Walter Bonatti was an Italian mountain climber and journalist. Immediately after his extraordinary solo climb on the Matterhorn Bonatti announced his retirement from professional climbing at the age of 35 and he authored many mountaineering books and spent the remainder of his career travelling off the beaten track as a reporter for the Italian magazine Epoca. He died on 13 September 2011 of pancreatic cancer in Rome aged 81, and was survived by his life partner, famed for his climbing panache, he pioneered little known and technically difficult climbs in the Alps and Patagonia. Son of a family, Bonatti soon started practising gymnastics in a sport association in Monza. The physical strength and balance he developed here would prove to be crucial skills when Bonatti was introduced to climbing at age 18, Bonatti started climbing on the Grigna, a rocky mountain of the Italian Prealps, where he spent the summer of 1948 climbing intensively. This last route had been climbed for the first time in 1938 by Riccardo Cassin and consists of 1,200 metres of rock-climbing with UIAA difficulty of IV and V and one step of VI+.
In less than two years since he started climbing, Bonatti had already joined the circle of the best Italian climbers. Bonatti had limited means and his first climbs were done with very basic equipment. During the first years Bonatti worked in a mill and climbed on Sunday directly after the Saturday night shift. They climbed a few pitches before being forced back by a storm, three weeks later, together with Luciano Ghigo another attempt was made. In 1951 the same team tried again to climb the east face of the Grand Capucin and they started the climb on 20 July in good weather conditions. In two days they got close to the summit but again the weather worsened and they had to spend a day on the face in a hanging bivouac, the next day, despite bad weather conditions, they managed to successfully complete the climb and return safely to the hut. A few years later, in 1955 and after completing the climb himself, in 1952, Bonatti together with Roberto Bignami opened the first route on the south ridge of the Aiguille Noire de Peuterey.
In February 1953, together with Carlo Mauri he made the first winter ascent of the face of the legendary Cima Ovest di Lavaredo. A few days made the first repetition of the winter ascent of the north face of Cima Grande. Before the end of the 1953 winter, with Roberto Bignami, in the summer of 1953 he achieved the first climb of Mont Blanc by the north gully from the Peuterey Col. In 1954 Bonatti was assigned to the Alpine regiment and for four each week he trained men to climb. With all his achievements he had become an unavoidable selection for the Italian assault on K2, Bonatti was the youngest participant of the 1954 Italian expedition to K2 organised by Ardito Desio
Piz Badile is a mountain of the Bregaglia range in the Swiss canton of Graubünden and the Italian region of Lombardy, the border between the two countries running along the summit ridge. Its north-east face, overlooking the Swiss Val Bregaglia near Soglio, is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. The first ascent of Piz Badile was by W. A. B. Coolidge with guides François Devouassoud, the mountain had first come to the notice of British alpinists from D. W. Freshfields writings of the 1860s. He gave the name the Grey Twins to Piz Badile and Piz Cengalo, the two classic routes on Piz Badile are the north ridge and the Cassin Route on the north-east face. The north ridge – the Badilekante – was first prospected solo by the Swiss guide Christian Klucker in 1892, after several unsuccessful attempts by Italian parties in 1911, the ridge finally fell to Alfred Zürcher with the guide Walter Risch on 4 August 1923. F. lOrsa and André Roch found a direct line on the ridge on the second ascent.
Molteni and Valsecchi were already on the face when Cassin and his party started out, in this famous alpine epic, Molteni died of exhaustion and exposure on the summit, whilst Valsecchi died on the descent by the south ridge just before reaching the hut. The name Badile means spade or shovel, giannetti hut Sasc Furä hut Sciora hut Piz Badile on SummitPost Piz Badile on Hikr An account of an ascent of the north-east face of Piz Badile in 1961
The Eiger is a 3, 970-metre mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m, constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1, 800-metre-high north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand and this huge face towers over the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys. The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington, the north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition. The Eiger has been publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand.
They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe, the two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand and Eismeer, at around 3,000 metres. The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, the three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin, the Monk, and the Ogre. The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning sharp or pointed, the Eiger is located within the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, between the valleys and municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. It is located 2.2 km northeast of the Mönch and 5.6 km northeast of the Jungfrau, the nearest settlements are Grindelwald and Wengen. The Eiger has three faces, north and southeast, the east ridge from the summit to the Ostegg, named Mittellegi, is the longest on the Eiger. The north face overlooks the pass and resort of Kleine Scheidegg, or more precisely the region east of it, the latter mountain pass lies between the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and connects the lower Männlichen-Tschuggen range to the Eiger.
