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Greater Glasgow

Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area. It does not relate to municipal government boundaries and its territorial extent is defined by the General Register Office for Scotland, which determines settlements in Scotland for census and statistical purposes. Greater Glasgow had a population of 1,199,629 at the time of the 2001 UK Census making it the largest urban area in Scotland and the fifth-largest in the United Kingdom. A more extensive Greater Glasgow concept covers a much larger area, may include Ayrshire down to Ayr as well as the whole of Lanarkshire down to Lanark, Dunbartonshire and Inverclyde. At present the Glasgow City Region consists of the Glasgow City Council, North Lanarkshire, South Lanarkshire, West Dunbartonshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire and Inverclyde Local Authorities with a combined population of over 1.7 million. This city-region is described as a metropolitan area by its own strategic planning authority, is similar to the Glasgow metropolitan area identified by the European Union.

The City of Glasgow grew in population during the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, becoming in 1912 the eighth city in Europe to reach the one million mark after Rome, Paris, Vienna, St Petersburg and Moscow. The official population stayed over a million for fifty years. Since the 1960s, successive boundary changes and large-scale relocation to suburban districts and new towns have reduced the population of the City of Glasgow council area to 593,245 at the time of the 2011 UK Census; the Urban Area known as the Glasgow settlement, includes the following localities: In 1973, the Greater Glasgow Passenger Transport Executive was created to take over control of Glasgow Corporation Transport. Following local government reorganisation in 1975, control subsequently passed to Strathclyde Regional Council; the former PTE is now the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport, within Transport Scotland. The city is served by the only metro system in the Glasgow Subway. Following the local government boundary changes in 1996 and the creation of unitary councils in Scotland, replacing the former regional and district councils, the Greater Glasgow Settlement Area or Urban Area was created for the 2001 Census from groups of neighbouring urban postcodes grouped so that each group of postcode unit contains at least a given number of addresses per unit area, the group contains at least 500 residents.

The Glasgow City Region, is a collection of local authorities clustered around Glasgow. The eight constituent authorities are: Glasgow East Dunbartonshire West Dunbartonshire North Lanarkshire South Lanarkshire East Renfrewshire Renfrewshire InverclydeThe population of this area in 2011 was 1,787,515; the city region is not a conurbation as significant parts of the council areas are separated from Greater Glasgow by open countryside. It uses numerous other terms for itself, including Metropolitan Glasgow, the metropolitan City-Region of Glasgow and the Clyde Valley and Clydeside; as a collection of individual local authorities the city region has no single municipal government however, following the agreement of a City Deal with the UK Government, the eight constituent authorities formally established a joint Glasgow and Clyde Valley Cabinet on 20 January 2015. This cabinet consists of the leaders of all eight councils, with the leader of Glasgow City Council being Chair of the Cabinet. Prior to 2015 the eight authorities formed only a combined strategic planning authority.

While the Scottish Government makes no official recognition of'Metropolitan status' in its workings, the term is used by other bodies. The European Union's statistical body Eurostat lists Glasgow as the 32nd most populous metropolitan area, or Larger Urban Zones, in the EU. Although not defining the boundaries of this metropolitan area, Eurostat state it consists "of over 1.7 million inhabitants covering an area of 3,346 km2". Which is similar to the 1.75 million population of the Glasgow City Region and may suggest a correlation between the two. The Glasgow City Region's strategic development authority describes itself as the planning authority for the "Glasgow metropolitan area" and the "metropolitan city-region of Glasgow"; the former local government region of Strathclyde has been identified as a metropolitan area surrounding the Greater Glasgow conurbation, covers 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland's population. Central belt

Eryngium leavenworthii

Eryngium leavenworthii known as Leavenworth's eryngo, is an annual plant in the parsley family, native to the central United States. It can reach heights up to 3 feet, it inhabits roadside fields, open woodlands and waste areas. The plant is found in areas with limestone or chalk soils, its flowers appear between July to September, although in some areas the flowers may bloom as late as November. The flower ranges in length from 1 1/2" to 3" and in width 1/2", it is mistaken for thistle. The flowers sit atop elongated stems on spiked leaves and form cones of purple or wine colored clustered blossoms that resemble small fuzzy pineapples, it was named after, Melines Conklin Leavenworth, credited with its discovery. USDA. Natural Resources Conservation Service. NRCS. Plants Source & Reference

