Abanto y Ciérbana-Abanto Zierbena
Not to be confused with Abanto in Aragón. Abanto y Ciérvana-Abanto Zierbena is a municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain. Abanto was divided into concejos, Susoko Abanto or Abanto de Suso and Yusoko Abanto or Abanto de Yuso, nowadays administratively divided into neighborhoods or wards: Susoko Abanto Abanto Campillo Gallarta Balastera Florida Las Calizas Picón Santa Juliana Triano Yusoko Abanto Cotorrio Las Carreras Las Cortes El Once Olabarrieta Murrieta Putxeta San Pedro Abanto Sanfuentes January 1842 – January 1843 Andrés José de San Martín January 1843 - July 1843 Emeterio del Alisal July 1843 - March 1844 Benigno Ruiz de Murga March 1844 – 1846/01/01 José María de Arechabaleta 1846/01/01 – 1847/01/03 Juan Francisco del Merro 1847/01/03 – 1850/01/01 Miguel de Escuza 1850/01/01 – 1854/01/01 Pablo de los Heros 1854/01/01 – 1854/10/02 Francisco de Robledo 1854/10/02 – 1857/03/12 José González y El Cerro 1857/03/12 – 1859/01/01 Cosme de Allende 1859/01/01 – 1861/01/01 Miguel de Escuza 1861/01/01 – 1865/01/01 José de Aranguren 1865/01/01 – 1867/01/01 Ruperto de Lejarza 1867/01/01 – 1869/01/01 Manuel de Garay y Laza 1869/01/01 - March 1872 Agapito de Sasia March 1872 – September 1873 Antonio Hurtado September 1873 – January 1874 Agustín Yarto January 1874 – 1875/01/01 Antonio de Escuza 1875/01/01 – 1876/01/01 Maximino de Uriarte 1876/01/01 – 1876/03/07 Manuel Chave 1876/03/07 – 1876/04/11 Juan Ángel de Allende 1876/04/11 – 1877/04/01 José Antonio Escuza 1877/04/01 – 1879/07/01 Mamerto Bermeosolo 1879/07/01 – 1881/07/01 Juan Ángel de Allende 1881/07/01 – 1885/07/01 Mariano de Olabarría 1885/07/01 – 1890/01/01 Calisto López Sáez 1890/01/01 – 1891/07/01 Eugenio Solano 1891/07/01 – 1894/01/01 Agustín Iza Rementería 1894/01/01 - October 1900 Calisto López Sáez 1900/11/03 – 1904/01/01 Agustín Iza Rementería 1904/01/01 – 1906/01/01 Agustín Garmendia 1906/01/01 – 1910/01/01 Bernardo Ruiz Elizondo 1910/01/01 - January 1912 Alejo Egusquizaga Bilbao Urtarrila 1912 - January 1914 Manuel Asla January 1914 – 1916/01/01 José Salcedo Zubaran 1916/01/01 – 1918/01/01 Luis Sanjinés 1918/01/01 – 1920/01/01 Fabriciano Torróntegui 1920/01/01 – 1923/10/01 Antonio Pujana Meave 1923/10/01 – 1924/03/26 Dionisio Ureta Balparda 1924/03/26 – 1930/03/12 Tomás Quintana Martín 1930/03/12 – 1931/01/31 Dionisio Ureta Balparda 1931/01/31 – 1931/04/15 Francisco de Uribe Urioste 1931/04/15 – 1931/04/28 Nemesio Merodio Ramos 1931/04/28 – 1934/11/14 Antonio Pujana Meave 1934/11/14 – 1936/02/23 José Colón Laza 1936/02/23 – 1937/07/02 Antonio Pujana Meave 1937/07/02 – 1938/02/09 Luis Sanjinés Renovales 1938/02/09 – 1952/05/03 José Colón Laza 1952/05/03 – 1955/08/29 Eugenio Mendicote Mardones 1955/08/29 – 1959/12/05 Juan Ramón Sánchez-Serrano Múgica 1959/12/05 – 1964/08/26 Francisco Garaygordobil Barrutia 1964/08/26 – 1969/12/14 Tomás Alonso García 1969/12/14 – 1974/09/10 José Antonio Romero Onaindia 1974/09/10 – 1979/04/19 Luis Andrés Merodio García 1979/04/19 – 1983/05/23 Francisco Puerto Balmisa 1983/05/23 - Uztaila 1987 Luis María Vallejo López Uztaila 1987 – 1991/06/15 Francisco Puerto Balmisa 1991/06/15 - 1995 Luis María Vallejo López 1995 - 2003 Juan José Mezcorta Puertollano 2003 - 2013 Manuel Tejada Lanbarri 2013 - in charge Maite Etxebarria Azpiolea Zierbena
Infrared radiation, sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, is therefore invisible to the human eye, although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nanometers s from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers, to 1 millimeter. Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared; as with all EMR, IR carries radiant energy and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon. Infrared radiation was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer. More than half of the total energy from the Sun was found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared; the balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on Earth's climate.
Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements. It excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines transmission of photons in the infrared range. Infrared radiation is used in industrial, military, law enforcement, medical applications. Night-vision devices using active near-infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected. Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space such as molecular clouds, detect objects such as planets, to view red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe. Infrared thermal-imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, to observe changing blood flow in the skin, to detect overheating of electrical apparatus. Extensive uses for military and civilian applications include target acquisition, night vision and tracking.
Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm. Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, detection of grow-ops, remote temperature sensing, short-range wireless communication and weather forecasting. Infrared radiation extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter; this range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of 430 THz down to 300 GHz. Below infrared is the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sunlight, at an effective temperature of 5,780 kelvins, is composed of near-thermal-spectrum radiation, more than half infrared. At zenith, sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. Nearly all the infrared radiation in sunlight is shorter than 4 micrometers. On the surface of Earth, at far lower temperatures than the surface of the Sun, some thermal radiation consists of infrared in the mid-infrared region, much longer than in sunlight.
However, black body or thermal radiation is continuous: it gives off radiation at all wavelengths. Of these natural thermal radiation processes, only lightning and natural fires are hot enough to produce much visible energy, fires produce far more infrared than visible-light energy. In general, objects emit infrared radiation across a spectrum of wavelengths, but sometimes only a limited region of the spectrum is of interest because sensors collect radiation only within a specific bandwidth. Thermal infrared radiation has a maximum emission wavelength, inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of object, in accordance with Wien's displacement law. Therefore, the infrared band is subdivided into smaller sections. A used sub-division scheme is: NIR and SWIR is sometimes called "reflected infrared", whereas MWIR and LWIR is sometimes referred to as "thermal infrared". Due to the nature of the blackbody radiation curves, typical "hot" objects, such as exhaust pipes appear brighter in the MW compared to the same object viewed in the LW.
The International Commission on Illumination recommended the division of infrared radiation into the following three bands: ISO 20473 specifies the following scheme: Astronomers divide the infrared spectrum as follows: These divisions are not precise and can vary depending on the publication. The three regions are used for observation of different temperature ranges, hence different environments in space; the most common photometric system used in astronomy allocates capital letters to different spectral regions according to filters used. These letters are understood in reference to atmospheric windows and appear, for instance, in the titles of many papers. A third scheme divides up the band based on the response of various detectors: Near-infrared: from 0.7 to 1.0 µm. Short-wave infrared: 1.0 to 3 µm. InGaAs covers to about 1.8 µm. Mid-wave infrared: 3 to 5 µm (defined by the atmospheric window and covered by indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride and by lead
Barakaldo is a municipality located in the Biscay province in the Basque Country. Located on the Left Bank of the Estuary of Bilbao, the city is part of Greater Bilbao with a population as of the 2011 census at 100,061. Barakaldo has an industrial river-port heritage and has undergone significant redevelopment with new commercial and residential areas replacing the once active industrial zones; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica original entry on the town stated: "Pop.: 15,013. Few Spanish towns have developed more than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled here; the low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and vines". Iron mining formed a large part of Barakaldo's industry; the steel industry, led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, had an important presence during the 20th century, until the industrial recession hit the region's economy in the 1980s. In recent decades, the industrial zones surrounding Barakaldo have become less prominent, which can be owed to the shuttering of large companies such as Babcock & Wilcox.
Although several factories remain, areas that were once industrial have been redeveloped into residential properties such as malls and parks. A large exhibition centre; the Bilbao Exhibition Centre has been built on the outskirts of the town. Barakaldo is connected to the rest of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area by Line 2 of the Metro Bilbao. Four stations are in the city: Gurutzeta/Cruces, Ansio and Bagatza); the Cercanías Bilbao train line has two stations in Barakaldo. BizkaiBus company provides a bus service, with connections to the rest of Biscay. Locally, an urban bus system named. A tram line has been proposed to connect local districts; the main motorway is the A-8 motorway, which goes between Bilbao. It serves as the rest of Spain. A boat ferry service connects Barakaldo to the other side of the Estuary of Bilbao in Erandio. Barakaldo is located 15 kilometres from Bilbao Airport. Population peaked in the 1990s to over 100,300; the decline of local industry decreased the population, in 2002, 95,000 people lived in Barakaldo.
