Jovan Nenad is attributed by Serbian historians as the founder of Vojvodina and the leader of the last independent Serbian state before the Ottoman conquest. A Serb, he was born ca.1492 in Lipova near the Mureş River in northern Banat and he was of medium height and highly moral and pious. In the Battle of Mohács on 29 August 1526, the Ottoman Empire destroyed the army of Hungarian-Czech King Louis Jagellion, a part of this struggle was the leader of Serb mercenaries, Jovan Nenad. Right after Mohács, Jovan Nenad appeared between Tisza and Danube as a leader of a Serb regiment and he quickly drove the Ottomans from Bačka and parts of Banat and Syrmia, which he ruled independently. At first he sided with the Zapolyai, after the Hungarian nobility of Bačka estranged him from John Zápolya, he decided to support the Habsburg pretender, Ferdinand, in the beginning of 1527. The conflict with the Hungarian nobility arose when Hungarian refugees were refused to return to Bačka, which Nenad saw as his.
He named Radoslav Čelnik the general commander of his army, while his emissaries to foreign rulers were Fabijan Literat, a Franciscan from Ilok, Ivan Dolić and his treasurer and palatine was Subota Vrlić from Jagodina. Besides his main army, he organized a personal guard numbering 600 soldiers. His army grew by drawing Serbs from Ottoman territory, Vlachs from Banat and Transylvania, and some Roman Catholics and it is believed that the cooperation of Orthodox and Catholic Slavs was the key of his success. By the time of the reign of Jovan Nenad, Serbs had already considerable populations in the southern Pannonian Plain, most notably in the Danube and Tisa regions. Jovan Nenad considered the struggle around the Hungarian throne just a temporary occupation, in the first half of 1527, Ferdinand was outside of Hungary, preparing for what would become the Hungarian campaign of 1527–28 to fight Zápolya. During that time, King Zápolya sent armies after Jovan Nenad, underestimating Nenads strength, Zápolya sent 300 knights under László Csáky, which were defeated by Jovan Nenad in early April, Csáky himself was captured and executed.
After this, Jovan Nenad rose to the peak of his power, another Hungarian army was dispatched, led by the Voivode of Transylvania, Péter Perényi. It was defeated by late April near Tiszaszőlős on the banks of the Tisza river, in an attempt to unite with the forces of Ferdinand, Jovan Nenad was severely wounded in Szeged. In his retreat towards Senta, he was intercepted and murdered in the village of Tornjoš, Jovan Nenads head was delivered to Zápolya and soon after his death the remainder of his army dispersed, which was the end of Jovan Nenads liberation movement. After Jovan Nenads death his general Radoslav Čelnik led the remains of the army to Ottoman Syrmia, where he ruled until 1530 as an Ottoman vassal, as time passed, Jovan Nenad became a mythical figure to the Serbs. Many Serbian historians consider him the founder of contemporary Vojvodina, although in reality his insurrection was too short-lived, the provinces second largest city erected a monument to him bearing the inscription Your thought has prevailed.
In the 1942 Hollywood film, Cat People, a statue of Jovan Nenad
Moesia was an ancient region and Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. It included most of the territory of modern-day Serbia and the parts of the modern Republic of Macedonia, as well Northern Bulgaria. In ancient geographical sources, Moesia was bounded to the south by the Haemus and Scardus mountains, to the west by the Drinus river, on the north by the Donaris, the region was inhabited chiefly by Thracians, Dacians and Thraco-Illyrian peoples. The name of the region comes from Moesi, Thraco-Dacian peoples who lived there before the Roman conquest, parts of Moesia belonged to the polity of Burebista, a Getae king who established his rule over a large part of the Northern Balkans between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, after his assassination in an inside plot, the empire was divided into several smaller states. The region, was not organized as a province until the last years of Augustus reign, in 6 AD, mention is made of its governor, as a province, Moesia was under an imperial consular legate.
In 86 AD the Dacian king Duras ordered his troops to attack Roman Moesia, each was governed by an imperial consular legate and a procurator. From Moesia, Domitian began planning future campaigns into Dacia and by 87 he started an offensive against Dacia. Therefore, in the summer of 87, Fuscus led five or six legions across the Danube. The campaign against the Dacians ended without an outcome, and Decebalus. Emperor Trajan arrived in Moesia, and he launched his first military campaign into the Dacian Kingdom c, march–May 101, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River and defeating the Dacian army near Tapae, a mountain pass in the Carpathians. Trajans troops were mauled in the encounter, and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, during the following winter, King Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajans army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, Trajan returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title Dacicus.
