Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U. S. state of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the US northeast megalopolis and as such, Greater Boston can be described either as a metropolitan statistical area, or as a broader combined statistical area; the MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast region and Cape Cod. While the small footprint of the city of Boston itself only contains an estimated 685,094, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas. Greater Boston is the only CSA-form statistical area in New England; some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American industry; the region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade.
Over 80% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region. Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,875,390 people as of the 2018 US Census estimate, sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,285,407; the area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history American literature and the American Revolution. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the Greater Boston region has played a powerful scientific and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world; the most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council.
The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 towns that are grouped into eight subregions; these include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, 48% of the total population of Massachusetts, in an area of 1,422 square miles, of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space. The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core, MetroWest, North Shore, North Suburban, South Shore, SouthWest, Three Rivers. Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, all of Bristol County. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.
The urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the US Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area, along with surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area, is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA; the Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions. The Boston and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond to the MAPC area; the total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941. Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division Framingham, MA NECTA Division Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division Lowell–Billerica–Chelm
Pure may refer to: A pure function A pure virtual function PureSystems, a family of computer systems introduced by IBM in 2012 Pure Software, a company founded in 1991 by Reed Hastings to support the Purify tool Pure-FTPd, FTP server software Pure, functional programming language based on term rewriting Pure Storage, a company that makes datacenter storage solutions Pure, a research information system bought by Elsevier. Pure, dating app Pure Insurance, Privilege Underwriters Reciprocal Exchange Pure Trading, a Canadian electronic communication network operated by CNQ Pure Digital, a UK consumer electronics company specialising in DAB radios Pure Oil, a U. S. chain of gas stations Propulsion Universelle et Récuperation d'Énergie, a motorsport engineering company Pure FM, a university radio station based in Portsmouth, UK. Pure, a magazine created by Peter Sotos Pure, a 2011 novel by Andrew Miller Pure, a 2012 novel by Julianna Baggott PURE, 2016 play about chocolate manufacture, commissioned by Mikron Theatre Company Pure, an off-road racing video game for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 Pure Nightclub, a nightclub in Las Vegas, Nevada Pure, a Canadian rock band till 2000 Pure, 1999 Pure, 1992 Pure, 2000 Pure, 2003 Pure, 2003 Pure, 1996 Pure, 2007 Pure II, 2008 Pure, 1989 Pure, 1989 Pure, 1997 Pure Pure, 2004 Pure, 1994 "Pure", 2005 "Pure" "Pure", 1989 "Pure", a song by Endless Shame "Pure", a song and single by 3 Colours Red from Pure 1997 "Pure", a song by Paris Angels B-side to "Perfume" 1991 Pure, a 2002 British film Pure, a 2004 Canadian film Pure, a 2010 Swedish film Pure, a 2017 Canadian TV series Pure, a 2019 UK TV series "Pure", an episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit "Pure", an episode of the first season of Into the Dark Pure, Ardennes Cleanliness Impurity Pure land PureGym, a chain of health clubs in the United Kingdom Puritans Purity Unclean
Ralph J. Erickstad was the Chief Justice on the North Dakota Supreme Court from 1973–1992, he retired December 1992 after serving 30 years on the Supreme Court. Erickstad was born near the farming community of North Dakota, he was the descendant of Norwegian immigrant homesteaders. He served in the United States Air Force during World War II as a gunner and radio operator aboard a Consolidated B-24 Liberator. After World War II he was honorably discharged from service, he attended the University of North Dakota and went on to achieve a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School. In 1949, he began practicing law in North Dakota. Between 1949 and 1962 he progressed from police magistrate to state senator. In 1962 he was elected to serve on the North Dakota State Supreme Court. Starting in 1973, he was elected to the position of Supreme Justice for five years at a time until his retirement in 1992. In 2000, the North Dakota Supreme Courtroom was dedicated in his honor. North Dakota National Leadership Award of Excellence Distinguished Service Award from the State Bar Association National Center for State Courts' Distinguished Service Award AJS Herbert Harley Award from the American Judicature Society He married Lois K. Jacobson on July 30, 1949 in Minneapolis, MN.
They were the parents of two sons. Erickstad died in Bismarck, North Dakota during 2001, he was buried in the North Dakota Veterans Cemetery in North Dakota. Ralph J. Erickstad biography North Dakota Supreme Court official website