However, a recent increase has sent the population to 100,502 residents. Tourists visit sites in Barakaldo such as the Botanic Garden, the Bilbao Exhibition Centre, the medieval Bridge of Castrexana, some of the city's street sculptures. In July, the town celebrates "Las Fiestas del Carmen," which includes open-air concerts and large fairs. Barakaldo is represented by the Barakaldo Club de Fútbol in Spain's Segunda División B, they play home games at the Estadio Nuevo Lasesarre. A second team, SD Retuerto Sport, plays in Tercera División. Local league teams include Gurutzeta KFT, UD Burtzeña, Pauldarrak FKT, Zuazo C. F. and S. C. D. Dosa-Salesianos. Handball has played a part in Barakaldo's tradition. Now, two teams are present in competitions: Club Balonmano Zuazo Femenino, playing in División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Club Balonmano Barakaldo who plays in the Liga ASOBAL. Bizkaia Arena is an indoor arena with a capacity of 18,640, it hosted some games of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Asier del Horno, footballer Carlos Sobera, actor David López, cyclist Iñaki Lafuente, footballer Javier Clemente, football manager Javier González Gómez, footballer Javier Otxoa, cyclist Josep Lluís Núñez, president of FC Barcelona between 1978 and 2000 Unai Expósito, footballer Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, politician Barakaldo D.
F. A Mägo de Oz concert DVD filmed in Barakaldo Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baracaldo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 379. Www.i-barakaldo.com La comunidad virtual de Barakaldo Official website BARAKALDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Txorierri is a valley of Biscay, Basque Country, separated from Bilbao by low mountains Monte Artxanda and Monte Abril. It includes the municipalities of Erandio, Sondika, Zamudio and Larrabetzu, it holds the international airport of Bilbao. It includes residential areas. Txorierriko Mankomunitatea
Alonsotegi is a municipality in the province of Biscay, Basque Country, Spain. The current name of Alonsotegui was manifest in the 1990s when it separated it from the Baracaldo municipality to, attached since the end of the 19th century. Alonsotegui is 8 kilometres from the center of Bilbao; the village is situated in the valley of the River Cadagua. With a total length of 16.02 km², its population of 2,831 is shared between the 3 towns of the municipality. Alonsotegui occupies 20 km²; the settlement of the population, as well as the industries, are located in the corridor that the River Cadagua opens between the Sasiburu saw and the mountains Ganecogorta and Pagasarri. Several streams bring water to the Cadagua; the center is located at an altitude of 46 m. It borders Baracaldo and Bilbao on the north, Arrancudiaga and Güeñes on the south with and Bilbao on the east, Güeñes on the west; the history of Alonsotegi is divided into 4 periods: Until the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Alonsotegui was part of the municipality of Arrigorriaga.
In the 16th century, an independent churchyard was established and remained as such until 1888. From November 13, 1888 until December 31, 1990, the place remained annexed to the Alonsotegui Baracaldo municipality. January 1, 1991, a new and distinct town was delegated in conjunction with the district Iráuregui as Baracaldés. Alonsotegui has several items of historical and natural interest: Refrigerators of Pagasarri Bridge Iráuregui The Chapel of San Antolin Iráuregui, San Martin Hermitage, Santa Quiteria Hermitage and Hermitage of Our Lady of The Guide Neobasque constructions Neo-Gothic buildings such as the Church of St. Bartholomew Architectural Elements of ethnographic interest such as the stables and pens in the pastoral neighborhood of Artiba Six parties submitted the lists of the municipality: EAJ-PNV, Bildu, PSE-EE, PP, EB and an independent party called Alonsotegiko Ezkerra; the results were as follows: This led to winning the current mayor of the town Aitor Santiesteban Aldama. Fray Martin de Coscojales, monk Fray Miguel de Alonsotegui and Miranda and Jose Zabala, friar Inigo Urkullu, politician Andoni Goikoetxea, former footballer and football coach.
