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Great white shark

The great white shark known as the great white, white shark or "white pointer", is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The great white shark is notable for its size, with larger female individuals growing to 6.1 m in length and 1,905–2,268 kg in weight at maturity. However, most are smaller. According to a 2014 study, the lifespan of great white sharks is estimated to be as long as 70 years or more, well above previous estimates, making it one of the longest lived cartilaginous fish known. According to the same study, male great white sharks take 26 years to reach sexual maturity, while the females take 33 years to be ready to produce offspring. Great white sharks can swim at speeds of over 56 km/h, can swim to depths of 1,200 m; the great white shark has no known natural predators other than, on rare occasions, the killer whale. The great white shark is arguably the world's largest known extant macropredatory fish, is one of the primary predators of marine mammals, up to the size of large baleen whales.

It is known to prey upon a variety of other marine animals, including fish, seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its genus Carcharodon, is responsible for more recorded human bite incidents than any other shark; the species faces numerous ecological challenges. The IUCN lists the great white shark as a vulnerable species, it is included in Appendix II of CITES, it is protected by several national governments such as Australia. The novel Jaws by Peter Benchley and its subsequent film adaptation by Steven Spielberg depicted the great white shark as a "ferocious man eater". Humans are not the preferred prey of the great white shark, but the great white is responsible for the largest number of reported and identified fatal unprovoked shark attacks on humans; the great white shark was one of the many amphibia described by Linnaeus in the landmark 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, its first scientific name, Squalus carcharias. Sir Andrew Smith gave it Carcharodon as its generic name in 1833, in 1873.

The generic name was identified with Linnaeus' specific name and the current scientific name, Carcharodon carcharias, was finalized. Carcharodon comes from the Ancient Greek words κάρχαρος, ὀδούς, ὀδών; the earliest known fossils of the great white shark are about 16 million years old, during the mid-Miocene epoch. However, the phylogeny of the great white is still in dispute; the original hypothesis for the great white's origins is that it shares a common ancestor with a prehistoric shark, such as the C. megalodon. C. megalodon had teeth that were superficially not too dissimilar with those of great white sharks, but its teeth were far larger. Although cartilaginous skeletons do not fossilize, C. megalodon is estimated to have been larger than the great white shark, estimated at up to 17 m and 59,413 kg. Similarities among the physical remains and the extreme size of both the great white and C. megalodon led many scientists to believe these sharks were related, the name Carcharodon megalodon was applied to the latter.

However, a new hypothesis proposes that the great white are distant relatives. The great white is more related to an ancient mako shark, Isurus hastalis, than to the C. megalodon, a theory that seems to be supported with the discovery of a complete set of jaws with 222 teeth and 45 vertebrae of the extinct transitional species Carcharodon hubbelli in 1988 and published on 14 November 2012. In addition, the new hypothesis assigns C. megalodon to the genus Carcharocles, which comprises the other megatoothed sharks. Great white sharks live in all coastal and offshore waters which have water temperature between 12 and 24 °C, with greater concentrations in the United States, South Africa, Oceania and the Mediterranean including Sea of Marmara and Bosphorus. One of the densest known populations is found around South Africa; the great white is an epipelagic fish, observed in the presence of rich game, such as fur seals, sea lions, other sharks, large bony fish species. In the open ocean, it has been recorded at depths as great as 1,200 m.

These findings challenge the traditional notion. According to a recent study, California great whites have migrated to an area between Baja California Peninsula and Hawaii known as the White Shark Café to spend at least 100 days before migrating back to Baja. On the journey out, they swim and dive down to around 900 m. After they arrive, they do short dives to about 300 m for up to ten minutes. Another white shark, tagged off the South African coast swam to the southern coast of Australia and back within the year. A similar study tracked a different great white shark from South Africa swimming to Australia's northwestern coast and back, a journey of 20,000 km in under nine months; these observations argue against traditional theories that white sharks are coastal territorial predators, open up the possibility of interaction between shark populations that were thought to have been discrete. The reasons for their migration and wha

Agraphia

Agraphia is an acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing, either due to some form of motor dysfunction or an inability to spell. The loss of writing ability may present with neurological disorders; the study of individuals with agraphia may provide more information about the pathways involved in writing, both language related and motoric. Agraphia cannot be directly treated, but individuals can learn techniques to help regain and rehabilitate some of their previous writing abilities; these techniques differ depending on the type of agraphia. Agraphia can be broadly divided into peripheral categories. Central agraphias involve language areas of the brain, causing difficulty spelling or with spontaneous communication, are accompanied by other language disorders. Peripheral agraphias target motor and visuospatial skills in addition to language and tend to involve motoric areas of the brain, causing difficulty in the movements associated with writing.