The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani, Decebalus in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against the empire. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, sometime around 272, at the Moesian city of Naissus or Nissa, future emperor Constantine I was born. During administrative reforms of Emperor Diocletian, both of the Moesian provinces were reorganized, in the same time, Moesia Inferior was divided into Moesia Secunda and Scythia Minor. Moesia Secundas main cities included Marcianopolis, Nicopolis, Durostorum, Sexaginta Prista and Novae, the garrison of Moesia Secunda included Legio I Italica and Legio XI Claudia, as well as independent infantry units, cavalry units, and river flotillas. The Notitia Dignitatum lists its units and their bases as of the 390s CE, units in Scythia Minor included Legio I Iovia and Legio II Herculia
Roman Dacia was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat and it was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000, the conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan after two major campaigns against Decebalus Dacian kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the part of Moldavia, together with Maramureș. In 119, the Roman province was divided two departments, Dacia Superior and Dacia Inferior. In 124, Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces, Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis, the Roman authorities undertook a massive and organized colonization of Dacia. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but to the rest of the Balkan area.
It became a province, with about 10 cities known,8 of which held the highest rank of colonia. All the cities developed from old military camps, Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator for all the three subdivisions was the financial and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province. There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacias existence, Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, making it the first of Romes long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes together with the Carpi in 248–250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus, but they report that it was Aurelian who relinquished Dacia Traiana.
He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia, the fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula, the Dacians and the Getae frequently interacted with the Romans prior to Dacias incorporation into the Roman Empire. However, Roman attention on the area around the lower Danube was sharpened when Burebista unified the native tribes and his kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea to the east, while to the south his authority extended into the Balkans. By 74 BC, the Roman legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio reached the lower Danube, Roman concern over the rising power and influence of Burebista was amplified when he began to play an active part in Roman politics. As part of Caesars planned Parthian campaign of 44 BC, he planned to cross into Dacia and eliminate Burebista, although the planned expedition into Dacia did not happen due to Caesars assassination, Burebista failed to bring about any true unification of the tribes he ruled
Kingdom of Serbia (medieval)
The Kingdom of Serbia, or Serbian Kingdom, was a medieval Serbian state that existed from 1217 to 1346, ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty. The Grand Principality of Serbia was elevated with the coronation of Stefan Nemanjić as king by his brother, bishop Sava, after inheriting all territories unified by their father, the kingdom was proclaimed an empire on 16 April 1346. Each province had its own nobility and institutions, and each acquired a member of the Vojislavljevići to head as Župan, the Byzantine Empire launched a campaign on Duklja between 1089 and 1091 and possibly captured Bodin. A civil war broke out in the realm among Bodins relatives, Vukan took the opportunity to assert himself and broke away, claiming the title of Grand Prince of Serbia. Rascia and Zahumlje all became independent in 1091, up to this point, Duklja had been the center of the Serbian realm, as well as the main resistance to Byzantium in the Balkans. After 1091 Rascia became the most powerful of the Serbian states, under the rule of the Vukanović dynasty, Rascia replaced Duklja as the main opponent of Byzantine rule in the 12th century.
Bodins heirs were forced to recognize Byzantine overlordship, and now only the small territories of Duklja. During the reign of Vukans son Uroš I, the Byzantines invaded Duklja and sought to conquer Rascia as well, Uroš II initially fought the Byzantines, but he gave oaths of servitude to the Emperor after he was defeated in war. Stefan Nemanja was succeeded by his middle son Stefan, whilst his first-born son Vukan was given the rule of the Zeta region, Stefan Nemanjas youngest son Rastko became a monk and took the name Sava, turning all his efforts to spreading religion among his people. In Byzantium, Sava managed to secure autocephaly for the Serbian Church, in the same year Sava published the first constitution in Serbia — St. Savas Nomocanon. The Nomocanon was a compilation of Civil law, based on Roman Law and its basic purpose was to organize the functions of the young Serbian kingdom and the Serbian church. Thus the Serbs acquired both political and religious independence, the next generation of Serbian rulers — the sons of Stefan Prvovenčani, Radoslav and Uroš I — marked a period of stagnation of the state structure.
