Great Plague of London

The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long time period of the Second Pandemic, an extended period of intermittent bubonic plague epidemics which originated in China in 1331, the first year of the Black Death, an outbreak which included other forms such as pneumonic plague, lasted until 1750; the Great Plague killed an estimated 100,000 people—almost a quarter of London's population—in 18 months. The plague was caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium, transmitted through the bite of an infected rat flea; the 1665–66 epidemic was on a far smaller scale than the earlier Black Death pandemic. As in other European cities of the period, the plague was endemic in 17th century London; the disease periodically erupted into massive epidemics. There were 30,000 deaths due to the plague in 1603, 35,000 in 1625, 10,000 in 1636, as well as smaller numbers in other years. During the winter of 1664, a bright comet was to be seen in the sky and the people of London were fearful, wondering what evil event it portended.

London at that time consisted of a city of about 448 acres surrounded by a city wall, built to keep out raiding bands. There were gates at Ludgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate and Bishopsgate and to the south lay the River Thames and London Bridge. In the poorer parts of the city, hygiene was impossible to maintain in the overcrowded tenements and garrets. There was no sanitation, open drains flowed along the centre of winding streets; the cobbles were slippery with animal dung and the slops thrown out of the houses and buzzing with flies in summer and awash with sewage in winter. The City Corporation employed "rakers" to remove the worst of the filth and it was transported to mounds outside the walls where it accumulated and continued to decompose; the stench was overwhelming and people walked around with handkerchiefs or nosegays pressed against their nostrils. Some of the city's necessities such as coal most came by road. Carts, carriages and pedestrians were crowded together and the gateways in the wall formed bottlenecks through which it was difficult to progress.

The nineteen-arch London Bridge was more congested. The better-off used hackney carriages and sedan chairs to get to their destinations without getting filthy; the poor walked, might be splashed by the wheeled vehicles and drenched by slops being thrown out and water falling from the overhanging roofs. Another hazard was the choking black smoke belching forth from factories which made soap, from breweries and iron smelters and from about 15,000 houses burning coal. Outside the city walls, suburbs had sprung up providing homes for the craftsmen and tradespeople who flocked to the overcrowded city; these were shanty towns with no sanitation. The government had tried to control this development but had failed and over a quarter of a million people lived here. Other immigrants had taken over fine town houses, vacated by Royalists who had fled the country during the Commonwealth, converting them into tenements with different families in every room; these properties became rat-infested slums. Administration of the City of London was organised by the Lord Mayor and common councillors, but not all of the inhabited area comprising London was part of the City.

Both inside the City and outside its boundaries there were Liberties, which were areas of varying sizes, granted rights to self-government. Many had been associated with religious institutions, when these were abolished in the Dissolution of the Monasteries, their historic rights were transferred along with their property to new owners; the walled City was surrounded by a ring of Liberties which had come under its authority, contemporarily called'the City and Liberties', but these were surrounded by further suburbs with varying administrations. Westminster was an independent town with its own liberties, although it was joined to London by urban development; the Tower of London was an independent liberty. Areas north of the river not part of one of these administrations came under the authority of the county of Middlesex, south of the river under Surrey. At that time, bubonic plague was a much feared disease but its cause was not understood; the credulous blamed emanations from the earth, "pestilential effluviums", unusual weather, sickness in livestock, abnormal behaviour of animals or an increase in the numbers of moles, mice or flies.

It was not until 1894 that the identification by Alexandre Yersin of its causal agent Yersinia pestis was made and the transmission of the bacterium by rat fleas became known. Although the Great Plague in London had long been believed to be bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis, this was only definitively confirmed by DNA analysis in 2016. In order to judge the severity of an epidemic, it is first necessary to know how big the population was in which it occurred. There was no official census of the population to provide this figure, the best contemporary count comes from the work of John Graunt, one of the earliest Fellows of the Royal Society and one of the first demographers, bringing a scientific approach to the collection of statistics. In 1662, he estimated that 384,000 people lived in the City of London, the Liberties and the out-parishes, based on figures in the bills of mortality published each week in the capital; these different districts with d

