The Riverina /rɪvəˈriːnə/ is an agricultural region of south-western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of plains, warm to hot climate. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop one of the most productive. In the 20th century, the development of irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice. The Riverina has strong ties to Victoria, and the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies. Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga, Albury and Wagga Wagga are home to campuses of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments, the northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria, West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region.
In general, the Riverina is a plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago. The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level, the western Riverina consists largely of featureless saltbush plain. The geology of the Riverina comprises several troughs and sedimentary basins, the western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Riverina soils are generally sandy along the channels, with more saline grey. As the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline, the Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina generally flow east to west, as well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray.
Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted, in 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of which was used for irrigation. The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone, places in this zone can be very hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be considerably cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are generally low with the annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe
Kings Highway (Australia)
The Kings Highway is a state highway located within the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales, Australia. The highway connects Canberra and Batemans Bay on the South Coast and it is signed as route B52. The National Route 52 was established in 1974, the Kings Highway links Highway 1 to Canberra, and provides access for residents of Canberra to the NSW South Coast and its beaches. The highway is often busy on weekends, especially during summer, the highway experiences a high number of car accidents, on occasions averaging around one every three days, costing the local community around the highway several million dollars a year. The landscape is generally sheep country, the highway travels from the Southern Tablelands to the South Coast via Clyde Mountain. A small rock cave at Pooh Bears Corner can be found near the top of the Clyde Mountain pass and this was the location of a munitions store during the Second World War that could be detonated to stop passage from the coast to the national capital inland.
Dozens of soft toys are placed in the trees along the stretch of road that connects Queanbeyan. These soft toys were placed there to mark the way to the ACT Nudist Club grounds, following repeated vandalisation, the road through the Clyde Mountain area was surveyed by Thomas Mitchell in 1855. A punt service across the Clyde River was begun at Nelligen in 1895 linking Batemans Bay to Braidwood, the service continued until 1964 when the Nelligen bridge was completed. In 2006 construction commenced on Headquarters Joint Operations Command in the Kowen district of the ACT between Bungendore and Queanbeyan, the facility opened in December 2008, and sections of the highway between the HQJOC turnoff and Queanbeyan have progressively been upgraded to cater for the increased traffic. In 2003, approximately 3,000 vehicles a day were using the highway at Nelligen, from Braidwood there were about 4,200 cars travelling on the road. Out of Bungendore near Burbong,5,600 cars were counted each day, casualty crash rates on the Kings Highway are 85% higher than the NSW average and road fatalities are 8% higher.
A2005 NRMA Motoring and Services road survey found, The rate of people hospitalised after crashes on the Kings Highway is well over the national average,877 crashes were recorded on Kings Highway over a 10-year period, an average of about one crash every four days. Over this time there have been 24 fatal crashes,355 crashes resulting in injury and 488 crashes resulting in property damage, the rate was worse than this in 2004, when there were 103 crashes resulting in six fatalities and 53 injuries. Crashes on the Kings Highway have cost A$42.65 million over the past three years – that’s equivalent to nearly A$39,000 every day, particular concerns over Clyde Mountain, and only 5% of road deemed to provide safe overtaking opportunities. Two blackspots and sixteen blacklengths were identified, the 40 kilometres section of road over the Great Dividing Range – which includes Clyde Mountain – recorded the highest number of crashes, with 22% of all incidents occurring in this area. The most common type of crash – 18% of all incidents – was when a vehicle leaves the road to the left on a right hand bend, head-on collisions made up one in 10 of all crashes.
Crashes occurred most frequently on Sundays and least frequently on Tuesdays, highways in Australia List of highways in New South Wales
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
With a height of 2,228 metres above sea level, it is the highest mountain in mainland Australia. Various measurements of the originally called Kosciuszko showed it to be slightly lower than its neighbour. The names of the mountains were swapped by the New South Wales Lands Department in 1892 so that Mount Kosciuszko remains the name of the highest peak of Australia, and Mount Townsend ranks as second. The 1863 picture by Eugene von Guerard hanging in the National Gallery of Australia titled Northeast view from the top of Mount Kosciusko is actually from Mount Townsend. The name of the mountain was previously spelt Mount Kosciusko, an Anglicisation, the traditional English pronunciation of Kosciuszko is /kɒziːˈʌskoʊ/, but the pronunciation /kɒˈʃʊʃkoʊ/ is now sometimes used, which is substantially closer to the Polish pronunciation. There are several native Aboriginal names associated with the mountain, with confusion as to the exact sounds. These are Jagungal, Jar-gan-gil, Tar-gan-gil, however, the mountain was formed, by geologic uplift.
