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Great Leap Forward

The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China from 1958 to 1962. Chairman Mao Zedong launched the campaign to reconstruct the country from an agrarian economy into a communist society through the formation of people's communes. Mao decreed increased efforts to bring industry to the countryside. Local officials were fearful of Anti-Rightist Campaigns and competed to fulfill or over-fulfill quotas based on Mao's exaggerated claims, collecting "surpluses" that in fact did not exist and leaving farmers to starve. Higher officials did not dare to report the economic disaster caused by these policies, national officials, blaming bad weather for the decline in food output, took little or no action; the Great Leap resulted in tens of millions of deaths, with estimates ranging between 18 million and 45 million deaths. About the same number of births were lost or postponed, making the Great Chinese Famine the largest in human history.

Chief changes in the lives of rural Chinese people included the incremental introduction of mandatory agricultural collectivization. Private farming was prohibited, those engaged in it were persecuted and labeled counter-revolutionaries. Restrictions on rural people were enforced through public struggle sessions and social pressure, although people experienced forced labor. Rural industrialization, while a priority of the campaign, saw "its development... aborted by the mistakes of the Great Leap Forward." The Great Leap was one of two periods between 1976 in which China's economy shrank. Economist Dwight Perkins argues that "enormous amounts of investment produced only modest increases in production or none at all.... In short, the Great Leap was a expensive disaster."In 1959, Mao Zedong ceded day-to-day leadership to pragmatic moderates like Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping and the CPC studied the damage done at conferences in 1960 and 1962. Mao did not retreat from his policies and instead blamed problems on bad implementation and "rightists" for opposing him.

He initiated the Cultural Revolution in 1966 in order to remove opposition and re-consolidate his power. In October 1949 after the defeat of the Kuomintang, the Chinese Communist Party proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Landlords and wealthier farmers had their land holdings forcibly redistributed to poorer peasants. In the agricultural sectors, crops deemed by the Party to be "full of evil", such as opium, were destroyed and replaced with crops such as rice. Within the Party, there were major debates about redistribution. A moderate faction within the party and Politburo member Liu Shaoqi argued that change should be gradual and any collectivization of the peasantry should wait until industrialization, which could provide the agricultural machinery for mechanized farming. A more radical faction led by Mao Zedong argued that the best way to finance industrialization was for the government to take control of agriculture, thereby establishing a monopoly over grain distribution and supply.

This would allow the state to buy at a low price and sell much higher, thus raising the capital necessary for the industrialization of the country. Before 1949, peasants had farmed their own small pockets of land and observed traditional practices—festivals and paying homage to ancestors, it was realized that Mao's policy of using a state monopoly on agriculture to finance industrialization would be unpopular with the peasants. Therefore, it was proposed that the peasants should be brought under Party control by the establishment of agricultural collectives which would facilitate the sharing of tools and draft animals; this policy was pushed through between 1949 and 1958 in response to immediate policy needs, first by establishing "mutual aid teams" of 5–15 households in 1953 "elementary agricultural cooperatives" of 20–40 households from 1956 in "higher co-operatives" of 100–300 families. From 1954 onward peasants were encouraged to form and join collective-farming associations, which would increase their efficiency without robbing them of their own land or restricting their livelihoods.

By 1958 private ownership was abolished and households all over China were forced into state-operated communes. Mao insisted that the communes must produce more grain for the cities and earn foreign exchange from exports; these reforms were unpopular with the peasants and implemented by summoning them to meetings and making them stay there for days and sometimes weeks until they "voluntarily" agreed to join the collective. Apart from progressive taxation on each household's harvest, the state introduced a system of compulsory state purchases of grain at fixed prices to build up stockpiles for famine-relief and meet the terms of its trade agreements with the Soviet Union. Together and compulsory purchases accounted for 30% of the harvest by 1957, leaving little surplus. Rationing was introduced in the cities to curb'wasteful consumption' and encourage savings, although food could be purchased from state-owned retailers the market price was higher than that for which it had been purchased; this too was done in the name of discouraging excessive consumption.

Besides these economic changes the Party implemented major social changes in the countryside including the banishing of all religious and mystic institutions and ceremonies, replacing them with political meetings and propaganda sessions. Attempts were made to enhance rural education and the status of women (allowing them to initiate divorce if t

Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1

Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 is a human glutathione S-transferase. Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma and zeta; this gene encodes a cytoplasmic glutathione S-transferase. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins, products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione; the genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3, are known to be polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins, as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Null mutations of this class mu gene have been linked with an increase in a number of cancers due to an increased susceptibility to environmental toxins and carcinogens.

Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene. PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1

Yummy: the Last Days of a Southside Shorty

Yummy: the Last Days of a Southside Shorty is a graphic novel by G. Neri with art by Randy DuBurke, published by Lee and Low Books in August 2010; the story is about Robert “Yummy” Sandifer, eleven years old in 1994 when he became a fugitive from justice after killing a neighbor girl while he was shooting at somebody else during a gang initiation. Neri creates a fictional narrator who watches what happens to Yummy when he seeks help from the gang he is trying to impress. Instead, they turn on him; the book asks hard questions: Was Yummy a thug who got what he deserved? Or was he just as much a victim as the girl killed? As our hero says, "I tried to figure out; the one who stole my lunch money? Or the one who smiled when I shared my candy with him? I wondered if I grew up like him, would I have turned out the same?” The book won a 2011 Coretta Scott King Author Honor Award and was named one of the Best Books of 2010 by Publishers Weekly and Kirkus Reviews. It has received five starred reviews—from Kirkus Reviews, School Library Journal, the Bulletin of the Center of Children's Books, VOYA.