Pyropia virididentata

Pyropia virididentata known as Porphyra virididentata, is a red alga species in the genus Pyropia. It is endemic to New Zealand, it is monostromatic and grows in the intertidal zone, predominantly on rock substrata. With Porphyra cinnamomea, Pyropia rakiura and Clymene coleana, they can be distinguished by morphology, as well as geographical and seasonal distribution patterns, chromosome numbers, which in this species n = 3; these four species are distinguished by a particular nucleotide sequence at the 18S rDNA locus. The type locality of this species is Island Bay in Wellington; this species is found on the coasts of the lower part of the South Island. It is susceptible to infection by the parasitic oomycete Pythium porphyrae. Nelson, W. A. J. E. Broom, T. J. Farr. "Pyrophyllon and Chlidophyllon: two new genera for obligate epiphytic species placed in Porphyra, a discussion of the orders Erythropeltidales and Bangiales." Phycologia 42.3: 308–315. Hemmingson, J. A. and W. A. Nelson. "Cell wall polysaccharides are informative in Porphyra species taxonomy."

Journal of applied phycology 14.5: 357–364. Broom, Judy ES, et al. "Relationships of the Porphyra flora of the Falkland Islands: a molecular survey using rbcL and nSSU sequence data." Australian Systematic Botany 23.1: 27–37

Lesley Abrams

Lesley Jane Abrams, is a retired academic historian. She was a Colyer-Ferguson Fellow of Balliol College, between 2000 and 2016, Professor of Early Medieval History at the University of Oxford from 2015 to 2016. Lesley Jane Abrams was born in 1952 in Ottawa, Canada, she completed a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of Toronto between 1969 and 1973, was a British Commonwealth Scholar at St Hilda's College, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1975. She completed a Master of Arts degree at the Centre for Medieval Studies in Toronto in 1979 and took her doctorate of philosophy there in 1991. Between and 1995, she lectured in the Department of Anglo-Saxon and Celtic at Cambridge University, lectured at Aberystwyth University until 2000, when she was appointed Colyer-Fergusson Fellow and Tutor in Modern History at Balliol College, Oxford. In 2015, she was appointed a Professor of Early Medieval History at the University of Oxford, retired from teaching the following year. Abrams lectured at Brasenose College and was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1996 and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.

Abrams has carried out research into the conversion of northern European peoples to Christianity in the early medieval period, focusing on the English and Scandinavians. More broadly, she has studied many aspects of Scandinavian history in this period, ranging from military activity to overseas connections and settlements, her published works include

Ahmad Shah I

Ahmad Shah I, born Ahmad Khan, was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty, who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1411 until his death in 1442. He founded Ahmedabad city in 1411. Ahmad Shah was born to Muhammad Shah I alias Tatar Khan, a son of Muzaffar Shah I. Muhammad Shah I was killed by his uncle Shams Khan in favour of his grandfather Muzaffar Shah when he imprisoned him. According to Mirat-i-Ahmadi, he abdicated the throne in favour of his grandson Ahmad Shah in 1410 due to his failing health, he died five months and 13 days later. According to Mirat-i-Sikandari, Ahmad Shah was going to an expedition to quell the rebellion of Kolis of Ashawal. After leaving Patan, he convened an assembly of Ulemas and asked a question that should he took retribution of his father's unjust death. Ulemas replied in favour and he got the written answers, he forced his grandfather Muzaffar Shah to drink poison which killed him. Ahmad Shah succeeded him with the title of Nasir-ud-dunya Wad-din Abul fateh Ahmad Shah at the age of 19 in 1411.

Soon after assuming power, his cousin Moid-ud-din Firuz Khan, governor of Vadodara, allying himself with Hisam or Nizam-ul-Mulk Bhandari and other nobles, collected an army at Nadiad, laying claim to the crown, defeated the king's followers. Jivandas, one of the insurgents, proposed to march upon Patan, but as the others refused a dispute arose in which Jivandas was slain, the rest sought and obtained Ahmad Shah's forgiveness. Moid-ud-din Firuz Khan went to Khambhat and was there joined by Masti Khan, son of Muzaffar Shah, governor of Surat; as soon as the king arrived, Moid-ud-din's army went over to the king, Masti Khan submitted. After a few days Ahmad Shah sent for and forgave Moid-ud-din, returned to Asawal. Moid-ud-din was moved from Vadodara to Navsari. Ahmad Shah, while camping on the banks of the Sabarmati river, saw a hare chasing a dog; the sultan asked his spiritual adviser for explanation. The sage pointed out unique characteristics in the land which nurtured such rare qualities which turned a timid hare to chase a ferocious dog.

