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Great Retreat

The Great Retreat known as the Retreat from Mons, is the name given to the long withdrawal to the River Marne, in August and September 1914, by the British Expeditionary Force and the French Fifth Army, Allied forces on the Western Front in the First World War, after their defeat by the armies of the German Empire at the Battle of Charleroi and the Battle of Mons. A counter-offensive by the Fifth Army, with some assistance from the BEF at the First Battle of Guise, failed to end the German advance and the Franco-British retreat continued to and beyond the Marne. From 5 to 12 September, the First Battle of the Marne ended the Allied retreat and forced the German armies to retire towards the Aisne river and fight the First Battle of the Aisne. Reciprocal attempts to outflank the opposing armies to the north known as the Race to the Sea followed; the Battle of the Frontiers is a general name for all of the operations of the French armies until the Battle of the Marne. A series of encounter battles began between the German and Belgian armies, on the German-French frontier and in southern Belgium on 4 August 1914.

The Battle of Mulhouse was the first French offensive of World War I against Germany. The French captured Mulhouse until forced out by a German counter-attack on 11 August and fell back toward Belfort; the main French offensive, the Battle of Lorraine, began with the Battles of Morhange and Sarrebourg advances by the First Army on Sarrebourg and the Second Army towards Morhange. Château Salins near Morhange was Sarrebourg the next day; the German 6th and 7th armies counter-attacked on 20 August, the Second Army was forced back from Morhange and the First Army was repulsed at Sarrebourg. The German armies were stopped to the east of the city. To the south the French retook Mulhouse on 19 August and withdrew. On 24 August at the Battle of the Mortagne, a limited German offensive in the Vosges, the Germans managed a small advance, before a French counter-attack retook the ground. By 20 August a German counter-offensive in Lorraine had begun and the German 4th and 5th Armies advanced through the Ardennes on 19 August towards Neufchâteau.

An offensive by French Third and Fourth armies through the Ardennes began on 20 August, in support of the French invasion of Lorraine. The opposing armies met in the French mistook the German troops for screening forces. On 22 August the Battle of the Ardennes began with French attacks, which were costly to both sides and forced the French into a disorderly retreat late on 23 August; the Third Army recoiled towards Verdun, pursued by the 5th Army and the Fourth Army retreated to Sedan and Stenay. Mulhouse was recaptured again by German forces and the Battle of the Meuse 26–28 August), caused a temporary halt of the German advance. Liège was occupied by the Germans on 7 August, the first units of the BEF landed in France and French troops crossed the German frontier. On 12 August, the Battle of Haelen was fought by German and Belgian cavalry and infantry and was a Belgian defensive success; the BEF completed its move of four divisions and a cavalry division to France on 16 August, as the last Belgian fort of the Position fortifiée de Liège surrendered.

The Belgian government withdrew from Brussels on 18 August and the German army attacked the Belgian field army at the Battle of the Gete. Next day the Belgian army began to retire towards Antwerp. Further west, the Fifth Army had concentrated on the Sambre by 20 August, facing north either side of Charleroi and east towards the Belgian fortress of Namur. On the left, the Cavalry Corps linked with the BEF at Mons. By 20 August, the Fifth Army had begun to concentrate on a 40 km front along the Sambre, centred on Charleroi and extending east to the Belgian fortress of Namur. On the left flank, the Sordet Cavalry Corps linked the Fifth Army to the British Expeditionary Force at Mons. General Joseph Joffre ordered Lanrezac to attack across the Sambre but this attack was forestalled by the German 2nd Army on the morning of 21 August, which crossed the Sambre, establishing two bridgeheads which the French, lacking artillery, were unable to reduce. Bülow attacked again on 22 August with three corps against the entire Fifth Army front.