Sauble River (Ontario)

The Sauble River is a river in Bruce County and Grey County in southwestern Ontario, Canada that flows from its headwaters in the township of Chatsworth to Lake Huron at the community of Sauble Beach. The river was called Rivière aux Saubles, or "sandy river", by the French, it was named the River aux Saubles on maps until 1881. When first settled, the area included a sawmill and a hydro electric plant; the Sauble River begins at an unnamed pond in the township of Chatsworth in Grey County, between the communities of Desboro to the north and Mooresburg to the south. It heads north west, takes in the left tributary Grimston Creek and right tributary Keady Creek, passes along the border to the municipality of Arran–Elderslie in Bruce County near the community of Grimston, before entering that municipality and reaching the community of Tara, where it takes in the left tributary Tara Creek; the river continues north, takes in the left tributary Arkwright Creek, passes through the community of Allenford, reaches the municipality of South Bruce Peninsula.

It heads northeast, takes in the right tributary Park Head Creek, turns west west of the community of Hepworth. The river takes in the right tributaries Spring Creek and Rankin River, passes over the Sauble Falls, reaches Lake Huron at Sauble Beach. Sauble Falls Provincial Park is located at the eponymous waterfalls; the river hosts fish species such as brown trout, chinook salmon, coho salmon, largemouth bass, northern pike, rainbow trout and walleye. The south Sauble River drainage basin has fair forest cover and poor riparian zone forest cover, fair water quality and good benthic species. Rankin River Spring Creek Park Head Creek Arkwright Creek Tara Creek Keady Creek Grimston Creek Sauble Beach Allenford Tara Grimston List of rivers of Ontario Grey Sauble Conservation Authority


Popeda is a Finnish rock band hailing from Tampere and one of the staples of Manserock. Epe Helenius, who signed the band for Poko Rekords in 1977, called the band "Finnish Rolling Stones". Musically their style is a combination of Rock'n' Roll, with humorous lyrics by their vocalist Pate Mustajärvi concerning girls and drinking. Popeda was founded in November 1977 by Ilari "Ilpo" Ainiala. Popeda's 1983 album Kaasua is considered their breakthrough. Pate Mustajärvi is the band's only original member. Finnish singer Erin released a single. Pate Mustajärvi – vocals Costello Hautamäki – guitars, vocals Jyrki K. Melartin – bass guitar, vocals Pate Kivinenkeyboards Lacu Lahtinen – drums, vocals Ilari "Ilpo" Ainiala – bassguitars Tapani "Arwo" Mikkonen – guitars Ari Puukka – guitars Kai Holm – drums Risto Lehtinen – bassguitars Kari Holm – drums Eero Pekkonen – keyboards Jukka "Jukkis" Järvinen – keyboards Timo Tapaninen – guitars Markku Petander – bassguitars Arto Rautajoki – drums Jani Kemppinen – keyboards Popeda Raswaa koneeseen Hullut koirat Raakaa voimaa Mustat enkelit Kaasua...

Harasoo Pohjantähden alla Huilut suorina Ei oo valoo Hallelujaa Kans'an Popeda Svoboda H.Ö. N.Ö. Live at the BBC 500 cc Vieraissa Just! Häkää! Täydelliset miehet Pitkä Kuuma Kesä 2010 – Live Voitto Museorekisterissä / Museorekisterissä – Karvanopat ja Wunderbaum Haista... Popeda 15 GT Golden Turbo Poko-klassikko: Popeda Peethelemin Pesäveikot Hittejä, kersantti Karoliina! Pelkkää juhlaa – 25v. Juhlakokoelma 30-vuotinen sota 1977–2007 Hyvää iltaa, Tampere Pitkä Kuuma Kesä 2010 – Live "Mannaa mammonaa" "Kakskytä centtiä" "Ei lasten käsiin" "Ikurin mimmi" "Katsastuslaulu" "Reino" "Kuutamohullu" "Onhan päivä vielä huomennakin" "Elän itselleni" List of best-selling music artists in Finland The Official Site Popeda site by Jyrki Hietanen