Marcelino Bilbao Bilbao, Lieutenant Isaac battalion Bridge of the National Confederation of Labour and the People's Republic Army. Survivor Nazi concentration camp Mauthausen. Template:Roto alonsótegui.net Alonsotegi en méxico ALONSOTEGI in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alonsotegi's official website
Derio is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is part of Greater Bilbao and was part of the municipality of Bilbao until 1983 and hosts Bilbao's biggest municipal cemetery, it has a population of 5,107. The flag of Derio is similar to Quebec's flag DERIO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Basauri is a major municipality of Biscay, in the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community in northern Spain. The town is a part of the Greater Bilbao conurbation, it is an industrial town that includes monuments such as the tower-house of Ariz. It holds the only prison in the province, located where the rivers Ibaizabal meet; the municipality has 42,971 inhabitants. Basauri is located in the metropolitan region of the Greater Bilbao, on both sides of the river Nervión and the lower valley of the river Nervión and Ibaizabal. Basauri is located at joining point of the two most important rivers of Biscay, forming a small river plain a series of meanders have been built, now engaged in their most industrial facilities. Basauri joins the roads coming from Orduña-Urduña and Durango following the course of the two rivers. A neighborhood took its name from the joining of both paths: Bidebieta. From the river area where the municipality was born, the land rises culminating in the mountain Malmasín of clayey nature, in the border with Arrigorriaga.
Bordered on the north by Bilbao and Galdakao, on the south and west by Arrigorriaga and on the east Galdakao and Zaratamo. Basauri is in an oceanic climate zone and humid. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the year. Temperatures are moderate throughout the year, with small thermal fluctuations. Several elements influenced. Being a communications hub, Basauri was a important factor to consider, its proximity to the mines of Ollargan Morro and Miravilla and the Basauri-Galdakao Group's mines caused an increase of population for the municipality. The conversion of the mills into baking industry contributed to this increase, but the element that most contributed to the population development was the installation in 1892 of the first major industry, "La Basconia". The rapid growth that underwemt the municipality, made its population multiplied by 24.6 in the period 1900-1975. But the largest increases in population started in the 1950s with the installation of new industries which created between 1950 and 1960 a population growth of the 97%, which continued in the next decade with an increase of the 80%.
In 1984 it started a slow but progressive population decline, although it had declined in 1979 with the industrial crisis, the year in which it was indicated the historical maximum population of 55,648 inhabitants. In the last estimate by the NSI, 16 September 2007, the population of Basauri rose to 43,250 inhabitants. Basauri became independent from Arrigorriaga in 1510 or at least, is the date taken as official, because there is no document to verify that at that date any meetings were held between mayors of both towns. Basauri did not get representation in the General Assembly of Guernica until 1858. Since it remained the largest population center and town hall in the neighborhood of San Miguel de Basauri until 1902, when it was approved the transfer of the town hall to Arizgoiti, as this area of growing population and equidistant from the two furthest points of the municipality: Finaga. Basauri was until the end of the 19th century a predominantly rural people, until that time when the factory of Basconia came and with it the industrialization of the town, which went in 50 years from a few thousands of inhabitants to having 55,000 in 1978.
Thousands of families from all regions of Spain nurtured Basauri with new people and buildings, radically changing its image and urbanism. The name Basauri means'population in the forest.' Basa, meaning'forest' and uri,'population'. The only town with the same name known today is called Bajauri in the County of Treviño; some place names of Basauri are: Ariz, Arizgoiti and Arizbarren Basozelai, Sarratu, Bizkotxalde Pozokoetxe, Iruaretxeta, Abaroa, Gaztañabaltza, Errekalde, Arteaga, Uribarri and Bidebieta (which appear as Dos Caminos at the train station and made many think that it was the original name of the town. The district now called Kalero, it is Calero and although some authors have seen in the name the Castilian translation of Kareaga, it refers to the fact that in this place it was located a holding of limestone for the manufacture of lime and those places in Spanish are called'Calero'. There are two areas or neighborhoods called Kareaga: Kareaga Goikoa and Kareaga Behekoa and now called'El Calero', since in both areas had lime plants.
Moreover, there are Soloarte, Kantarazarra, Iturrigorri and others. The festivities of San Fausto in October are the patron saint festivities of the municipality; every major neighborhood forming Basauri, celebrates each year their festivities but the most popular festivals in this town are those held in honor of San Fausto every, taking as an amulet the Escarabillera, zurracapote as typical drink, prepared by the fifteen crews belonging to Herriko Taldeak, served in a jug to anyone coming to them. Zurracapote is a drink similar to sangria as it is made with red wine, cinnamon, some kind of liquor, sugar and, according to the legend, so shameful condiments that many would not want to know; the Escarabillera is a character based on women and men in Basauri would dress in times of greatest need at the beginning of century. Those clothes were worn to walk along tracks where steam trains as they circulated or heaps of smelters