Central agraphia may be called aphasic agraphia as it involves areas of the brain whose major functions are connected to language and writing. The history of agraphia dates to the mid-fourteenth century, but it was not until the second half of the nineteenth century that it sparked significant clinical interest. Research in the twentieth century focused primary on aphasiology in patients with lesions from strokes. Agraphia or impairment in producing written language can occur in many ways and many forms because writing involves many cognitive processes. Agraphia has two main subgroupings: peripheral agraphia. Central agraphias include lexical, phonological and semantic agraphia. Peripheral agraphias include allographic, motor execution and afferent agraphia. Central agraphia occurs when there are both impairments in spoken language and impairments to the various motor and visualization skills involved in writing. Individuals who have agraphia with fluent aphasia write a normal quantity of well-formed letters, but lack the ability to write meaningful words.

Receptive aphasia is an example of fluent aphasia. Those who have agraphia with nonfluent aphasia can write brief sentences but their writing is difficult to read, their writing requires great physical effort but lacks proper syntax and has poor spelling. Expressive aphasia is an example of nonfluent aphasia. Individuals who have Alexia with agraphia have difficulty with both the production and comprehension of written language; this form of agraphia does not impair spoken language. Deep agraphia affects orthographic memory. Deep agraphia is the result of a lesion involving the left parietal region. Individuals can neither remember how words look when spelled nor sound them out to determine spelling. Individuals rely on their damaged orthographic memory to spell. Individuals have more difficulty with uncommon words. Reading and spoken language are impaired as well. Gerstmann syndrome agraphia is the impairment of written language production associated with the following structural symptoms: difficulty discriminating between one's own fingers, difficulty distinguishing left from right, difficulty performing calculations.

All four of these symptoms result from pathway lesions. Gerstmann's syndrome may additionally be present with mild aphasia. Global agraphia impairs an individuals' orthographic memory although to a greater extent than deep agraphia. In global apraxia, spelling knowledge is lost to such a degree that the individual can only write few meaningful words, or cannot write any words at all. Reading and spoken language are markedly impaired. Lexical and structural agraphia are caused by damage to the orthographic memory; this impaired spelling memory can imply the loss or degradation of the knowledge or just an inability to efficiently access it. There is a regularity effect associated with lexical agraphia in that individuals are less to spell words without regular, predictable spellings. Additionally, spelling ability tends to be less impaired for common words. Individuals have difficulty with homophones. Language competence in terms of grammar and sentence writing tends to be preserved. Phonological agraphia is the opposite of lexical agraphia in that the ability to sound out words is impaired, but the orthographical memory of words may be intact.

It is associated with a lexicality effect by a difference in the ability to spell words versus nonwords. Additionally, it is harder for these individuals to access more abstract words without strong semantic representations. Pure agraphia is the impairment in written language production without any other language or cognitive disorder. Agraphia can occur separately or co-occur and can be caused by damage to the angular gyrus Peripheral agraphias occurs when there is damage to the various motor and visualization s

Fort Austin

Fort Austin is a former 19th-century Fort, built as a result of the Royal Commission on National Defence of 1859. It was built to defend the landward approaches to the North East of Plymouth; this was part of an overall scheme for the defence of the Royal Naval Dockyard at Devonport. They were known as Palmerston Forts after the Prime Minister. Designed by Capain Edmund Frederick Du Cane, it was built by George Baker and Company and finished by the Royal Engineers, it was armed with five mortars. To house part of the Forts' Garrison a barrack block to house 60 men was built within the rear section of the Fort. By the early 1900s the Fort was disarmed. During the Second World War it was used by the Cornwall Auxiliary Unit, it was sold by the War Office to Plymouth City Council in 1958. It was Grade II listed in 2008, it is now used as a Depot for Plymouth City Council. Hogg, Ian V. Coast Defences of England and Wales 1856-1956. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153 6353-0. Woodward, Freddy; the Historic Defences of Plymouth.

Cornwall County Council. ISBN 978-1898166467. Victorian Forts data sheet on Fort Efford

Garrett Memorial Chapel

Garrett Memorial Chapel is a small Church in the Norman Gothic Style located on Bluff Point in the town of Jerusalem, in Yates County, New York. On 30 March 2001 the Chapel was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the Chapel was built in 1930-1931 by the Garrett family of whom Paul Garrett was a major figure in the American wine industry as a memorial to his son Charles who had died of tuberculosis in January 1930. The rectangular plan building is constructed of ashlar granite with cast stone decorative elements, it features a polygonal apse, round arched openings, a large square corner tower topped by a lantern and weathervane. On the lower level is the church crypt. On the property is a contributing concrete block lavatory. Many of the stained glass windows in the chapel and the crypt were designed by Frederick Wilson; the Chapel is open from April to November and is serviced by a seasonal access road. The Chapel is under the stewardship of the Episcopal Diocese of Rochester, it is a popular venue for weddings due to its architecture and scenic views of Keuka Lake and the surrounding area

Clement Martyn Doke

Clement Martyn Doke was a South African linguist working on African languages. Realizing that the grammatical structures of Bantu languages are quite different from those of European languages, he was one of the first African linguists of his time to abandon the Euro-centric approach to language description for a more locally grounded one. A most prolific writer, he published a string of grammars, several dictionaries, comparative work, a history of Bantu linguistics; the Doke family had been engaged in missionary activity for the Baptist Church for some generations. His father Reverend Joseph J. Doke left England and travelled to South Africa in 1882, where he met and married Agnes Biggs, they returned to England. The family moved to New Zealand and returned to South Africa in 1903, where they on settled in Johannesburg. At the age of 18, Clement received a bachelor's degree from Transvaal University College in Pretoria, he decided to devote his life to missionary activity. In 1913, he accompanied his father on a tour of north-western Rhodesia, to an area called Lambaland, now known as Ilamba.

