Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the south-eastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe during the country's Late Iron Age. Construction on the city began in the 11th century and continued until it was abandoned in the 15th century; the edifices were erected by the ancestral Shona. The stone city spans an area of 7.22 square kilometres which, at its peak, could have housed up to 18,000 people. It is recognised as a World Heritage site by UNESCO. Great Zimbabwe is believed to have served as a royal palace for the local monarch; as such, it would have been used as the seat of political power. Among the edifice's most prominent features were its walls, some of which were over five metres high, they were constructed without mortar. The city was abandoned and fell into ruin; the earliest known written mention of the Great Zimbabwe ruins was in 1531 by Vicente Pegado, captain of the Portuguese garrison of Sofala, on the coast of modern-day Mozambique, who recorded it as Symbaoe.
The first confirmed visits by Europeans were in the late 19th century, with investigations of the site starting in 1871. Studies of the monument were controversial in the archaeological world, with political pressure being put upon archaeologists by the government of Rhodesia to deny its construction by native African people. Great Zimbabwe has since been adopted as a national monument by the Zimbabwean government, the modern independent state was named after it; the word great distinguishes the site from the many hundreds of small ruins, now known as "zimbabwes", spread across the Zimbabwe Highveld. There are 200 such sites in southern Africa, such as Bumbusi in Zimbabwe and Manyikeni in Mozambique, with monumental, mortarless walls. Zimbabwe is the Shona name of the ruins, first recorded in 1531 by Vicente Pegado, Captain of the Portuguese Garrison of Sofala. Pegado noted that "The natives of the country call these edifices Symbaoe, which according to their language signifies'court'"; the name contains dzimba, the Shona term for "houses".
There are two theories for the etymology of the name. The first proposes that the word is derived from Dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "large houses of stone". A second suggests that Zimbabwe is a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona, as applied to the houses or graves of chiefs; the majority of scholars believe that it was built by members of the Gokomere culture, who were ancestors of modern Shona in Zimbabwe. The Great Zimbabwe area was settled by the fourth century AD. Between the fourth and the seventh centuries, communities of the Gokomere or Ziwa cultures farmed the valley, mined and worked iron, but built no stone structures; these are the earliest Iron Age settlements in the area identified from archaeological diggings. Construction of the stone buildings continued for over 300 years; the ruins at Great Zimbabwe are some of the oldest and largest structures located in Southern Africa, are the second oldest after nearby Mapungubwe in South Africa.
Its most formidable edifice referred to as the Great Enclosure, has walls as high as 11 m extending 250 m, making it the largest ancient structure south of the Sahara Desert. David Beach believes that the city and its state, the Kingdom of Zimbabwe, flourished from 1200 to 1500, although a somewhat earlier date for its demise is implied by a description transmitted in the early 1500s to João de Barros, its growth has been linked to the decline of Mapungubwe from around 1300, due to climatic change or the greater availability of gold in the hinterland of Great Zimbabwe. Traditional estimates are. However, a more recent survey concluded that the population never exceeded 10,000; the ruins that survive are built of stone. In 1531, Vicente Pegado, Captain of the Portuguese Garrison of Sofala, described Zimbabwe thus: Among the gold mines of the inland plains between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers there is a fortress built of stones of marvelous size, there appears to be no mortar joining them....
This edifice is surrounded by hills, upon which are others resembling it in the fashioning of stone and the absence of mortar, one of them is a tower more than 12 fathoms high. The natives of the country call these edifices Symbaoe, which according to their language signifies court; the ruins form three distinct architectural groups. They are known as the Valley Complex and the Great Enclosure; the Hill Complex is the oldest, was occupied from the ninth to thirteenth centuries. The Great Enclosure was occupied from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, the Valley Complex from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries. Notable features of the Hill Complex include the Eastern Enclosure, in which it is thought the Zimbabwe Birds stood, a high balcony enclosure overlooking the Eastern Enclosure, a huge boulder in a shape similar to that of the Zimbabwe Bird; the Great Enclosure is composed of an inner wall, encircling a series of structures and a younger outer wall. The Conical Tower, 5.5 m in diameter and 9 m high, was constructed between the two walls.