Impressed by this, the sultan, looking for a place to build his new capital in the centre of his domain. In the following year Ahmad Shah defeated chief of Asawal. Ahmad Shah laid the foundation of the city at the site of Asawal on 26 February 1411 at Manek Burj, he chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411. Ahmad Shah, in honour of four Ahmads: himself, his religious teacher Shaikh Ahmad Khattu Ganj Baksh, two others, Kazi Ahmad and Malik Ahmad, named it Ahmedabad; the new capital was surrounded by the Bhadra Fort. He built Ahmad Shah's Jama Mosque in Ahmedabad. During 1414, Moid-ud-din Firuz Khan and Masti Khan again revolted, joining the Rao of Idar State, took shelter in that fortress. A force under Fateh Khan was despatched against the rebels, Firuz Khan and the Rao of Idar were forced to flee by way of Kheralu. Moid-ud-din now persuaded Rukn Khan governor of Modasa, fifty miles north of Ahmedabad, they united their forces with those of Badri-ula, Masti Khan, Ranmal-the Rao of Ídar and encamped at Rangpura, an Ídar village about five miles from Modasa and began to strengthen Modasa and dig a ditch round it.

The Ahmad Shah offered favourable terms. The besieged bent on treachery asked the Ahmad Shah to send Nizam-ul-Mulk the minister and certain other great nobles; the Sultan agreed, the besieged imprisoned the envoys. After a three days’ siege Modasa fell. Badri-ula and Rukn Khan were slain, Firuz Khan and the Rao of Ídar fled; the imprisoned nobles were released unharmed. The Rao seeing that all hope of success was gone, made his peace with the king by surrendering to him the elephants and other baggage of Moid-ud-din Firuz Khan and Masti Khan, who now fled to Nagor, where they were sheltered by Shams Khan Dandani. Ahmad Shah after levying the stipulated tribute departed. Moid-ud-din Firuz Khan was afterwards slain in Rana Mokal of Chittor. In 1414–15 AD, Uthman Ahmed and Sheikh Malik, in command at Patan, Sulaiman Afghan called Azam Khan, Ísa Salar rebelled, wrote secretly to Sultan Hushang of Malwa Sultanate, inviting him to invade Gujarat, promising to seat him on the throne and expel Ahmad Shah.

They were joined in their rebellion by other chiefs of Gujarat. Ahmad Shah despatched Latif Khan and Nizam-ul-Mulk against Sheikh Malik and his associates, while he sent Imad-ul-Mulk against Sultan Hushang, who retired, Imad-ul-Mulk, after plundering Malwa, returned to Gujarat. Latif Khan, pressing in hot pursuit of Sheikh Malik, drove them to Sorath. Ahmad Shah returned to Ahmedabad. Sorath and JunagadhSorath was ruled by Chudasama king Ra Mokalasimha, he had to move the capital from Junagadh to Vanthali due to order from the Governor of Gujarat Zafar Khan on behalf of Delhi Sultan Firuz Shah Tughluq. Zafar Khan had occupied his capital Junagadh in 1395-96. In 1414, his son Meliga regained Junagadh and gave refuge to some of rebels; this irked Ahmad Shah and he attacked Sorath. Ahmad Shah won pitched battle at Vanthali in 1413, he imposed siege of Junagadh in 1414. Meliga retired to the hill fortress of Girnar. Ahmad Shah, though unable to capture the hill, gained the fortified citadel of Junagaḍh.

Finding further resistance vain, the chief tendered his submission, Junagaḍh was admitted among the tributary states. Several other Sorath chief submitt

Annette Nijs

Anette Dorothea Sophia Maria Nijs is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. She was the State Secretary for Education and Science in the Cabinets Balkenende I and II serving from 22 July 2002 until 9 June 2004, she was a Member of the House of Representatives from 30 January 2003 until 27 May 2003 and from 7 June 2005 until 30 November 2006. Nijs' enjoys being up to date with industrial economic trends, she is appreciated for her deep insights on China's economy, Chinese managerial culture and the rise of Chinese companies across the globe. She is very familiar with the African continent and is approached to advise on international business strategies. Erasmus University Rotterdam: MSc. Macro Economics London Business School: Executive MBA Harvard Business School: AMP178, Advanced Management Programm She published her second book on China called ‘The China Factor' in English in the summer of 2019, her first book on China ‘China through different eyes’ was published in 2009 in Dutch in her home country, The Netherlands.

Nijs received the Knighthood of Orange-Nassau, a royal award from The Netherlands in 2004. She received the Chinese Government Friendship Award in 2015 – the highest recognition from the Chinese Central Government for foreigners, who have made a special contribution to China. Drs. A. D. S. M. Nijs MBA