Mount Kosciuszko is the highest summit in mainland Australia, until 1977 it was possible to drive from Charlotte Pass to within a few metres of the summit, but in 1977 the road was closed to public motor vehicle access due to environmental concerns. The road is open from Charlotte Pass for walkers and cyclists for 7.6 kilometres to Rawson Pass, from there a 1. 4-kilometre walking path leads to the summit. Cyclists must leave their bicycles at a rack at Rawson Pass. Anyone with a modest level of fitness can walk to the top, the peak may be approached from Thredbo, taking 3 to 3.5 hours for a round trip. This straightforward walk starts from the top of the Thredbo Kosciuszko Express chairlift, the walking path is popular in summer, and is a mesh walkway to protect the native vegetation and prevent erosion. It is 5 kilometres } to Rawson Pass, where it meets the track from Charlotte Pass, australias highest public toilet was built at this pass in 2007, to cope with the more than 100,000 people visiting the mountain each summer.
The peak and the areas are snow-covered in winter and spring. The road from Charlotte Pass is marked by snow poles and provides a guide for cross-country skiers, Kosciuszko National Park is the location of the downhill ski slopes closest to Canberra and Sydney, containing the Thredbo, Charlotte Pass, and Perisher ski resorts. Mount Kosciuszko may have been ascended by Indigenous Australians long before the first recorded ascent by Europeans, each year in December, an ultramarathon running race called the Coast to Kosciuszko ascends to the top of Mount Kosciuszko after starting at the coast 240 kilometres away. Paul Every, who is credited as being the one who thought of holding such a race, was the inaugural co-winner in 2004, higher peaks in the region, but outside the mainland continent, Puncak Jaya in New Guinea. It is the highest island mountain in the world, the highest mountain in Indonesia, Puncak Mandala in the Papua province of Indonesia
Goulburn, New South Wales
Goulburn /ˈɡoʊlbərn/ is a regional city in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia approximately 195 kilometres south-west of Sydney, and 90 kilometres north-east of Canberra. It was proclaimed to be Australias first inland city through letters patent by Queen Victoria in 1863, Goulburn had an estimated population of 23,005 as at June 2015. Goulburn is the seat of Goulburn Mulwaree Council, Goulburn is a railhead on the Main Southern line, a service centre for the surrounding pastoral industry, and stopover for those travelling on the Hume Highway. It has a park and many historic buildings. It is home to the monument the Big Merino, a sculpture that is the worlds largest concrete constructed sheep, Goulburn was named by surveyor James Meehan after Henry Goulburn, Under-Secretary for War and the Colonies, and the name was ratified by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. The Aboriginal peoples of this belonged to the Gundungurra Nation, and the name for Goulburn is Barbing. The colonial government made grants to free settlers such as Hamilton Hume in the Goulburn area from the opening of the area to settlement in about 1820.
Land was sold to settlers within the Nineteen Counties, including Argyle County, the process displaced the local indigenous Gandangara population and the introduction of exotic livestock drove out a large part of the Aborigines food supply. The reduction of the supply and the introduction of exotic diseases. Some local Aborigines survived at the Tawonga Billabong Aboriginal Settlement established under the supervision of the Tarago police, in the 1930s the local billabong dried up and the Aboriginal people moved away although some have, over time, made their way back to their traditional lands. George Johnson purchased the first land in the area between 1839 and 1842 and became a figure in the towns development. He established a store with a liquor licence in 1848. By 1841 Goulburn had a population of some 1,200 – a courthouse, police barracks, churches and post office and was the centre of a great sheep and farming area. A telegraph station opened in 1862, by which there were about 1,500 residents.