The Valley Complex is divided into the Upper and Lower Valley Ruins, with different periods of occupation. There are different archaeological interpretations of these groupings, it has been suggested that the complexes represent the work of successive kings: some of the new rulers founded a new residence. The focus of p
Kfar Kisch is a moshav in northern Israel. Located adjacent to Mount Tabor, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lower Galilee Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 592, it was established in 1946 by Jewish soldiers demobilised from the British Army after World War II having served under Frederick Kisch, after whom the village was named. However political fractures led many of the founders to leave within the first year. A water shortage which forced the residents to transport water from the Tabor stream without proper equipment added to the problems, until 1953 a steady stream of founding residents left the village. In that year conditions improved and Kfar Kisch began to absorb Jewish immigrants from Poland and the Soviet Union. Part of the village's land belonged to the depopulated Palestinian village of Ma'dhar, south of the old village site
Crime and Punishment in Suburbia is a 2000 film directed by Rob Schmidt and starring Monica Keena, Ellen Barkin, Michael Ironside, James DeBello and Vincent Kartheiser. The film is a contemporary fable loosely based on Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Punishment. Roseanne is outwardly a popular teen, who suffers from a dysfunctional home life, her mother begins an affair with a local man and leaves her to live alone with her alcoholic stepfather. One night during an alcohol-fueled rage, he rapes Roseanne. Traumatized, she decides to take things into her own hands. With the participation of her devoted and clueless boyfriend Jimmy the twosome murder her stepfather in retribution, but Roseanne's conscience begins to unravel afterwards; the story is narrated by one of Roseanne's classmates, Vincent, a boy, as concerned with Roseanne's well-being as he is obsessed with her. As the plot develops he forges a relationship with her, consoling her and giving her advice while trying to point her toward redemption. In the end it becomes possible that he might be her only salvation.
Monica Keena as Roseanne Skolnick Ellen Barkin as Maggie Skolnick Michael Ironside as Fred Skolnick Vincent Kartheiser as Vincent James DeBello as Jimmy Jeffrey Wright as Chris Conchata Ferrell as Bella Marshall Teague as Coach Nicki Aycox as Cecil Bonnie Somerville as Stuck Up Girl Lucinda Jenney as Vincent's Mom Blake Shields as Moznick Tommy Bush as Chief Judson Brad Greenquist as Calvin Berry The film was nominated for the Grand Jury Prize, Dramatic at the 2000 Sundance Film Festival. Crime and Punishment in Suburbia on IMDb Crime and Punishment in Suburbia at AllMovie Crime and Punishment in Suburbia at Box Office Mojo Crime and Punishment in Suburbia at Rotten Tomatoes
Whitehall High School is a public high school, based in Whitehall Township, Pennsylvania, in Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley region, in the United States. It is the only high school in the Whitehall-Coplay School District; as of the 2006-2007 academic school year, 1,393 students attend the school. Whitehall High School is located at 3800 Mechanicsville Road; the school's mascot is the Zephyr, a train that used to travel through Whitehall Township, school colors are maroon and vegas gold. Whitehall's primary athletic rivals are Parkland High School, located in South Whitehall Township, Emmaus High School, located in Emmaus, Northampton Area High School, located in Northampton. In 2007, Whitehall High School earned second place in the Scholastic Scrimmage final. Whitehall High School has won several Freddy Awards for their play and musical productions, including: In 2016, a Freddy Award for the production of Guys and Dolls: "Outstanding Stage Crew". In 2015, Whitehall High School won two awards for their production of How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying: "Outstanding Use of Scenery" and "Outstanding Stage Crew," both of which are the second consecutive year that Whitehall has won these awards.
In 2014, Whitehall High School won three Freddy Awards for its production of South Pacific, including "Outstanding Use of Scenery," "Outstanding Stage Crew," and "Outstanding Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role". In 2011, Whitehall High School won one Freddy Award for:Outstanding Overall Production of a Musical" for the production of Li'l Abner. In 2007, Whitehall High School won five Freddy Awards, including "Best Overall Production," "Best Actor," "Best Solo Vocal Performance," "Best Costume Design," and "Best Small Ensemble Performance" for the production of The Scarlet Pimpernel. In 2006, Whitehall High School won three Freddy Awards, including "Best Actor," "Best Featured Dancer," and "Best Costume Design" for the production of Barnum. Whitehall High School is one of 18 high schools that comprise the East Penn Conference considered one of the highest quality athletic conferences in Pennsylvania. Prior to 2014 the 12 Lehigh Valley schools in this conference were in the Lehigh Valley Conference.
Whitehall is in District XI of the PIAA. Whitehall High School has graduated three notable NFL players: Dan Koppen, a former starting offensive center for the New England Patriots, Matt Millen, a former defensive linebacker with three Super Bowl-winning teams, Saquon Barkley, a running back, taken 2nd overall in the 2018 NFL Draft by the New York Giants, to which he is their current starting running back, winner of the 2018 NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year. Millen's career as President and General Manager of the Detroit Lions has been a subject of criticism. Between them, Whitehall alumni have won six Super Bowls, with Koppen winning two with the Patriots and Millen winning two with the Oakland Raiders, one with the San Francisco 49ers and one with the Washington Redskins. Both players' Whitehall jerseys have been permanently retired in honor of their football accomplishments. Whitehall has distinguished itself nationally and in the state of Pennsylvania with the following state and national championships: Boys Basketball: 1982.