It is situated at the watershed of the Congo and Zambesi rivers, part of the district lay in Northern Rhodesia and part in the Belgian Congo State. The Cape-Cairo Railway threaded through its eastern portion; the Reverend William Arthur Phillips of the Nyasa Industrial Mission in Blantyre had established a Baptist mission there in 1905, serving an area of 25,000 square miles and 50,000 souls. The Dokes were supposed to investigate, whether the mission in Lambaland could be taken over by the Baptist Union of South Africa, it was on this trip that Doke's father died soon afterwards. Clement assumed his father's role; the South African Baptists decided to take over Kafulafuta Mission, while its founder Reverend Phillips remained as superintendent. Clement Doke returned to Kafulafuta as missionary in 1914, followed by his sister Olive two years later. At first, Clement Doke was frustrated by his inability to communicate with the Lamba; the only written material available at the time was a translation of Jonah and a collection of 47 hymns.

Soon he mastered the language and published his first book Ifintu Fyakwe Lesa in 1917. He enrolled in Johannesburg as the extension of Transvaal University College for an MA degree, his thesis was published as The Grammar of the Lamba language. The book is couched in traditional grammatical terms as Doke had not yet established his innovative method of analysis and description for the Bantu languages, his Textbook of Lamba Grammar is far superior in this respect. Clement Doke was interested in ethnology. In 1931 he compiled The Lambas of Northern Rhodesia, which remains one of the outstanding ethnographic descriptions of the peoples of Central Africa. For Doke, literacy was part of the evangelisation since people had to be able to read to appreciate the message of the Bible, but it was only after his retirement that he completed the translation of the Bible into Lamba, it was published under the title of Amasiwi AwaLesa in 1959. In 1919 Doke married Hilda Lehmann, they both contracted malaria during their work and she was forbidden to return to Lambaland.

Clement Doke realised that his field work couldn't continue much longer and left in 1921. He was recruited by the newly founded University of the Witwatersrand. In order to secure a qualification as a lecturer, the family moved to England, where he registered at the School of Oriental and African Studies, his major languages were Lamba and Luba, but as no suitable examiner was available, he had to change his language to Zulu. Doke took up his appointment in the new Department of Bantu Studies at the University of Witwatersrand in 1923. In 1925 he received his D. Litt. for his doctoral thesis The Phonetics of the Zulu Language and was promoted to Senior Lecturer. In 1931 he was appointed to the Chair of Bantu Studies and thus headed the Department of Bantu Studies; the Department acted as a catalyst for the admission of Africans to the University: as early as 1925 a limited number were admitted to the vacation course in African Studies. Doke supported the appointment of Benedict Wallet Vilakazi as member of the staff, as he believed a native speaker was essential for acquiring a language.

This provoked a storm of controversy from the public. They both collaborated on the Zulu-English Dictionary, first published in 1948, it is still one of the best examples of lexicography for any of the Bantu languages. At the request of the government of Southern Rhodesia, Doke investigated the range of dialect diversity among the languages of the country and made recommendations for Unified Shona; this formed the basis for Standard Shona. He devised a unified orthography based on the Zezuru and Manyika dialects. However, Doke's orthography was never accepted and the South African government introduced an alternative, leaving Shona with two competing orthographies between 1935 and 1955. During his tenure Doke developed and promoted a method of linguistic analysis and description of the Bantu languages, based upon the structure of these languages; the "Dokean model" continues to be one of the dominant models of linguistic description in Southern and Central Africa. His classification of the Bantu languages was for many years the dominant view of the interrelations among the African languages.

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Nolan Shaheed

Nolan Shaheed is an American jazz musician, specializing in the cornet and trumpet, a world record holding masters athlete. Shaheed has been in the masters world rankings over various middle distance races since he turned 40, he was the second 50-year-old to break the 2 minute barrier in the 800 metres where he holds the current world record. He added the M50 world record in the Mile run and since turning 60 has added the world record in the 800 metres and 1500 metres. Indoors he holds the world records in the mile in all age divisions between M50 and M60, plus was part of the M50 4x800 m relay team. Domestically he has added the indoor M55 and M60 1500m records and M50, M55, M60 records in the 3000 meters; as Nolan Smith, he began his musical career in 1974, was musical director for Marvin Gaye, lead trumpet with Count Basie, has worked with various other musical acts. With David Byrne Music for "The Knee Plays" With Teddy Edwards Mississippi Lad With Marvin Gaye Live at the London Palladium Here, My Dear With John Handy Where Go the Boats With Freddie Hubbard Bundle of Joy With Carole King Simple Things With Yanni Niki Nana Interview with Nolan Shaheed