List of Awards and honors 2011 Coretta Scott King Author Honor 2011 ALA Notable Book Publishers Weekly Best Books of 2010 Kirkus Reviews Best Books of 2010 Booklist Editor's Choice Best Books of 2010 2010 Cybil Award - Best YA Graphic Novel 2011 YALSA Top 10 Quick Picks 2011 ALA Great Graphic Novels for Teens Booklist's Top 10 Graphic Novels for Youth School Library Journal Best Comics for 2010 CCBC Choices 2011 2011 IRA Notable Book for a Global Society SLJ's Fuse #8: 100 Magnificent Children’s Books of 2010 List PW Comic Weekly Fifth Annual Critics Poll List Chicago Public Library - Best of the Best Book Virginia Readers' Choice List for high school 2010 Best Books for Youths Top 5 Graphic Novels of 2010 Cynsational Books of 2010 2011 Glyph Award nomination - Story of the Year Red Star Book Award in 2010Starred ReviewsKirkus Reviews described it by saying, “A haunting, ripped-from-the-headlines account of youth gang violence in Chicago provides the backdrop for a crucial mediation on right and wrong.

A much-needed look at the terrifying perils of life on the margins that will have all readers pondering the heady question of moral responsibility." Booklist added it was "A harrowing portrait... Yummy will earn both the reader’s livid rage and deep sympathy as the social structure that created him is cast, once again, as America’s undeniable shame; this is a graphic novel that pushes an unsightly but hard to ignore socio-political truth out into the open." School Library Journal summed it all up: "Yummy something new. Gritty, willing to ask tough questions, willing to trust that young readers will be able to reach their own conclusions; this is a story that needs to be told and it needs to be told to kids. Believe me, you’ve nothing like this in your collection." Neri says about the story “Back in 1994 I was a filmmaker teaching workshops to kids in the inner-city schools of Los Angeles. When the Yummy story broke, a lot of discussions started popping up among the kids; some felt. Others felt. At the time, there was a gang war going on in the area and there had been several memorials for students who'd been killed.

Many of the kids had been affected by gangs. It was a loaded topic. I couldn't get the story out of my head.” He added “My telling some kids to stay out of gangs means nothing to them. But Yummy’s story is such a compelling wake-up call that I don’t have to say anything, or moralize on the issues. Readers can draw their own conclusions by seeing. There are no easy answers to be found, but the book will spark a lot of needed discussion.” G. Neri talks about Yummy on NPR Video trailer for Yummy Author website Lee and Low website "Murder in Miniature," the original Time Magazine article on Yummy's life and death

Minuscule 784

Minuscule 784, ε467, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament written on paper. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 14th century; the manuscript has no complex contents. The codex contains the text of the four Gospels, with some lacunae, it lacks texts of Matthew 1:1-5:3. The text is written in one column per 27-28 lines per page; the text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, with their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is another division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections, but without references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains inartistic pictures. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Kx. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represent the textual family Kx in Luke 1, Luke 10, Luke 20. In John 8:6 it has unusual reading εγραψεν εις την γην ει τις ουχ ημαρτεν βαλετω λιθον επ αυτην οι δε ακουσαντες.

Gregory dated the manuscript to the 14th century. The manuscript is dated by the INTF to the 14th century, it was housed in the monastery μεγαλων πυλων 20. The manuscript was noticed in catalogue from 1876, it was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Gregory. Gregory saw the manuscript in 1886; the manuscript is now housed at the National Library of Greece in Athens. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Minuscule 783 Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. Pp. 221–222

Shivam Pradhan

Shivam Pradhan was an Indian film actor. He established his career in Hindi films, was one of the popular supporting actors in India, he started acting in plays from school. In class 11th, he acted in his first play Ashadh Ka Ek Din, written by Mohan Rakesh. In theater, he acted in various plays, such as the Roman play Peer Gynt in Hindi and Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Children in Hindi, he worked as a dubbing artist for animation series on Disney. He worked in 270 episodes of Pragaya channel's Info-tainment series, he worked for 13 episodes of Tata Sky's Daily Zindagi ad campaign. He was the host at the Star Parivaar Awards, he was suffering from a breathing problem during the last 7 years before his death. He died on 29 October 2016. Shivam Pradhan on IMDb


Mozio is a New York City-based transportation-search engine company that aggregates ground transportation data and plans trips to and from an airport. Mozio coordinates buses, boats, rapid transit, other types of transit to allow users to arrive at the airport as fast as possible. Mozio was founded in 2011 by Joseph Metzinger. Mozio completed Plug and Play's Start-up Camp in February 2012 and has since created partnerships with a number of large and small agencies, including Uber and Its platform compares time and cost metrics in order to find the most efficient option for each traveler and destination. In 2013, Mozio raised seed money from investors including Chairman of Orbitz; the first airports to be included in the search services were San Jose and San Francisco. The company is focusing on development of its ground-transportation-to-airport platform. In 2016 the company partnered with Ethiopian Airlines; as of 2018 Mozio provides ground transportation services for JetBlue,,, New Zealand Air, CheapOAir and incorporates Uber and Lyft in its transportation network.

News media report that Mozio has a "bigger fleet than Uber and Lyft combined" due to its partnerships with those and other ground transportation companies. Mozio Article on HuffPost Mozio Article on SiloBreaker Official website