Fighting continued on 23 August. The German 3rd Army crossed the Meuse and launched an attack against the French right flank, held by I Corps; the French delivered a counter-attack. The Fifth Army was confronted by the German 2nd armies from the east and the north. Before the Fifth Army could attack over the Sambre the 2nd Army attacked at the Battle of Charleroi and at Namur on 21 August; the 3rd Army crossed the Meuse and attacked the French right flank and on 23 August, the Fifth Army began a retirement southwards to avoid encirclement. The Battle of Mons was a subsidiary action of the Battle of the Frontiers, the BEF attempted to hold the line of the Mons–Condé Canal against the advancing German 1st Army. During 23 August the Germans concentrated on the British at the salient formed by a loop in the canal. At 9:00 a.m. the Germans attempted to cross four bridges over the canal at the salient. By the afternoon the British position in the salient had become untenable. At 3:00 p.m. the 3rd Divisi

Donald S. Whitehead

Donald Strehle Whitehead was a Republican politician from Idaho. He served a combined six years as the 23rd and 28th Lieutenant Governor of Idaho between 1939 and 1951. Whitehead was first elected lieutenant governor in 1938 and served in the first administration of Governor C. A. Bottolfsen, he served a four-year term under Governor C. A. Robins, he served as Speaker of the Idaho State House of Representatives. In June 1947 Whitehead reported seeing a UFO in Boise; the same day pilot Kenneth Arnold said. The reported sightings received national media coverage. 1947 St. Louis Post-Dispatch article on Whitehead's UFO sighting

Mauritius Vogt

Johann Georg Vogt, better known by his monastic name Mauritius Vogt, was a geographer, musician, historian and a member of the Cistercian Order. Vogt was born in Bavaria; as a child he came with a geodesist, to a monastery in Plasy in Western Bohemia. He was educated there, before studying Theology at Charles University in Prague. After graduating, he returned to Plasy and joined the order in 1692, taking the monastic name Mauritius, he was ordained as a priest in 1698. Apart from occasional trips to Italy and Germany to study music, temporary stays at the residences of his aristocratic supporters, most of his life is connected with the monastery in Plasy and its surroundings, his main focus while at the monastery was music. In 1724 he was appointed Superior at Mariánská Týnice, a pilgrimage church connected to the monastery, he held this position until his death. Vogt’s first published and most famous work entitled Das jetzlebende Königreich Böhmen, an introduction to the geography and history of Bohemia, was printed in 1712 in Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig.

The book became celebrated for its copperplate illustrations and plans. It includes a total of 45 engravings depicting views and ground plans of Bohemian towns and monasteries, as well as a large detailed map of Bohemia; this valued map was added to the book as a separate supplement, is thus found in volumes today. Das jetzlebende Königreich Böhmen contains an engraving depicting Roudnice, the seat of the Lobkowicz family, in the early 18th century, including the ruined bridge over the Elbe river; the original Gothic bridge constructed in 1333–1340 was first damaged by the Army of the Czech Estates shortly after the Battle of White Mountain in 1620 and completely demolished by Swedish troops in 1634. Though there was a plan to reconstruct the bridge over the river during the radical rebuilding of the castle and the town under Václav Eusebius, 2nd Prince Lobkowicz in the late 17th century, a new bridge over the river was constructed only in 1910. Among the engravings included in the book is a view of the capital Prague, divided into two parts.

The first copperplate presents the Prague Castle, Lesser Town and Charles Bridge, while the second part depicts a view over the river Vltava toward the Old Town, New Town and the fort Vyšehrad. The copperplates were engraved by Christoph Friedrich Krieger. An exhibition of Vogt's work was hosted at the Lobkowicz Palace in Prague, until 31 May 2015

Campus Martius

The Campus Martius was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 square kilometres in extent. In the Middle Ages, it was the most populous area of Rome; the IV rione of Rome, Campo Marzio, which covers a smaller section of the original area, bears the same name. According to Rome's foundation myth, prior to the founding of the city, Rhea Silvia had her twin sons and Remus, taken by the King of Alba Longa; the boys were discarded in the swelling Tiber River, which would run along the Campus’ western boundary. Washing ashore further downriver, the brothers would return decades to found a new city. Romulus, who became Rome's sole king, ruled for many years until sometime in the seventh century B. C; as he came to the end of his life, a storm cloud descended upon the center of the open field outside the city's pomerium in order to lift the elderly king to heaven. This land, “between the city and the Tiber,” became the property of Rome's last Etruscan king Tarquinius Superbus. After his defeat and exile, the plain was dedicated to the god Mars.

