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Great Fire of London

The Great Fire of London swept through the central parts of the English city from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 September 1666. The fire gutted the medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall, it threatened but did not reach the aristocratic district of Westminster, Charles II's Palace of Whitehall, or most of the suburban slums. It destroyed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul's Cathedral, most of the buildings of the City authorities, it is estimated to have destroyed the homes of 70,000 of the city's 80,000 inhabitants. The death toll is unknown but was traditionally thought to have been small, as only six verified deaths were recorded; this reasoning has been challenged on the grounds that the deaths of poor and middle-class people were not recorded. A melted piece of pottery on display at the Museum of London found by archaeologists in Pudding Lane, where the fire started, shows that the temperature reached 1,250 °C; the Great Fire started at the bakery of Thomas Farriner on Pudding Lane shortly after midnight on Sunday, 2 September, spread west across the City of London.

The major firefighting technique of the time was to create firebreaks by means of demolition. By the time large-scale demolitions were ordered on Sunday night, the wind had fanned the bakery fire into a firestorm that defeated such measures; the fire pushed north on Monday into the heart of the City. Order in the streets broke down; the fears of the homeless focused on the French and Dutch, England's enemies in the ongoing Second Anglo-Dutch War. On Tuesday, the fire spread over most of the City, destroying St Paul's Cathedral and leaping the River Fleet to threaten King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Coordinated firefighting efforts were mobilising; the social and economic problems created by the disaster were overwhelming. Evacuation from London and resettlement elsewhere were encouraged by Charles II, who feared a London rebellion amongst the dispossessed refugees. Despite several radical proposals, London was reconstructed on the same street plan used before the fire. By the 1660s, London was by far the largest city in Britain, estimated at half a million inhabitants.

However, due to the Great Plague of London during the previous winter, its population had decreased. John Evelyn, contrasting London to the Baroque magnificence of Paris, called it a "wooden and inartificial congestion of Houses", expressed alarm about the fire hazards posed by the wood and the congestion. By "inartificial", Evelyn meant unplanned and makeshift, the result of organic growth and unregulated urban sprawl. London had been a Roman settlement for four centuries and had become progressively more crowded inside its defensive city wall, it had pushed outwards beyond the wall into squalid extramural slums such as Shoreditch and Southwark, had reached far enough to include the independent City of Westminster. By the late 17th century, the City proper—the area bounded by the City wall and the River Thames—was only a part of London, covering some 700 acres, home to about 80,000 people, or one sixth of London's inhabitants; the City was surrounded by a ring of inner suburbs. The City was as now, the commercial heart of the capital, was the largest market and busiest port in England, dominated by the trading and manufacturing classes.

The aristocracy shunned the City and lived either in the countryside beyond the slum suburbs, or in the exclusive Westminster district, the site of King Charles II's court at Whitehall. Wealthy people preferred to live at a convenient distance from the traffic-clogged, unhealthy City after it was hit by a devastating outbreak of bubonic plague in the Plague Year of 1665; the relationship was tense between the City and the Crown. The City of London had been a stronghold of republicanism during the Civil War, the wealthy and economically dynamic capital still had the potential to be a threat to Charles II, as had been demonstrated by several republican uprisings in London in the early 1660s; the City magistrates were of the generation that had fought in the Civil War, could remember how Charles I's grab for absolute power had led to that national trauma. They were determined to thwart any similar tendencies in his son, when the Great Fire threatened the City, they refused the offers that Charles made of soldiers and other resources.

In such an emergency, the idea of having the unpopular Royal troops ordered into the City was political dynamite. By the time that Charles took over command from the ineffectual Lord Mayor, the fire was out of control; the City was medieval in its street plan, an overcrowded warren of narrow, cobbled alleys. It had experienced several major fires before 1666, the most recent in 1632. Building with wood and roofing with thatch had been prohibited for centuries, but these cheap materials continued to be used; the only major stone-built area was the wealthy centre of the City, where the mansions of the merchants and brokers stood on spacious lots, surrounded by an inner ring of overcrowded p

Springville High School (Utah)

Springville High School is one of the two high schools that serves and is located in Springville, United States. Springville High School's mascot is the Red Devil; the origin of the mascot name dates back to the original construction of the school, when the Red Devil Cement Company assisted in the building. The most recent opposition occurred when some local citizens organized a committee called "Parents for Mascot Review". Alumni of the school countered that the mascot was not Satanic, had been the official mascot since 1967 when students voted it in. Further they claimed it was significant; the name and image came from the Red Devil Cement Co. a important employer in Springville. An actual cement bag with the Red Devil Cement logo on it can be found in one of the display cases in the high school. Former principal, Rick Robins hired former Head Football Coach Scott Mitchell as Head Football Coach in 2008. In 2007 the Red Devils posted eight losses; the Red Devil swim team won back-to-back boys' 4A state championships in 2008 and 2009.

The championships of 2008 and 2009 mark the first time a boys' team of any sport at SHS has won back-to-back titles. The Red Devils have posted region championships in girls tennis, girls cross country, girls' soccer, boys' golf, boys' swimming, boys cross country and girls' basketball; the boys' basketball team won the 2017 4A basketball championship for the first time since 1958. In 2017, the boys track team won the 4A state title and in 2018, the team won the 5A state championship. In 2016, the springville High School Boys Cross Country won the at large bid to go to the prestigious Nike Cross National race; the team ended up placing 15th over all. The following year the team placed 5th at the race; the cross country team has seen a lot of success in recent years. In 2017 the boys team won the 5A state championship; the girls team won state in 2018 and 2019. The 2019 region eight Cross Country meet, springville swept by winning first place in all the races. Don Bluth, animator and director of all 10 films such as The Secret of NIMH, An American Tail, The Land Before Time, All Dogs Go to Heaven, Rock-A-Doodle, Thumbelina, A Troll in Central Park, The Pebble and the Penguin and Titan A.

E. William R. Bradford, General Authority of the LDS Church George Dewey Clyde, Governor of Utah Creed Haymond and world-record track athlete Eli Herring, of the National Football League Thayne Jasperson, actor and singer Bryan Johnson, founder of Braintree, OS Fund and Kernel Wendell B. Mendenhall, the "father" of the Polynesian Cultural Center Scott Mitchell, of the National Football League Duke Reid, college basketball coach Roger Reid, college basketball coach and NBA assistant coach Nebo School District https://www.deseret.com/platform/amp/2019/10/23/20926407/high-school-cross-country-farmington-boys-springville-girls-claim-5a-state-titles https://www.heraldextra.com/sports/high-school/cross-country/springville-girls-cross-country-earns-team-title-gardner-races-to/article_e89eb675-575a-5054-b033-c724f1127481.html Official website Nebo School District website

Nizhneomsky District

Nizhneomsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-two in Omsk Oblast, Russia. It is located in the east of the oblast; the area of the district is 3,400 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Nizhnyaya Omka. Population: 15,826; the population of the administrative center accounts for 30.5% of the district's total population. Законодательное Собрание Омской области. Закон №467-ОЗ от 15 октября 2003 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Омской области и о порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №1591-ОЗ от 10 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Омской области в связи с принятием Федерального Закона "Об образовании в Российской Федерации"». Вступил в силу через три месяца со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Омский вестник", №69, 31 октября 2003 г.. Законодательное Собрание Омской области. Закон №548-ОЗ от 30 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований Омской области», в ред. Закона №1642-ОЗ от 27 июня 2014 г.

«О внесении изменений в Закон Омской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований Омской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Омский вестник", №45, №47, №49, 13, 20, 27 августа 2004 г