All three kings were more or less dependent on some of the neighbouring states — Byzantium, the ties with the Hungarians played a decisive role as Uroš I was succeeded by his son Dragutin, whose wife was a Hungarian princess. Thus, some of these became part of the Serbian state for the first time. His new state was named Kingdom of Srem, in that time the name Srem was a designation for two territories, Upper Srem and Lower Srem. The Kingdom of Srem under the rule of Stefan Dragutin was actually Lower Srem, after Dragutin died in 1316, his son, king Vladislav II, became king and ruled until 1325. Under Dragutins younger brother, King Milutin, Serbia grew stronger despite having to fight wars on three different fronts. King Milutin was an apt diplomat much inclined to the use of a customary medieval diplomatic and dynastic marriages and he was married five times, with Hungarian and Byzantine princesses
Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum
The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was one of four praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. The administrative centre of the prefecture was Sirmium, after 379, initially the territories comprising the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum belonged to the Prefecture of Italy and Africa. It was as established as a prefecture in its own right during the dynastic struggles between the sons of Constantine the Great which followed his death in 337. It remained in existence until 361, when it was abolished by emperor Julian, in that year the Diocese of Pannonia was again added to Italy as the Diocese of Illyricum, while Macedonia and Dacia were briefly ruled directly by Theodosius I from Thessalonica. During the years 384-395 they were incorporated in the Italian prefecture, except a short period in 388-391. On this occasion, it appears that the capital was to Sirmium. Likewise, the intention of Justinian I to move the capital to his new city of Justiniana Prima in the 540s remained unfulfilled, a history of the Eastern Roman empire from the fall of Irene to the accession of Basil I.
Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 Morrison, Cécile, le Monde Byzantin I - LEmpire romain dorient, Polis Editions, ISBN 978-960-435-134-3 The Times History of Europe, Times Books, London,2001. Map - The Roman Empire in 337
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Julius Pokorny believes the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, water, the Ionian Danube fleet reached as far as Boio-Aria, populated until the late 8th century CE by Celts and Slavs under Aryan rulers. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum and he gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them. But even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest and he mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that shine like fires at night. Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee, the first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians.
From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes, little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia. The country was not, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube. After the rebellion was crushed in AD9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, the date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD20 but before AD50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes necessitated the presence of a number of troops. Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior, and Pannonia Inferior. According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south, the whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias. Pannonia Superior was under the legate, who had formerly administered the single province.
Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison, after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, the frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, following the Migrations Period in the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Theodosius II. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the province as foederati, afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. This language and the culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars. The native settlements consisted of pagi containing a number of vici, the cities and towns in Pannonia were, The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius
Moravian Serbia is the name used in historiography for the largest and most powerful state to emerge from the ruins of the Serbian Empire. In 1403 it was raised to the Serbian Despotate, which would exist until 1459, Moravian Serbia was established in 1373 and attained its largest extent in 1379 through the military and political activities of its first ruler, Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović. The name Moravian Serbia should not imply that the state was affiliated in any way with the region of Moravia in the present-day Czech Republic. The adjective Moravian in this sense refers to the fact that the state comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava, and South Morava rivers. Lazar Hrebeljanović was born in around 1329 in the fortress of Prilepac, near the town of Novo Brdo in the region of Kosovo, powerful Serbian nobles became practically independent in the regions they controlled. Lazar left the court Tsar Uroš in 1363 or 1365, and he held the title of prince since at least 1371. His territory initially developed in the shadow of stronger regional lords, the strongest were the Mrnjavčević brothers, Vukašin and Jovan Uglješa.
They were defeated and killed by the Ottoman Turks in the Battle of Mariča in 1371, Lazar and Tvrtko Kotromanić, the Ban of Bosnia, jointly defeated in 1373 another strong noble, Nikola Altomanović. Most of Altomanovićs territory was acquired by Lazar, about that time, Lazar accepted the suzerainty of King Louis I of Hungary, who granted him the region of Mačva, or at least a part of it. With all these gains, Lazar emerged as the most powerful Serbian lord. The state he created is known in historiography as Moravian Serbia. Moravian Serbia attained its full extent in 1379, when Lazar took Braničevo and Kučevo, Lazars state was larger than the domains of the other lords on the territory of the former Serbian Empire. It had an organized government and army. The state comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava and its north-western border ran along the Drina River. Besides the capital Kruševac, the state included important towns of Niš and Užice, as well as Novo Brdo and Rudnik, of all the Serbian lands, Lazars state lay furthest from Ottoman centres, and was least exposed to the ravages of Turkish raiding parties.