Roman men assembled every spring before heading off to fight the hostile tribes that surrounded Rome, citizens gathered for important religious festivals. With the exception of a small altar to Mars near the center of the field, no visible changes were made to the field until the fifth century B. C. In 435 B. C. the Villa Publica was established in a prepared 300m clearing. The area was a gathering space for citizens to congregate every five years, to be counted in a census but had no permanent structures. With the advent of the Punic Wars in the mid-third century B. C. Roman military expansion moved out of the Italian peninsula, resulting in the reduction of seasonal musters on the field; the number of foreign wars, however increased the amount of wealth flowing into Rome. Generals who had sworn to various deities to build temples in their honor if victorious, used the vast amounts of wealth to fund these construction projects. Besides temples and wooden markets, entertainment venues were built though they were to be temporary.

Starting in the time of Sulla, building lots were sold or granted to influential Romans, insulae and villas encroached on the common land. It became the place for comitia centuriata, civic meetings with weapons, for the city's militia. In 55 BC, Pompey constructed a permanent theater, the Theatrum Pompeium, the first stone theater in Rome; when the Curia Hostilia burnt down in 52 BC, the theater was sometimes used as a meeting place for the Senate. The area was used as the assembling ground for elections. Julius Caesar planned for the Saepta to be placed there. In 33 BC, Octavian dedicated the Porticus Octaviae, built from spoils of the Dalmatian War. During the Augustan period of the early Roman Empire, the area became part of the city: Rome was split into 14 regions, the Campus Martius was divided into the VII Via Lata on the east and the IX Circus Flaminius nearer to the river; the Campus Martius held the Ara Pacis, built by the Senate to mark the establishment of peace by Augustus. It was intended to symbolize the successful completion of Augustus' efforts to stabilize the Empire.

Marcus Agrippa had the original swampy ground made into a pool and baths in a setting of parkland and temples, the Laconicum Sudatorium or Baths of Agrippa. He built the Porticus Argonautarum and the Pantheon, rebuilt by Hadrian as it still stands today. In 19 BC, he completed the Aqua Virgo, to supply water to these new baths and fountains. In the non-populated northern area was the huge Mausoleum of Augustus. Other buildings that were made were the Theatre of Marcellus, the Temple for Isis, the baths and bridge by Nero, Pompey's Theatre, where Julius Caesar was murdered by Marcus Brutus and his allies. After the great fire of 64 A. D. Domitian rebuilt the burnt monuments plus an Odeion. In 119 A. D, reinforcing the themes of imperial divinity and apotheosis established by Augustus and the succeeding Antonines added a temple to Hadrian's mother-in-law, the Divine Matidia, a temple to the Divine Hadrian himself built by Antoninus Pius; as was the case with the first two Flavian and Antonine emperors, the Severans did not commit many resources to construction projects in an crowded Campus Martius.

Their interests lay elsewhere in repairs and commissioning new structures in other regions of the capital. The Campus did not see another major architectural change until the reign of Aurelian; the citizens of Rome took great pride in knowing that Rome required no fortifications because of the stability brought by the Pax Romana under the protection of the Roman Army. In 270 A. D. however, barbarian tribes flooded across the Germanic frontier and reached northern Italy as the Roman Army struggled to stop them. To alleviate the city's vulnerability, the emperor ordered the construction of a 19-kilometer-long, 6- to 8-meter-high brick wall, fortified with defensive turrets, named the Aurelian Walls. Aurelian did not live to see his work completed under his successor Probus, in 276 A. D. With the completion of the walls, the Campus Martius was incorporated into the rest of the city. By the mid-fourth century, when emperor Constantius II visited Rome, now the former capital, many of the pagan temples were closed.

Buildings dedicated to Christianity began to occupy their spaces. Some were reduced to supporting material, some were

Tissue factor

Tissue factor called platelet tissue factor, factor III, or CD142, is a protein encoded by the F3 gene, present in subendothelial tissue and leukocytes. Its role in the clotting process is the initiation of thrombin formation from the zymogen prothrombin. Thromboplastin defines the cascade that leads to the activation of factor X—the tissue factor pathway. In doing so, it has replaced the named extrinsic pathway in order to eliminate ambiguity; the F3 gene encodes coagulation factor III, a cell surface glycoprotein. This factor enables cells to initiate the blood coagulation cascades, it functions as the high-affinity receptor for the coagulation factor VII; the resulting complex provides a catalytic event, responsible for initiation of the coagulation protease cascades by specific limited proteolysis. Unlike the other cofactors of these protease cascades, which circulate as nonfunctional precursors, this factor is a potent initiator, functional when expressed on cell surfaces. There are three distinct domains of this factor: extracellular and cytoplasmic.

