followers to become the State church of the Roman Empire by virtue of the Edict of Thessalonica. Justin Martyr wrote that when Marcion was excommunicated from the fellowship of the "Great Church" in 144 AD, he had to return the funds he had gathered. Towards the end of the 2nd century, Irenaeus wrote about the heretical office holders in the "Great Church". In Contra Celsum 5.61 Church Father Origen mentions Celsus' late 2nd century use of the terms "church of the multitudes" or "great church" to refer to the emerging consensus traditions among Christians at the time, as Christianity was taking shape. In the 4th century, as Saint Augustine commented on Psalm XXII, he interpreted the term to mean the whole world, writing: "The great Church, what is it?

Is a scanty portion of the earth the great Church? The great Church means the whole world." Augustine continued to expound on how various churches all considered themselves "the great Church," but that only the whole world could be seen as the great Church. The epoch of the Great Church witnessed the development of key theological concepts which now form the fabric of the religious beliefs of the large majority of Christians. Relying on Scripture, prevailing mysticism and popular piety, Irenaeus formalized some of the attributes of God, writing in Against Heresies Book IV, Chapter 19: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things." Irenaeus referred to the early use of the "Father and Holy Spirit" formula which appeared as part of Christian Creeds, writing in Against Heresies: The Church... believes in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, earth, the sea, all things that are in them. Around 213 AD in Adversus Praxeas Tertullian provided a formal representation of the concept of the Trinity, i.e. that God

West Falls Church station

West Falls Church is a Washington Metro station in Idylwood, Virginia on the Orange Line, the first station inside the beltway on the Orange Line going east. It is one of only two stations in the system to have three tracks, the other being the National Airport station; the center track is used for train storage, for relaying trains to the adjacent Falls Church Yard. The station serves the suburban community of Falls Church and the Northern Virginia Center operated by Virginia Tech and the University of Virginia. While the station has a street address on Haycock Road, it is physically located in the median of Interstate 66 near Virginia State Route 7; this is a major suburban transfer station, as many commuter buses that serve communities near the Dulles Toll and Access Roads connect to the Metro system at West Falls Church using a bus-only exit from the Access Road. These buses include Fairfax Connector to points within Fairfax including Reston and Herndon, Metrobus to Tysons Corner, Loudoun County Transit reverse commute routes to businesses including AOL and MCI and transfer points in Dulles.

With the opening of the Silver Line on July 26, 2014, many commuter bus routes that terminated at West Falls Church were rerouted to instead terminate at locations along the new Silver Line stations in Tysons Corner and Reston. West Falls Church was the original staging point for Washington Flyer buses to Dulles Airport, but this shifted to Wiehle-Reston East with the opening of the Silver Line; the Silver Line joins the Orange Line via a flying junction east of this station but does not serve the station. Plans called for the Silver Line to stop at West Falls Church, but it was cut out of the final plan; the station opened on June 7, 1986. Its opening coincided with the completion of 9.1 miles of rail west of the Ballston station and the opening of the East Falls Church, Dunn Loring and Vienna stations. In 1999, the station was renamed West Falls Church–VT/UVA, when the initialisms for Virginia Tech and the University of Virginia were added to the station's name, two years after the dedication of the shared graduate center.

These initialisms were moved to a subtitle location on November 3, 2011. In May 2018, Metro announced an extensive renovation of platforms at twenty stations across the system; the platforms at the West Falls Church station would be rebuilt starting in late 2020. Media related to West Falls Church at Wikimedia Commons WMATA: West Falls Church Station StationMasters Online: West Falls Church Station The Schumin Web Transit Center: West Falls Church Station Station from Google Maps Street View

