The Great Lakes called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. They comprise Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Hydrologically, there are only four lakes, because Lakes Michigan and Huron join at the Straits of Mackinac; the lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway. The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, second-largest by total volume, containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume; the total surface is 94,250 square miles, the total volume is 5,439 cubic miles less than the volume of Lake Baikal. Due to their sea-like characteristics the five Great Lakes have long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second-largest lake in the world by area, the largest freshwater lake by surface area. Lake Michigan is the largest lake, within one country.
The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major source for transportation, migration and fishing, serving as a habitat to many aquatic species in a region with much biodiversity; the surrounding region is called the Great Lakes region. Though the five lakes lie in separate basins, they form a single interconnected body of fresh water, within the Great Lakes Basin, they form a chain connecting the east-central interior of North America to the Atlantic Ocean. From the interior to the outlet at the Saint Lawrence River, water flows from Superior to Huron and Michigan, southward to Erie, northward to Lake Ontario; the lakes drain a large watershed via many rivers, are studded with 35,000 islands. There are several thousand smaller lakes called "inland lakes", within the basin; the surface area of the five primary lakes combined is equal to the size of the United Kingdom, while the surface area of the entire basin is about the size of the UK and France combined.
Lake Michigan is the only one of the Great Lakes, within the United States. The lakes are divided among the jurisdictions of the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. S. states of Michigan, Minnesota, Indiana, Ohio and New York. Both the province of Ontario and the state of Michigan include in their boundaries portions of four of the lakes: The province of Ontario does not border Lake Michigan, the state of Michigan does not border Lake Ontario. New York and Wisconsin's jurisdictions extend into two lakes, each of the remaining states into one of the lakes; as the surfaces of Lakes Superior, Huron and Erie are all the same elevation above sea level, while Lake Ontario is lower, because the Niagara Escarpment precludes all natural navigation, the four upper lakes are called the "upper great lakes". This designation is not universal; those living on the shore of Lake Superior refer to all the other lakes as "the lower lakes", because they are farther south. Sailors of bulk freighters transferring cargoes from Lake Superior and northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to ports on Lake Erie or Ontario refer to the latter as the lower lakes and Lakes Michigan and Superior as the upper lakes.
This corresponds to thinking of lakes Erie and Ontario as "down south" and the others as "up north". Vessels sailing north on Lake Michigan are considered "upbound" though they are sailing toward its effluent current; the Chicago River and Calumet River systems connect the Great Lakes Basin to the Mississippi River System through man-made alterations and canals. The St. Marys River, including the Soo Locks, connects Lake Superior to Lake Huron; the Straits of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan to Lake Huron. The St. Clair River connects Lake Huron to Lake St. Clair; the Detroit River connects Lake St. Clair to Lake Erie; the Niagara River, including Niagara Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal, bypassing the Falls, connects Lake Erie to Lake Ontario; the Saint Lawrence River and the Saint Lawrence Seaway connect Lake Ontario to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which connects to the Atlantic Ocean. Lakes Huron and Michigan are sometimes considered a single lake, called Lake Michigan–Huron, because they are one hydrological body of water connected by the Straits of Mackinac.
The straits are 120 feet deep. Lake Nipigon, connected to Lake Superior by the Nipigon River, is surrounded by sill-like formations of mafic and ultramafic igneous rock hundreds of meters high; the lake lies in the Nipigon Embayment, a failed arm of the triple junction in the Midcontinent Rift System event, estimated at 1,109 million years ago. Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan, along the south coast of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and the east coast of Wisconsin, it is separated from the rest of the lake by the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin, the Garden Penins
Chevelle is an American rock band formed in Grayslake, Illinois in 1995. The band was composed of brothers: Pete Loeffler, Sam Loeffler and Joe Loeffler; when Joe left the band in 2005, Geno Lenardo subbed-in as the bassist until he was replaced by Pete and Sam's brother-in-law, Dean Bernardini. Chevelle has sold over four million albums in the United States; the band's first studio album, Point #1, was released on a small record label called Squint Entertainment. Chevelle's second album, Wonder What's Next, was certified Platinum by the RIAA after a debut at No. 14 on the United States albums chart, Billboard 200. This Type of Thinking, the band's third album has been certified Gold. Chevelle has since released a fourth album, Vena Sera, a fifth album, Sci-Fi Crimes, a sixth album Hats Off to the Bull, their seventh album, La Gárgola, was released on April 1, 2014. Their eighth album, The North Corridor, was released on July 8, 2016. Other releases from Chevelle include DVDs and a compilation of band favorites.
Chevelle formed in 1995 in Grayslake, when brothers Pete Loeffler and Sam Loeffler started enjoying music. Pete started singing while Sam began playing drums in their parents' garage, their youngest brother Joe joined the band on within the same year of formation. Each of the band members were self-taught musicians; the name Chevelle came from the band members' passion for fast cars. It was a car their father liked, the Chevrolet Chevelle; the band started playing small outdoor concerts and clubs around Chicago, with Joe being only 14 years old. Chevelle recorded a 7-track demo known as The Blue Album, released in 1998, played small concerts for the next three years until they were signed on to Steve Taylor's Squint Entertainment, a contemporary Christian music label; the band recorded with Steve Albini for 17 days in Electrical Audio studios and released its first full-length album, Point #1 and in 1999. Two singles were released from the Point #1 album with accompanying music videos, "Point #1" and "Mia".