This protein is the only one in the coagulation pathway for which a congenital deficiency has not been described. In addition to the membrane-bound tissue factor, soluble form of tissue factor was found which results from alternatively spliced tissue factor mRNA transcripts, in which exon 5 is absent and exon 4 is spliced directly to exon 6. TF is the cell surface receptor for the serine protease factor VIIa; the best known function of tissue factor is its role in blood coagulation. The complex of TF with factor VIIa catalyzes the conversion of the inactive protease factor X into the active protease factor Xa. Together with factor VIIa, tissue factor forms the tissue factor or extrinsic pathway of coagulation; this is opposed to the intrinsic pathway, which involves both activated factor IX and factor VIII. Both pathways lead to the activation of factor X, which combines with activated factor V in the presence of calcium and phospholipid to produce thrombin. TF is related to a protein family known as the cytokine receptor class II family.

The members of this receptor family are activated by cytokines. Cytokines are small proteins. Binding of VIIa to TF has been found to start signaling processes inside the cell; the signaling function of TF/VIIa plays a role in apoptosis. Pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic responses are activated by TF/VIIa mediated-cleavage by the protease-activated receptor 2. EphB2 and EphA2 of the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor family can be cleaved by TF/VIIa. Tissue factor belongs to the cytokine receptor protein superfamily and consists of three domains: an extracellular domain, which consists of two fibronectin type III modules whose hydrophobic cores merge in the domain-domain interface; this serves as a template for factor VIIa binding. A transmembrane domain. A cytosolic domain of 21 amino acids length inside the cell, involved in the signaling function of TF. Note that one of factor VIIa's domains, GLA domain, binds in the presence of calcium to negatively charged phospholipids, this binding enhances factor VIIa binding to tissue factor.

Some cells release TF in response to blood vessel damage and some do only in response to inflammatory mediators. TF is expressed by cells which are not exposed to flowing blood, such as sub-endothelial cells and cells surrounding blood vessels; this can change when the blood vessel is damaged by, for example, physical injury or rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Exposure of TF-expressing cells during injury allows the complex formation of TF with factor VII. Factor VII and TF form an equimolar complex in the presence of calcium ions, leading to the activation of factor VII on a membrane surface; the inner surface of the blood vessel consists of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells do not express TF except when they are exposed to inflammatory molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Another cell type that expresses TF on the cell surface in inflammatory conditions is the monocyte. Thromboplastin was a lab reagent derived from placental sources, used to assay prothrombin times. Thromboplastin, by itself, could activate the extrinsic coagulation pathway.

When manipulated in the laboratory, a derivative could be created called partial thromboplastin, used to measure the intrinsic pathway. This test is called activated partial thromboplastin time, it was not until much that the subcomponents of thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin were identified. Thromboplastin contains phospholipids as well as tissue factor, both of which are needed in the activation of the extrinsic pathway, whereas partial thromboplastin does not contain tissue factor. Tissue factor is not needed to activate the intrinsic pathway. Tissue factor has been shown to interact with Factor VII. Hemostasis Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 134390 PDB Molecule of the Month Tissue factor—March 2006 PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Tissue factor

Satellite Town, Rawalpindi

Satellite Town is a neighbourhood locality and a Union Council Of Rawalpindi City of Rawalpindi District in Punjab, Pakistan. It is located close to the capital city Islamabad. Several notable educational institutions are located in the town, including Barani Institute of Information Technology, PMAS, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi a campus of the Rawalpindi Medical College, a campus of the Punjab College of Commerce; the IIUI Schools network, The City School and the Beacon School System have local campuses. Pakistan's top university, Quaid-i-Azam University, was established here before being shifted to its current location in 1971; the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Rawalpindi was headquartered here, before being moved to Morgah near Attock Refinery, Rawalpindi