All the aforementioned localities are connected to Interlaken via mountain railways, all sides of the mountain feed the same river, the Lütschine, through the Weisse Lütschine on the west side and through the Schwarze Lütschine on the east side. Although the north face of the Eiger is almost free of ice, on the east side, the Eismeer flows from the Mönch down to 1,300 m through the Lower Grindelwald Glacier system, which feeds the Schwarze Lütschine. The massive wall of the Jungfrau, Mönch and Eiger itself constitutes an emblematic sight of the Swiss Alps and is visible from many places on the Swiss Plateau. The higher Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn, which are located about 10 km to the south, are less visible. The whole area, the Jungfrau-Aletsch, comprising the highest summits, in July 2006, a piece of the Eiger amounting to approximately 700,000 cubic metres of rock fell from the east face. As it had been noticeably cleaving for several weeks and fell into an area, there were no injuries
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Tre Cime di Lavaredo
The Tre Cime di Lavaredo, called the Drei Zinnen, are three distinctive battlement-like peaks, in the Sexten Dolomites of northeastern Italy. They are probably one of the mountain groups in the Alps. The three peaks, from east to west, Cima Piccola / Kleine Zinne Cima Grande / Große Zinne Cima Ovest / Westliche Zinne. The peaks are composed of well-layered dolostones of the Dolomia Principale formation, Carnian to Rhaetian in age, until 1919 the peaks formed part of the border between Italy and Austria. Now they lie on the border between the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Belluno and still are a part of the boundary between German-speaking and Italian-speaking majorities. The Cima Grande has an elevation of 2,999 metres and it stands between the Cima Piccola, at 2,857 metres, and the Cima Ovest, at 2,973 metres. The first ascent of the Cima Grande was on August 21,1869, the Cima Ovest was first climbed exactly ten years later, on August 21,1879, by Michel Innerkofler with G. Ploner, a tourist.
The Cima Piccola was first climbed on July 25,1881, by Michel, the routes of these three first ascents are still the normal ascent routes, the Cima Piccolas route is the most difficult of the three. Emilio Comici was the first to climb the face of the Cima Grande in 1933 in a party of three, after an ascent time of 3 days and 2 nights. This partly overhanging northern face is considered by climbers to be one of the north faces of the Alps. Numerous routes lead from the communities to and around the peaks. The most common route is from Paternkofel/Monte Paterno to the alpine hut Auronzo at 2,333 m, over Paternsattel to the alpine hut Dreizinnenhütte/Locatelli at 2,405 m, there are a number of other routes as well. Since the front line between Italy and Austria during World War I ran through these mountains, there are a number of fortifications, man-made caves, nearby communities include Auronzo di Cadore, Toblach/Dobbiaco, Sexten/Sesto, and the Puster Valley. The area has staged many finishes in Giro dItalia, List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Lake Misurina Huber, Willi Schwenkmeier.
Die Kämpfe im Drei-Zinnen-Gebiet und am Kreuzberg bei Sexten 1915-1917, Auronzo di Cadore Cai Auronzo The Great War in the Dolomites 360° Panorama view Homepage of the Tourism Authority
Aiguille du Dru
The Aiguille du Dru is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. It is situated to the east of the village of Les Praz in the Chamonix valley, the mountains highest summit is Grande Aiguille du Dru 3,754 m Another, slightly lower sub-summit is, Petite Aiguille du Dru 3,733 m. The two summits are located on the west ridge of the Aiguille Verte and are connected to other by the Brèche du Dru. The north face of the Petit Dru is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. Dent, in his description of the climb, Those who follow us, taken together, it affords the most continuously interesting rock climb with which I am acquainted. There is no wearisome tramp over moraine, no great extent of snow fields to traverse, sleeping out as we did, it would be possible to ascend and return to Chamonix in about 16 to 18 hrs. But the mountain is never safe when snow is on the rocks, the best time for the expedition would be, in ordinary seasons, in the month of August. The rocks are sound and are peculiarly unlike those of other mountains, from the moment the glacier is left, hard climbing begins, and the hands as well as the feet are continuously employed.
The difficulties are therefore enormously increased if the rocks be glazed or cold, the Petit Dru was climbed in the following year, on 29 August 1879, by J. E. Charlet-Straton, P. Payot and F. Follignet via the south face and the south-west ridge. The first traverse of both summits of the Drus was by E. Fontaine and J. Ravanel on 23 August 1901, the first winter traverse of the Drus was by Armand Charlet and Camille Devouassoux on 25 February 1938. In 1889 both peaks of the Dru were climbed for the first time from the Petit Dru to the Grand Dru by two parties. One party contained Katharine Richardson and guides Emile Rey and Jean-Baptiste Bich, and these 1000 m-high rock faces have seen serious rockfalls in 1950,1997,2003,2005 and 2011, which have considerably affected the structure of the mountain and destroyed a number of routes. Seven years later, from 24–26 July 1962, Gary Hemming and Royal Robbins climbed the American Direct, on 10–13 August 1965, Royal Robbins, this time accompanied by John Harlin, climbed the American Direttissima.