The songs received GMA Dove Awards for the more popular song "Mia" in 2000 and "Point #1" in 2001. The album received an award for "Hard Music Album" in 2000 by the Dove Awards. Point #1 was well received by The Phantom Tollbooth, a Christian music website, HM Magazine, yet was criticized for its repetitive song structures by Jesus Freak Hideout, a Christian music website. Chevelle toured as support to bands such as Sevendust, Machine Head and Powerman 5000 in this period. Squint Entertainment closed down in 2001 and the band signed with Epic Records in 2002. In 2002 Chevelle released its second studio album Wonder; the band released the single "The Red", which reached No. 3 on the Mainstream rock charts, the video was played in regular rotation on MTV. Wonder What's Next soon peaked at No. 14 on the United States Billboard 200 album chart. Brian O'Neil of Allmusic stated the album "offers uniqueness not heard in more commercial fare, no mean feat." Chevelle released two more singles from the album, "Closure", "Send the Pain Below", the latter of which reached the No. 1 position on both of the mainstream rock and modern rock charts.
Wonder What's Next was certified platinum by the RIAA with excess sales of one million copies sold in the United States alone in 2003. In 2003, Chevelle performed at Ozzfest, where the band recorded and released its first live album, Live from the Road, a live DVD, Live from the Norva; the band toured Europe with Audioslave in early 2003, in the year they played on the Music as a Weapon II tour with Disturbed. On the tour with Disturbed, Chevelle appeared on the tour compilation album, titled Music as a Weapon II, featuring the songs "The Red" and "Forfeit". Keith Miller of EvangelSociety.org was critical of Chevelle for touring with Ozzfest with bands such as Cradle of Filth, who he claimed incorporated strong satanic and anti-Christian themes into their lyrics. In 2004 Sam Loeffler said, "It's something that's going to follow us around forever and that's fine. It's pretty simple. We signed with a record company, backed by Word, so the record was in Christian bookstores, it was an accidental thing."
Sam told the Chicago Tribune, "Our faith is still important to us, but it's very personal. None of us feels being a rock band on stage should be a pedestal for preaching." This Type of Thinking was recorded in early 2004, was released in September 2004. The album debuted at No. 8 on the Billboard 200, was certified gold by the RIAA six weeks later. Johnny Loftus of Allmusic described the songs on the album as "strong dynamically, but sound predetermined — they don't separate from the general loud rock malaise." The song "Vitamin R" was released as the first single from the album and reached the No. 1 position on the Mainstream Rock chart. Two other singles were released from the album, the titles of which are "The Clincher" peaking at No. 3 on the Mainstream rock chart, "Panic Prone" which peaked at No. 26 on the same chart. Before the album's release, Chevelle received attention when "The Clincher" was featured in the video game Madden NFL 2005. After the release of the album, the youngest of the brothers, Joe Loeffler, was dismissed from Chevelle.
Due to different stories from the band members, it is unclear whether he was fired or left the band of his own accord. Pete and Sam stated the following on the band's official website: "After three years of non-stop touring and recording, Jo
Graham Charles MacKinnon CMG ED was an Australian politician, a Liberal Party member of the Legislative Council of Western Australia from 1956 to 1986. He served as a minister in the governments of Charles Court. MacKinnon was born in Bridgetown, Western Australia, to Rhoda Myrtle and Charles Archibald MacKinnon, he attended Bunbury Senior High School, subsequently worked as a clerk and shop assistant. MacKinnon enlisted in the Australian Army in 1940, during the war served with the 2/4th Machine Gun in Malaya and Singapore, reaching the rank of lieutenant, he was a Japanese prisoner of war for three years after the Fall of Singapore. After the war's end, MacKinnon moved to Bunbury, where he owned a caravan manufacturer and managed a sewing machine company, he was president of the local branch of the Returned Services League. At the 1956 Legislative Council elections, MacKinnon was elected to the two-member South-West Province, replacing the retiring Les Craig, he was made deputy chairman of committees in 1958, served in that position until 1965.
At the 1965 state election, MacKinnon transferred to the new Lower West Province. He made an honorary minister after the election, a few months was given a substantive position in the ministry, becoming Minister for Health and Minister for Fisheries and Fauna, he was made Minister for Environmental Protection in December 1970, held those positions until the Brand government's defeat at the 1971 election. MacKinnon returned to the ministry just three years appointed Minister for Education, Minister for Cultural Affairs, Minister for Recreation in the new Court government. Following a reshuffle after the 1977 election, MacKinnon was made Minister for Conservation and the Environment, Minister for Fisheries and Wildlife, Minister for Tourism. Another reshuffle occurred in August 1978, his titles thereafter were Minister for Works, Minister for Water Supplies, Minister for Tourism, which he held until leaving the ministry at the 1980 election. MacKinnon left parliament at the 1986 election, having returned to his original constituency in 1974.
In June 1980, he had been made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George, for "political and public service". MacKinnon died in Perth in June 1992, aged 75, he had married Mary Theresa Shaw in 1940, with. One of his nephews, Barry MacKinnon, was a Liberal Party MP, the two served together in parliament from 1977 to 1986. Members of the Western Australian Legislative Council