Johnny Alf

Alfredo José da Silva, popularly known as Johnny Alf, was a Brazilian musician, sometimes known as the "Father of Bossa Nova". Alf was born in Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro, began playing piano at age 9, his father died when he was 3 and he was raised by his mother, who worked as a maid to raise him. He attended Colégio Pedro II, he played in nightclubs in the Copacabana neighborhood of Rio, where he was noticed by bossa nova pioneers. His first single, "Falseta" was released in 1952, with a debut album following in 1961. Over his career, he appeared on nearly fifty others, he died in 2010, aged 80, from prostate cancer. Johnny Alf was born on May 1929, in Vila Isabel, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alf's father, an army corporal, fought in the Brazilian civil war of 1932, the Constitutionalist Revolution, perished in combat in the valley of Paraíba, his mother raised making a living as a maid. She found employment with a family in Tijuca, a quarter close to the centre of Rio; the family of the household, as well as being welcoming to both Johnny and his mother, had much respect for music and supported Alf as he began to discover the art form.

Alfredo's mother was able to enroll him at the IBEU, it was there that Alf received his first formal musical training, studying classical piano with instructor Geni Bálsamo. Due to his purported shyness Alf spent much more of his time listening to records than practicing his technical skills on the piano, it was Alf's growing desire to enhance his technical abilities on the piano that led him to seek acceptance into the founded Sinatra-Farney Fan Club. The Sinatra-Farney Fan Club was a performer's collective of sorts, an appreciation for the crooning vocal jazz epitomized by artists such as Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby, Brazilian born Dick Farney being the thread that unified all of its members. Alf's membership in the club allowed him regular access to a piano, as well as a group of musically sympathetic peers with which to play and experiment; the jam sessions held by the Sinatra-Farney Fan Club provided Alf his first taste of collaborative music-making and public, musical performance, the club's status being respectable enough around Rio for its members to be allowed to play venues such as the Tijuca Tennis Club, the Fluminense Club, the Athletic Association of the Bank of Brazil.

In 1950 the death of the mother of two of the founding members stranded the club without a rehearsal headquarters and it was at this point that Alf began to pursue a professional musical career. Alf received his first professional break in 1952 when he was hired as the pianist at the newly inaugurated Cantina do César where his appointed task was to “aid the digestion of the guests”; the food proving in most a cases a meager incentive for the customers’ return, the cantina's owner, César de Alencar, soon converted the space into a proper club—or inferninho —and gave Johnny Alf free musical reign. Alf would receive frequent visits from artists such as pianist João Donato, vocalist Dolores Duran, guitarist/vocalist João Gilberto would accompany his colleagues in a duet or two before they were on their way; the musical fare in the first years of Alf's professional career varied from the usual Samba-cançãoes and foxtrots, however Alf's familiarity with American Jazz styles imbued his playing, his vocal performances, his on-stage banter with the mystery and prestige of New York's 52nd Street.

As Alf's modest reputation grew he managed to catch the eye of producer Ramalho Neto, who expressed interest in recording Alf. This brief pairing would produce Alf's first two recordings. Alf assembled a trio composed of guitarist Garoto, double-bassist Vidal, himself on Piano and recorded two tunes: “Falseta” composed by Alf himself, “De cigarro em cigarro” composed by fellow Brazilian Luiz Bonfá; the recordings garnered no more than a pittance of recognition for Alf at the time, but would be hailed as the progenitors of the Bossa Nova style. Various opinions are now held about the validity of such a statement, but it can confidently be said that these two recordings displayed a novel sound, one that had not yet been heard by the majority of Brazilians. Following these sessions Alf would continue to find nightly work in the clubs of Rio de Jainero, musical companions such as João Gilberto, João Donato, the young pianist Antonio Carlos Jobim, following him from venue to venue provided they could afford the cover fee.

For two years Alf contented himself with ephemeral engagements at clubs including the Monte Carlo in Gávea, the Clube da Chave, the Mandarim, the Drink before settling at the Hotel Plaza nightclub in 1954. The Hotel Plaza nightclub was known throughout Copacabana as a haunted venue, which conveniently allowed Alf the freedom to experiment musically to a degree that would not have been possible had he been playing for anyone other than his loyal fan-base, he was able to play his own early compositions (“