The town was a station for Cobb & Co by 1855. A police station opened the year and a school in 1858. Goulburn was proclaimed a municipal government in 1859 and was made a city in 1863, Goulburn holds the unique distinction of being proclaimed a City on two occasions. The first, proclamation was claimed by virtue of Royal Letters Patent issued by Queen Victoria on 14 March 1863 to establish the Diocese of Goulburn and it was a claim made for ecclesiastical purposes, as it was required by the traditions of the Church of England
Australian Capital Territory
The Australian Capital Territory is the federal district in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. Its only city is Canberra, the city of Australia. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. The need for a territory was flagged by colonial delegates during the Federation conventions of the late 19th century. Section 125 of the Australian Constitution provided that, following Federation in 1901, the territory was transferred to the Commonwealth by the state of New South Wales in 1911, two years prior to the naming of Canberra as the national capital in 1913. The floral emblem of the ACT is the royal bluebell and the emblem is the gang-gang cockatoo. The economic activity of the Australian Capital Territory is heavily concentrated around Canberra and this trend continued into 2016, when the territory was ranked the third best performing out of all of Australias states and territories. There is a proportion of young adults in the region compared with other Australian states or territories.
Approximately one-fifth of ACT residents were born outside of Australia, mainly in the United Kingdom, almost one-fifth speak a language other than English at home, the most common being Chinese. The ACT has a strip of territory around the southern end of the Beecroft Peninsula. Apart from the city of Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory contains agricultural land, small townships and communities located within the ACT include Williamsdale, Uriarra and Hall. There are a range of mountains and creeks in the Namadgi National Park. These include the Naas and Murrumbidgee Rivers, Canberra is noted for its warm to hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the mountains in the territorys south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is 623 mm, with rainfall highest in spring and summer, the highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C at Acton on 11 January 1939.
The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971, notable geological formations in the Australian Capital Territory include the Canberra Formation, the Pittman Formation, Black Mountain Sandstone and State Circle Shale. In the 1840s fossils of brachiopods and trilobites from the Silurian period were discovered at Woolshed Creek near Duntroon, at the time, these were the oldest fossils discovered in Australia, though this record has now been far surpassed. Other specific geological places of interest include the State Circle cutting, the oldest rocks in the ACT date from the Ordovician around 480 million years ago
Climate of Australia
Australias climate is governed largely by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves north and south with the seasons, so that the pattern over Australia is highly seasonal. Australias rainfall is the lowest of all continents except Antarctica, but it is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons—thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The climate varies widely due to its geographical size. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a climate, varied between tropical rainforests and part desert. Consequently, its winter is mild, so that there isnt the great contrast between summer and winter temperatures there is in the northern continents. Yet in many parts of the country, seasonal highs and lows can be considerable, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated with seasonal abnormality in many areas in the world. Australia is one of the continents most affected and experiences extensive droughts alongside considerable wet periods, occasionally a dust storm will blanket a region and there are reports of the occasional tornado.
Tropical cyclones, heat waves and frosts in the country are associated with the Southern Oscillation. Rising levels of salinity and desertification in areas is ravaging the landscape. Climate change in Australia is a contentious issue. Temperatures in the country have risen following a trend of global warming between the years of 1910 to 2004 by approximately 0.7 °C. Overnight minimum temperatures have warmed more rapidly than daytime temperatures in recent years. The late-20th century warming has been attributed to the increased greenhouse effect. According to the Bureau of Meteorology, 80% of the land has less than 600 mm of rainfall per year, as a whole, Australia has a very low annual average rainfall of 419 mm. Because of its elevation and distance from the coast, the Australian Capital Territory experiences a continental climate, Canberra is notorious for hot, dry summers, and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the mountains in the territory’s south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the winter.8 °C at Acton on 11 January 1939
Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, located in the south-eastern part of that state. Gippsland is generally broken down into the East Gippsland, South Gippsland, West Gippsland, the area was originally inhabited by Indigenous Australians of the Gunai nation and part of West Gippsland by the Bunurong nation. Before permanent European settlement, the area was visited by sealers and wattle bark gatherers and his business partner Robert Massie joined him in 1837. Both had worked for the Van Diemens Land Company at Circular Head, samuels brothers Hugh and Thomas arrived at Bass shortly after, where they established a successful farming venture. Further European settlement followed two separate expeditions to the area, angus McMillan led the first European expedition between 1839 and 1840, naming the area Caledonia Australis. Following these expeditions, the area was officially named Gippsland, a chosen by Strzelecki in honour of the New South Wales Governor, George Gipps. The township of Bass was surveyed and settled in the early 1860s, Gippsland is traditionally subdivided into four or five main sub–regions or districts, West Gippsland South Gippsland the Latrobe Valley East Gippsland.