This circumstance attracted immigrants from Turkish-threatened areas, who built new villages, there were spiritual persons among the immigrants, which stimulated the revival of old ecclesiastical centres and the foundation of new ones in Lazars state. A Turkish raiding party, passing unobstructed through territories of Ottoman vassals and it was routed by Lazars nobles Crep Vukoslavić and Vitomir in the Battle of Dubravica, fought near the town of Paraćin. In 1386, the Ottoman Sultan Murad I himself led much larger forces that took Niš from Lazar and it is unclear whether the encounter between the armies of Lazar and Murad at Pločnik, a site southwest of Niš, happened shortly before or after the capture of Niš
The Triballi were a Thracian tribe that received influences from Celts and Illyrians. In 424 BC, they were attacked by Sitalkes, king of the Odrysae and they were pushed to the east by the invading Autariatae, an Illyrian tribe, the date of this event is uncertain. In 339 BC, when Philip II of Macedon was returning from his expedition against the Scythians, hostilities took place, in which Philip was defeated and wounded by a spear in his right thigh, but the Triballi appear to have been subsequently subdued by him. 3,000 Triballi were killed, the rest fled and their king Syrmus took refuge on the Danubian island of Peukê, where most of the remnants of the defeated Thracians were exiled. They were attacked by Autariatae and Celts in 295 BC, the punishment inflicted by Ptolemy Keraunos on the Getae, induced the Triballi to sue for peace. About 279 BC, a host of Gauls under Cerethrius defeated the Triballi with an army of 3,000 horsemen and 15,000 foot soldiers, the defeat pushed the Triballi further to the east.
Nevertheless, they continued to cause trouble to the Roman governors of Macedonia for fifty years, the Illyrian Dardani tribe settled in the southwest of the Triballi area in 87 BC. The Thracian place names survives the Romanization of the region Pliny the Elder registers them as one of the tribes of Moesia. In the time of Ptolemy, their territory was limited to the district between the Ciabrus and Utus rivers, part of what is now Bulgaria, their town was Oescus. Under Tiberius, mention is made of Triballia in Moesia, the name occurs for the last time during the reign of Diocletian, who dates a letter from Triballis. The Triballi were often described as a wild and warlike people, and in Aristophanes, the term Triballians appears frequently in Byzantine and other European works of the Middle Ages, referring exclusively to Serbs. Some of these authors clearly explain that Triballian is synonym to Serbian, for example, Niketas Choniates in his history about Emperor Ioannes Komnenos. Shortly after this, he campaigned against the nation of Triballians, or the much Demetrios Chalkondyles, referring to an Islamized Christian noble.
This Mahmud, son of Michael, is Triballian, which means Serbian, by his mother, or Mehmed the Conqueror when referring to the plundering of Serbia. In the 15th century, a coat of arms of Tribalia, depicting a boar with an arrow pierced through the head. The motif had, in 1415, been used as the Coat of Arms of the Serbian Despotate and is recalled in one of Stefan Lazarevićs personal Seals, pavao Ritter Vitezović depicts Triballia with the same motif in 1701 and Hristofor Zhefarovich again in 1741. With the beginning of the First Serbian Uprising, the Parliament adopted the Serbian Coat of Arms in 1805, a male grave at Vratsa, with a female thracian suttee Archeological findings prove that the Triballi inhabited the Morava valley region in the Iron Age. In 2005, several possibly Triballi graves were found at the Hisar Hill in Leskovac, in June 2008, a Triballi grave was found together with ceramics in Požarevac, Central-Eastern Serbia
The territory of what is now the Republic of Serbia was part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the Early Modern period. Ottoman culture significantly influenced the region, in architecture, cuisine and dress, especially in arts, in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Serbian Despotate was subdued by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. The Ottomans defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the most powerful of these, Tsar Lazar, a Duke of present-day central Serbia, stood against the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. The result was indecisive, but it resulted in the subsequent fall of Serbia, Stefan Lazarević, the son of Lazar, succeeded as ruler, but had by 1394 become an Ottoman vassal. In 1402 he renounced Ottoman rule and became an Hungarian ally, in 1453, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, and in 1458 Athens was taken. In 1459, Serbia was annexed, Greece as well, a year later, several minor and short-lived revolts were conducted against Ottoman rule mostly with the help of the Habsburgs,1594, 1688–1691, 1718–1739 and 1788.
In 1799, the took over the Sanjak of Smederevo, renouncing the Sultan. In 1804, they murdered the most notable intellectuals and nobles, in 1813, Serbs suffered a huge defeat, an unsuccessful rebellion followed in 1814, and in 1815 the Second Serbian Uprising began. In 1817, Serbia was de facto independent, the article deals with the history and structure of Serbs in the Ottoman Empire. This battle pitted vassal troops commanded by Prince Lazar against the Turkish Sultan Murad I, according to Serbian folk tradition, the contest ended with the legendary sudden departure of Brankovićs Serbian troops. Obilić himself was executed by the sultans Janissary bodyguards as a response. The Battle of Kosovo defined the fate of Serbia, because after that it had no force capable of standing up to the Turks. This was a period marked by the rule of Prince Lazars son — despot Stefan Lazarević — a true European-style knight, a military leader. Along with his cousin Đurađ Branković, he moved the capital north to the newly built fortified town of Smederevo, the Turks continued their conquest until they finally seized all of northern Serbian territory in 1459 when Smederevo fell into their hands.