Cheerleading: 2001. Wrestling: 2001 and 2002. Indoor Percussion: 2003 Concert Percussion Champions. Marching Zephyr Band: 2006 State and All-State Champions, 2007 State Champions; the Marching Zephyr Band has become 2017, 2018, 2019 Cavalcade of Bands American Open Class Champions. Whitehall has won many conference championships, including the following sports and years: Baseball: 1966, 1972, 1974, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1984, 2004, 2005 and 2008. Boys Basketball: 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2005. Cheerleading: 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992 and 2001. Football: 1976, 1978, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1986, 1989, 1995, 1997, 1998 and 2005. Girls Basketball: 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988, 1989 and 2000. Girls Softball: 1979, 1988 and 1989. Boys Volleyball: 2010. Girls Soccer: 2011. Whitehall holds the record for the most Lehigh Valley Conference championships in boys basketball. Saquon Barkley, professional football player, New York Giants, 2018 NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year Kailyn Lowry,Reality TV star, 16 and pregnant,Teen Mom.
Brian Knobbs, former professional wrestler Dan Koppen, former professional football player, Denver Broncos and New England Patriots and two-time Super Bowl champion Peter Lisicky, former college basketball player, Penn State Nittany Lions Matt Millen, former professional football player, Oakland Raiders, San Francisco 49ers and Washington Redskins, 4-time Super Bowl champion, former President and General Manarger of Detroit Lions and current broadcaster, ESPN, NFL Network and Big Ten Network Jerry Sags, former professional wrestler Dave Schneck, professional baseball player Curt Simmons, former professional baseball player, California Angels, Chicago Cubs, Philadelphia Phillies and St. Louis Cardinals, 3-time All-Star, 1964 World Series champion Whitehall High School Official Website Whitehall High School athletics Whitehall High School at Facebook Whitehall High School at Twitter
Eloy Casagrande is a Brazilian drummer, best known as the current drummer of Brazilian thrash metal act Sepultura and hard rock act Iahweh. Casagrande replaced Jean Dolabella in Sepultura, who left the band in November 2011, is their youngest member. Casagrande is known for his time with power metal singer Andre Matos and post-hardcore/metalcore group Gloria. Casagrande began playing at age seven. After a year he got a real drum kit. In 2004, at age 13, he was the big winner of the Batuka International Drummer Fest, sponsored by Vera Figueiredo. Casagrande won Modern Drummer's Undiscovered Drummer Contest 2006 in New Jersey, the following year, toured the United States. – Mentalize with Andre Matos – Neblim with Iahweh – Landscape Revolution with Aclla – Nascido with Gloria – The Mediator Between Head and Hands Must Be the Heart with Sepultura – "Over Dee Moon" / "5 Years Thinking Outside Your Box" with Daniel Piquê – Machine Messiah with Sepultura - Quadra with Sepultura
In mathematics, a distinctive feature of algebraic geometry is that some line bundles on a projective variety can be considered "positive", while others are "negative". The most important notion of positivity is that of an ample line bundle, although there are several related classes of line bundles. Speaking, positivity properties of a line bundle are related to having many global sections. Understanding the ample line bundles on a given variety X amounts to understanding the different ways of mapping X into projective space. In view of the correspondence between line bundles and divisors, there is an equivalent notion of an ample divisor. In more detail, a line bundle is called basepoint-free if it has enough sections to give a morphism to projective space. A line bundle is semi-ample. More a line bundle on X is ample if it has enough sections to give a closed immersion of X into projective space. A line bundle is ample if some positive power is ample. An ample line bundle on a projective variety X has positive degree on every curve in X.
The converse is not quite true, but there are corrected versions of the converse, the Nakai–Moishezon and Kleiman criteria for ampleness. Given a morphism f: X → Y of schemes, a vector bundle E on Y has a pullback to X, f ∗ E; the pullback of a vector bundle is a vector bundle of the same rank. In particular, the pullback of a line bundle is a line bundle; the notions described in this article are related to this construction in the case of a morphism to projective space f: X → P n, with E = O the line bundle on projective space whose global sections are the homogeneous polynomials of degree 1 in variables x 0, …, x n. The line bundle O can be described as the line bundle associated to a hyperplane in P n. If f is a closed immersion, for example, it follows that the pullback f ∗ O is the line bundle on X associated to a hyperplane section. Let X be a scheme over a field k with a line bundle L. Let a 0... a n be elements of the k-vector space H 0 of global sections of L. The zero set of each section is a closed subset of X.
These sections define a morphism f: U → P k n, x ↦. In more detail: for each point x of U, the fiber of L over x is a 1-dimensional vector space over the residue field k. Choosing a basis for this fiber makes a 0, …, a n into a sequence of n+1 numbers, not all zero, hence a point in projective space. Changing the choice of basis scales all the numbers by the same nonzero constant, so the point in projective space is independent of the choice. Moreover, this morphism has the property that the restriction of L to U is isomorphic to the pullback f ∗ O; the base locus of a line bundle L on a scheme X is the intersection of the zero sets of all global sections of L. A line bundle L is called basepoint-free; that is, for every point x of X there is a global section of L, nonzero at x. If X is proper over a field k the vector space H 0 of global sections has finite dimension. So a basepoint-free line bundle L determines a morphism f: X → P n over k, where n = h 0 − 1, given by choosing a basis for H