Sometimes a fifth region, Central Gippsland, is added to refer to the zone between the Gippsland Lakes and Yarram. The climate of Gippsland is temperate and generally humid, except in the region around Sale. In the Strzelecki Ranges annual rainfall can be as high as 1,500 millimetres, in lower levels east of the Snowy River, mean annual rainfall is typically about 900–950 millimetres and less variable than in the coastal districts of New South Wales. Mean maximum temperatures in lower areas range from 24 °C in January to 15 °C in July, in the highlands of the Baw Baw Plateau and the remote Errinundra Plateau, temperatures range from a maximum of 18 °C to a minimum of 8 °C. However, in winter, mean minima in these areas can be as low as −4 °C, the soils in Gippsland are generally very infertile, being profoundly deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Apart from frequently flooded areas, they are classed as Spodosols, consequently, heavy fertilisation is required for agriculture or pastoral development.
Despite this, parts of Gippsland have become highly productive dairying and vegetable-growing regions, a few alluvial soils have much better native fertility, and these have always been intensively cultivated. In the extreme northeast is a section of the Monaro Tableland used for grazing beef cattle. Gippsland possesses very few deposits of metallic minerals, the deep underground gold mines operated at Walhalla for a fifty-year period between 1863-1913. Like the rest of Australia, the seas around Gippsland are of low productivity as there is no upwelling due to the warm currents in the Tasman Sea. Nonetheless, towns such as Marlo and Mallacoota depended for a time on the fishing of abalone, whose shells could fetch very high prices because of their use for pearls
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
Bathurst, New South Wales
Bathurst /ˈbæθəst/ is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. It is approximately 200 kilometres north-west of Sydney and is the seat of the Bathurst Regional Council, Bathurst is the oldest inland settlement in Australia and had an estimated population of 36,013 as at June 2015. Bathurst is often referred to as the Gold Country as it was the site of the first gold discovery, today education and manufacturing drive the economy. The internationally known racetrack Mount Panorama is a landmark of the city, Bathurst has an historic city centre with many buildings remaining from the gold rush period of the mid to late 1800s. The median age of the population is 34.0 years, which is particularly young for a regional centre. Population growth has reached 1. 6% per annum over the five years until 2010 and this growth over recent years has resulted in increased urban development including retail precincts, sporting facilities, housing estates and expanding industrial areas.
Bathurst is located on the edge of the Great Dividing Range in the Macquarie River plain. The city is located adjacent to the Macquarie River which is part of the Murray-Darling basin, the city is protected by a levee bank to protect the city from occasional flood events. Mount Panorama is located 3 kilometres from the CBD and effectively within the city limits, it is 877 metres AMSL, Bathurst is located adjacent to the Great Western Highway which begins in the centre of the city of Sydney and finishes at Bathurst. Within the city, two state highways start, the Mitchell Highway to Bourke and the Mid-Western Highway to Hay. Bathurst is located approximately mid-way along a road route from Canberra and Goulburn to Mudgee. Bathurst is located on the Main Western Railway line that starts at Sydney Central Station, the Macquarie River divides Bathurst with the CBD located on the western side of the river. Four road bridges and two bridges span the river within the city area. Two physical components comprise the Bathurst region, the Bathurst Basin and they are drained by the Macquarie, Turon and Campbells Rivers to the north and Abercrombie and Isabella Rivers to the south.
The central basin area of the Bathurst area is mainly granite soils while in the north area sandstone, greywacke, siltstones and minor volcanos predominate. The south is more complex geology with siltstones, greywacke and chert, basalt and granite intrusions and embedded volcanic, underlying Bathurst is the dominant feature of Bathurst granite and at Mount Panorama and Mount Stewart basalt occurs. Due to its elevation, Bathurst has a highland climate. Bathurst is in Australias cool temperate zone which is defined as having mild to warm summers
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century