The only free Serbian territories were parts of Bosnia and Zeta, after the fall of the Bosnian kingdom in 1496, Serbia was ruled by the Ottoman Empire for almost three centuries. A Serbian principality under Hungarian protection was created after the fall of the Serbian despotate by the Brankovics in what is now Slavonia, the state spent its entirety fighting the Ottomans and represented the continuation of what was left of the Serbian Kingdom. It fell in 1540 when the Ottoman conquest of the Serbian lands, from the 14th century onward an increasing number of Serbs began migrating north to the region today known as Vojvodina, which was under the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Hungarian kings encouraged the immigration of Serbs to the kingdom, the Serb population of this region highly increased
The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans and the south-eastern coasts of the Italian peninsula. The first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as Illyrians, and it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. The term Illyrians last appears in the record in the 7th century. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who eventually ruled Illyria, Illyrius had multiple sons and daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates, autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. Even before the advent of post-modernism, scholars recognized a difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians given their heterogeneous nature, scholars traditionally looked for the origins of the Illyrian peoples centuries, even millennia, before their first historical attestation.
Following the theories of Gustaf Kossinna, scholars sought to equate tribes mentioned by Greco-Roman historians with preceding Bronze, in particular, scholars such as Julian Pokorny and Richard Pittioni placed the Illyrian homeland within the Luzatian culture, itself an offshoot of the trans-Central European Urnfield culture. From c.1200 BC, the bearers of the Lausitz culture are said to have engaged in widespread migrations throughout Europe. With regard to the Balkans, their movement south in turn initiated the Dorian migrations into southern Greece and these Pan-Illyrian theories have since been dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism. The above theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have ever been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age, ultimately developing the so-called autochthonous theory of Illyrian genesis, the autochthonous model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B.
They argued that the proto-Illyrians had arrived earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe. From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians and he did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability. Of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos, aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benacs all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation. The exception to this are the communities in Glasinac and Mati, the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as Iapodes, Pannonians etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène global worlds. This catalyzed the development of complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities.
Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and, Roman cultural templates in order to legitimise and they were competing fiercely through either alliance or conflict and resistance to Roman expansion
Realm of Stefan Dragutin
The Realm of Stefan Dragutin was a medieval Serb kingdom. Initially, it was a kingdom of the Kingdom of Hungary. It was ruled by the Serbian kings Stefan Dragutin and his son Stefan Vladislav II, the kingdom was centered in the region of Lower Syrmia and its first capital was Debrc, while residence of the king was moved to Belgrade. In the Middle Ages, Syrmia was the name for an area around the river Sava. The part in the north of Sava was known as Upper Syrmia, the kingdom was centered in Mačva, but included Belgrade, part of Šumadija with Rudnik, and the counties of Podrinje, Soli, Braničevo and Kučevo. According to several Serbian historians, the kingdom included Upper Syrmia, Stefan Dragutin was initially the king of Serbia from 1276 to 1282. The first capital of his state was Debrc, and he moved his residence to Belgrade, Dragutin was the first Serb ruler who ruled from Belgrade as the capital. For the first time, that became part of the Serbian state. This action probably caused the war between the Bulgarian despot Shishman of Vidin and Milutin, near the end of his life Stefan Dragutin separated from his Hungarian friends and strengthened his connections in Serbia.
He took monastic vows, and died 1316, buried at the Đurđevi stupovi monastery near Novi Pazar, after king Dragutin died, his son Vladislav assumed his fathers appanage. However, in 1319, Serbian king Milutin, Vladislavs uncle, when Milutin died in 1321, the newly freed Vladislav recovered his fathers lands, with the help of the Hungarians and Stephen II, Ban of Bosnia. After having been beaten again by supporters of Stefan Dečanski, Vladislav retreated to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1324, Vladislavs nephew, Ban Stephen II, reincorporated Soli and Usora into Bosnia. Belgrade and the part of Banate of Macsó along the river Sava remained under the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary, while Braničevo. The kingdoms of Serbia and Hungary would contest Mačva for the next century, Српске земље у средњем веку, историјско-географске студије. The Late Medieval Balkans, A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press