This route was destroyed by the 2005 rockfall, on 4 September 1913 a party of climbers led by Camille Simond and Roberts Charlet-Straton attempted to carry a hollow metal statue of Our Lady of Lourdes up the peak. The Aiguille du Dru on SummitPost
Alison Jane Hargreaves was a British mountain climber. Her accomplishments included scaling Mount Everest alone, without oxygen or support from a Sherpa team. She soloed all the north faces of the Alps in a single season—a first for any climber. This feat included climbing the north face of the Eiger in the Alps. Hargreaves climbed 6, 812-metre Ama Dablam in Nepal, in 1995, Hargreaves intended to climb the three highest mountains in the world—Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga—unaided. On 13 May 1995, she reached the summit of Everest without the aid of Sherpas or bottled oxygen, on August 13, she was killed while descending from the summit of K2. K2 is regarded as a more difficult and dangerous climb than Mt Everest. At 6, 45pm, in conditions and Spaniard Javier Olivar reached the summit, followed by American Rob Slater, Spaniards Javier Escartín and Lorenzo Ortíz. All six died in a violent storm while returning from the summit, canadian Jeff Lakes, who had turned back below the summit earlier, managed to reach one of the lower camps but died from the effects of exposure.
The next day, two Spanish climbers, Pepe Garces and Lorenzo Ortas, who had survived the storm at Camp 4, were descending the mountain suffering from frostbite, before reaching Camp 3 they found a bloodstained anorak, a climbing boot, and a harness. They recognized the equipment as belonging to Hargreaves, from Camp 3 they could see a body in the distance. They did not approach the body, so it was not positively identified, see 1995 K2 disaster Hargreaves grew up in Belper and attended Belper High School. Hargreaves was married to James Ballard and she was pregnant with her first child, when she climbed the Eiger north face. Tom Ballard became the first person to climb all of the six great north faces of the Alps in a single winter. List of deaths on K2 British Woman Conquers Everest, peter H. Hansen, ‘Hargreaves, Alison Jane ’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004, online edn, May 2006 Hargreaves, Alison. A Hard Days Summer, Six Classic North Faces Solo, ISBN 0-340-60602-9 Jordan, Jennifer Savage Summit, The True Stories of the First Five Women Who Climbed K2, The Worlds Most Feared Mountain.
Inside Story - Alisons Last Mountain, regions of the Heart, The Triumph and Tragedy of Alison Hargreaves. Alison Hargreaves, The Big Six alpinejournal. org. uk
Catherine Monique Suzanne Destivelle is a French rock climber and mountaineer. In 1992 she became the first woman to complete a solo ascent of the Eigers north face and she completed the climb in winter in 17 hours. Her other notable include the Bonatti Route on the north face of the Matterhorn. Catherine Destivelle was born in Oran, in French Algeria, to French parents, catherine is the eldest of six. Her father was a climber and mountaineer, and both parents were always supportive and encouraging the family in outdoor adventurous activities. When she was a teenager, the family moved to France. At the age of 12, she became a member of the Club alpin français, and started learning bouldering in Fontainebleau, cliff climbing in Burgundy, from the very start, Destivelle showed great skills and enthusiasm for rock climbing and mountaineering. She got to spend time in Fontainebleau, meeting a lot of experienced climbers. At this point she met Pierre Richard, her first rope companion and Richard started to climb in the Alps some high mountaineering and more difficult, classic alpinism.
During four years they climbed, generally at a very fast pace and that year 1985, she started competition, by winning Sportroccia, the very first international competition, which became the Rock Master annual competition. In 1986, along with her compatriot climber Patrick Edlinger, she won again the final ranking of the Arco. In 1990, together with Christine Janin, she participated at the ski mountaineering event Pierra Menta,1990 was the year Destivelle stopped competition climbing, and came back to alpinism, her genuine passion. Meeting Jeff Lowe at this time of her career was a move, because Lowe was one of the most inventive, innovative. Preparing new climbing and expedition projects with him and climbing with him, made her reach yet another giant step of her capabilities, technique. With Érik Decamp, a guide and experienced himalayist, Destivelle climbed the southwest face of Shishapangma, the south face of Annapurna. The couple married in 1996 and their son, was born the following year and she began to cut back on solo climbs in the late 1990s and developed an active career as a lecturer and writer.
With Bruno Dupety since 2011, she became a publisher at Les Editions du Mont Blanc, specialized in books about mountain. During her competition years, Destivelle was considered one of the worlds best sport climbers, the Destivelle Route was the first rock face to be named after a woman
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Grandes Jorasses is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif, on the boundary between Haute-Savoie in France and Aosta Valley in Italy. The first ascent of the highest peak of the mountain was by Horace Walker with guides Melchior Anderegg, Johann Jaun, one of the most famous walls in the Alps, it towers 1200 m above the Leschaux Glacier, stretching 1 km from end to end. The classic route on the face is the Walker Spur which leads directly to the summit of Pointe Walker, the other major buttress on the mountain is the Croz Spur, which leads to the summit of Pointe Croz. In her solo ascents of the six most difficult faces of the Alps. On the Italian side of the mountain, the face can be accessed from the Boccalatte cabin, above the hamlet of Planpincieux in the Italian Val Ferret. The ridge forms the French-Italian border, almost all of which is above 4,000 m, the High Mountains of the Alps. Grandes Jorasses on French IGN mapping portal Grandes Jorasses
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa