Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and it is the worlds eighth-largest passenger airline by fleet size, and is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canadas corporate headquarters are located in Montréal, while its largest hub is at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Air Canada had passenger revenues of CA$13.8 billion in 2015. The airlines regional service is Air Canada Express, Canadas national airline originated from the Canadian federal governments 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines, which began operating their first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval, after the deregulation of the Canadian airline market in the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On 4 January 2000, Air Canada acquired their largest rival, in 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and in the following year emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.
In 2007,34 million people flew with Air Canada as the celebrated their 70th anniversary. The carriers operating divisions include Air Canada Cargo, Air Canada Express and their subsidiary, Air Canada Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with their partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,530 scheduled flights daily. Air Canadas predecessor, Trans-Canada Airlines, was created by legislation as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway on 11 April 1937. The newly created Department of Transport under Minister C. D, howe desired an airline under government control to link cities on the Atlantic coast to those on the Pacific coast. Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras, by January 1940, the airline had grown to about 500 employees. Canadian Pacific Airlines suggested in 1942 a merger with TCA, prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada allowed to provide transcontinental flights.
With the increase in air travel after World War II, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight, with the development of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals. This bill failed but it was resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965. During the 1970s government regulations ensured Air Canadas dominance over domestic regional carriers, short-haul carriers were each restricted to one of five regions, and could not compete directly with Air Canada and CP Air. CP Air was subject to capacity limits on flights. Air Canadas fares were subject to regulation by the government, in the late 1970s, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada became an independent Crown corporation
Dominion of Newfoundland
Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949. The dominion was situated in northeastern North America along the Atlantic coast and comprised the island of Newfoundland, before attaining dominion status, Newfoundland was a British colony, self-governing from 1855. Newfoundland was one of the dominions within the meaning of the Statute of Westminster of 1931. In 1934, Newfoundland became the only dominion to give up its self-governing status and this episode was precipitated by a crisis in Newfoundlands public finances in 1932. Newfoundland had accumulated a significant amount of debt by building a railroad across the island, in November of that year, the government warned that Newfoundland would default on payments on the public debt. The United Kingdom government quickly established the Newfoundland Royal Commission to inquire, the Commissions report was published in October 1933. It recommended that Newfoundland give up its system of self-government temporarily, the dominion was never to be self-governing again.
The system of a six-member Commission of Government continued to govern Newfoundland until it joined Canada in 1949 to become Canadas tenth province, the official name of the dominion was “Newfoundland” and not, as is sometimes reported, “Dominion of Newfoundland”. In 1854 the British government established Newfoundlands responsible government, in 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858, Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada Sir John Thompson came very close to negotiating Newfoundlands entry into confederation in 1892 and it remained a colony until acquiring dominion status in 1907 after the 1907 Imperial Conference decided to confer dominion status on all self-governing colonies. The annual holiday of Dominion Day was celebrated each 26 September to commemorate the occasion, Newfoundlands own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War.
On 1 July 1916, the German Army wiped out most of that regiment at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme, yet the regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix Royal. In the 1920s, political scandals wracked the dominion, in 1923, the attorney general arrested Newfoundlands prime minister Sir Richard Squires on charges of corruption. Despite his release soon after on bail, the British-led Hollis Walker commission reviewed the scandal, soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 because of the unpopularity of his successors, but found himself governing a country suffering from the Great Depression. Prior to 1867, the Quebec North Shore portion of the Labrador coast had shuttled back, maps up to 1927 showed the coastal region as part of Newfoundland, with an undefined boundary. Quebec has long rejected the outcome, and Quebecs provincially issued maps do not mark the boundary in the way as boundaries with Ontario
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, as well as several much smaller islands. It is one of the three Maritime Provinces and is the smallest province in land area and population. It is the only jurisdiction of North America outside the Caribbean to have no mainland territory. The backbone of the economy is farming, it produces 25% of Canadas potatoes, historically, PEI is one of Canadas older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and French surnames being dominant to this day. According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 140,204 residents and it is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 kilometres east of Quebec City. It consists of the island and 231 minor islands. Altogether, the province has a land area of 5,685.73 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size, slightly larger than the U. S. state of Delaware and it is the 104th-largest island in the world and Canadas 23rd-largest island.
The island is named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the son of King George III. Prince Edward has been called Father of the Canadian Crown, Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait, the island has two urban areas. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, as with all natural harbours on the island and Summerside harbours are created by rias. Rolling hills, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves, under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning, in areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control.
The islands lush landscape has a bearing on its economy. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture, industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties
Operation Yellow Ribbon
Operation Yellow Ribbon was commenced by Canada to handle the diversion of civilian airline flights in response to the September 11 attacks in 2001 on the United States. Canadas goal was to ensure that potentially destructive air traffic be removed from United States airspace as quickly as possible, none of the aircraft proved to be a threat, and Canada and Canadians hosted thousands of passengers stranded in Canada until U. S. airspace was reopened. The FAA worked with Transport Canada to reroute incoming international flights to airports in Canada, during the operation, departing flights—with the exception of police and humanitarian flights—were cancelled, marking the first time that Canadian airspace had been shut down. In total, as a result of Operation Yellow Ribbon,255 aircraft were diverted to 17 different airports across the country, immediately after the attacks on the World Trade Center, both Transport Canada and NAV CANADA, the Canadian air navigation agency, activated their emergency measures.
Transport Canada activated its Situation Centre in Ottawa at 09,21 ET, one of the tasks of the SitCen was to maintain contact with other members of the Canadian aviation community, such as the Air Transport Association of Canada and local airport authorities. Their counterparts in the FAA and other civil aviation authorities were kept apprised. NAV CANADA set up two centres, the Strategic Command Centre and the Tactical Command Centre. The TCC was originally a training institute in Cornwall and its role in the crisis was to disseminate information amongst airports and control towers. To facilitate this, general managers from across Canada were present, after the immediate crisis passed, the TCC was relocated to the head office and its operations were merged with the SCC. The operation officially began at 09,45 ET, when the FAA closed down U. S. airspace as a result of the attacks and this was the first time Canada had shut down its airspace. About 500 flights were en route to the U. S. at the time of the attacks, planes were entering Canadian airspace at a rate of one to two planes per minute.
During the operation, SitCen staff focused on two issues, first where to land the aircraft and how to screen and clear tens of thousands of passengers through immigration, CIC and CCRA brought in extra staff from other posts to clear the passengers. The first airport to receive diverted flights was CFB Goose Bay, as the operation progressed, SitCen staff maintained contact with the affected airports and his deputy, Margaret Bloodworth. The operation was a challenge for airports in Atlantic Canada, Transport Canada asked NAV CANADA to instruct flights coming from Europe to avoid Macdonald-Cartier International Airport in Ottawa, Lester B. The majority of incoming flights from Europe were received by Atlantic airports, though some diverted flights did land at Dorval and Pearson. Gander International Airport, which was the first North American airport on the route, took in 39 wide-body aircraft. The number of passengers and crew accommodated at Gander was about 6,600, the population of Gander at the time was fewer than 10,000 people.
Jean Chrétien, then-Canadian Prime Minister, stated there were more people at the airport than in the town
Air traffic control
The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions and expedite the flow of air traffic, and provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC plays a security or defensive role, to prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close, in many countries, ATC provides services to all private and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard. Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the used by the station on the ground. In practice, the language for a region is normally used, however.
In 1921, Croydon Airport, London was the first airport in the world to air traffic control. In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions, the first of air mail radio stations was created in 1922 after World War I when the U. S. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct, over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations. Todays flight service stations do not issue instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services. They do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, approach/departure control facilities were created after adoption of radar in the 1950s to monitor and control the busy airspace around larger airports. The first air traffic control center, which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago.
The primary method of controlling the airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower. The tower is a tall, windowed structure located on the airport grounds, surveillance displays are available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing. These displays include a map of the area, the position of aircraft, and data tags that include aircraft identification, altitude. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may use surface movement radar, surface movement guidance and virtual tower is a system based on air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services
British Commonwealth Air Training Plan
Under a parallel agreement, the Joint Air Training Scheme, South Africa trained 33,347 aircrew for the South African Air Force and other Allied air forces. This number was exceeded only by Canada, which trained 131,500 personnel, negotiations regarding joint training, between the four governments concerned, took place in Ottawa during the first few months of the war. On 17 December 1939, they signed the Air Training Agreement – often referred to as the Riverdale Agreement, after the UK representative at the negotiations, the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was viewed as an incredibly ambitious programme. Under the agreement, air crews received training in various Commonwealth countries before travelling to Canada for advanced courses. Training costs were to be divided between the four governments and these units became known as Article XV squadrons. Articles XVI and XVII stipulated that the UK government would be responsible for the pay and entitlements of graduates. On 29 April 1940, the first Canadian training course commenced, with 221 recruits, at No.1 Initial Training School RCAF, located initially at the Eglinton Hunt Club.
From this intake,39 received their wings as aircrew on 30 September 1940, all of these graduates, were retained by the BCATP in Canada, as instructors, staff pilots or in similar flying assignments. The first BCATP personnel sent to the UK were 37 Canadian observers, the first BCATP-trained pilots posted to Europe as a group were 37 RAAF personnel who graduated in November 1941, from No.2 Service Flying Training School, RCAF Uplands, Ottawa. Prior to the inception of the Empire Air Training Scheme, the RAAF trained only about 50 pilots per year, under the Air Training Agreement, Australia undertook to provide 28,000 aircrew over three years, representing 36% of the total number trained by the BCATP. By 1945, more than 37,500 Australian aircrew had been trained in Australia, the first flying course started on 29 April 1940. Keith Chisholm was the first Australian to be trained under EATS, for a period, most RAAF aircrews received advanced training in Canada. During mid-1940, some RAAF trainees began to advanced training at RAF facilities in Southern Rhodesia.
In addition, a number of Australian personnel were transferred from Europe. Some Article XV squadrons were transferred to RAAF or RAF formations involved in the Pacific War. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of RAAF personnel remained in Europe, by early 1944, the flow of RAAF replacement personnel to Europe had begun to outstrip demand and – following a request by British government – was wound back significantly. Australian involvement was terminated in October 1944. The government agreed in December 1939 to join the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, operate its bases in Canada, and pick up a large proportion of the costs
Charlottetown is the capital and largest city of the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County. Named after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of the United Kingdom, from this, the city adopted as its motto Cunabula Foederis – Birthplace of Confederation. The population of Charlottetown in the 2011 census was 34,562, this forms the centre of an agglomeration of 64,487. This settlement was led by Michel Haché-Gallant, who used his sloop to ferry Acadian settlers from Louisbourg, during King Georges War, the British had taken over the Island. French officer Ramezay sent 500 men to attack the British troops in the Battle at Port-la-Joye, the French were successful in killing or capturing forty British troops. British forces built Fort Amherst near the site of the abandoned Port La Joye settlement to protect the entrance to the harbour, Charlottetown was selected as the site for the county seat of Queens County in the colonial survey of 1764 by Captain Samuel Holland of the Royal Engineers.
A year later, Charlottetown was made the capital of St. Johns Island. Further surveys conducted between 1768–1771 established the grid and public squares which can be seen in the citys historic district. The town was named in honour of Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George III, on November 17,1775, the colonys new capital was ransacked by Massachusetts-based privateers, participants in the American Revolutionary War. During the attack, the seal was stolen and several prisoners, including Phillips Callbeck and Thomas Wright, were taken to Cambridge, Massachusetts. On November 29,1798, St. Johns Island was renamed to Prince Edward Island in honour of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn who was the Commander-in-Chief, North America. In 1805, the local British garrison constructed a harbour defence called Fort Edward to the west of the capitals waterfront, in 1835, Government House was constructed at Fanning Bank as a residence for the colonys Governor.
Today, it serves as the residence for the Lieutenant Governor. Between 1843 and 1847, a new building was constructed in the community. Named the Colonial Building originally, following Confederation with Canada it gradually became known as Province House, on April 17,1855, Charlottetown was incorporated as a city, holding its first council meeting on August 11 of that year. The community had 6,500 residents at the time of incorporation, between September 1–8,1864, Charlottetown hosted what is now termed the Charlottetown Conference. Although many of the meetings and negotiations which would lead to Canadian Confederation were held in Province House, Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on July 1,1873. Aside from being the seat of government, the community came to be noted during the early nineteenth century for shipbuilding
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline, founded in 1934 and eventually headquartered in Houston, Texas. It had ownership interests and brand partnerships with several carriers, Continental was a minority owner of ExpressJet Airlines, which operated under the Continental Express trade name but was a separately managed and public company. Chautauqua Airlines flew under the Continental Express identity, and Cape Air, Colgan Air, CommutAir, Continental did not have any ownership interests in these companies. Continental started out as one of the carriers in the United States. Post 1978, Continental grew into one of the countrys largest carriers despite facing financial troubles and other issues, in May 2010, the airline announced that it would merge with UAL Corporation, the parent company of United Airlines, via a stock swap. Continentals shares were acquired by UAL Corporation, the acquisition was completed in October 2010, at which time the holding company was renamed United Continental Holdings.
During the integration period, each ran a separate operation under the direction of a combined leadership team. The integration was completed on March 3,2012, the airline commenced operations with the Lockheed Vega, a single-engine plane that carried four passengers. Following cancellation of all domestic airmail contracts by the Roosevelt administration in 1934, Six learned of an opportunity to buy into the Southwest Division of Varney Speed Lines which needed money to handle its newly won Pueblo-El Paso route. Six was introduced to Louis Mueller, Mueller had helped found the Southwest Division of Varney in 1934 with Walter T. Varney. As an upshot of all this, Six bought into the airline with US$90,000, Varney was awarded a 17-cent-rate airmail contract between Pueblo and El Paso, it carried passengers as a sideline. The carrier was renamed Continental Air Lines on July 8,1937, Six relocated the airlines headquarters to Denver Union Airport in Denver in October 1937. Six changed the name to Continental because he wanted the name to reflect his desire to have the airline fly all directions throughout the United States.
During World War II Continentals Denver maintenance base converted Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, Boeing B-29 Superfortresses, profits from military transportation and aircraft conversion enabled Continental to contemplate expansion and acquisition of new airliners after the war. Among those were the Douglas DC-3, the Convair 240 and the Convair 340, the Convairs were Continentals first pressurized airliners. The airlines early route was El Paso to Denver, with routes being added during the war from Denver and Albuquerque across Kansas, Oklahoma, in 1946 Continental flew Denver to Kansas City, and to Oklahoma City, and from El Paso and Albuquerque to San Antonio. Each route included stops in several of 22 smaller cities, in 1955 Continental merged with Pioneer Airlines, gaining access to 16 more cities in Texas and New Mexico. Pioneers Executive Vice President Harding Luther Lawrence arrived at Continental as a result of the merger, Bob Six commented on more than on occasion that, the reason we bought Pioneer was to get Harding
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet. Its distinctive hump upper deck along the part of the aircraft makes it among the worlds most recognizable aircraft. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years, as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses, resulting in 3722 fatalities. The four-engine 747 uses a configuration for part of its length. It is available in passenger and other versions, the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, but it exceeded critics expectations with production passing the 1,000 mark in 1993. By February 2017,1,528 aircraft had been built, the 747-400, the most common passenger version in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0. 85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production, deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011, deliveries of the 747-8I passenger version began in May 2012.
In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of projects on a very large strategic transport aircraft. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access doors at the front. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with greatly increased power and better fuel economy. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features, as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit usually was. In 1965 Lockheeds aircraft design and General Electrics engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived while air travel was increasing in the 1960s, the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel.
In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeings 737 development team to manage the design studies for a new airliner, Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft. Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted easily to carry freight, in the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being widely introduced at about the same time. Standard containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 20 and 40 ft lengths and this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization, a runway is a defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. Runways may be a surface or a natural surface. Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the heading in decadegrees. This heading differs from true north by the magnetic declination. A runway numbered 09 points east, runway 18 is south, runway 27 points west, when taking off from or landing on runway 09, a plane would be heading 90°. A runway can normally be used in both directions, and is named for each separately, e. g. runway 33 in one direction is runway 15 when used in the other. The two numbers usually differ by 18, Runway Zero Three Left becomes Runway Two One Right when used in the opposite direction. In some countries, if parallel runways are too close to each other, at large airports with four or more parallel runways some runway identifiers are shifted by 10 degrees to avoid the ambiguity that would result with more than three parallel runways.
For example, in Los Angeles, this results in runways 6L, 6R, 7L. At Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, there are five parallel runways, named 17L, 17C, 17R, 18L, for clarity in radio communications, each digit in the runway name is pronounced individually, runway three six, runway one four, etc. A leading zero, for example in runway zero six or runway zero one left, is included for all ICAO, most U. S. civil aviation airports drop the leading zero as required by FAA regulation. This includes some military airfields such as Cairns Army Airfield and this American anomaly may lead to inconsistencies in conversations between American pilots and controllers in other countries. It is very common in a such as Canada for a controller to clear an incoming American aircraft to, for example, runway 04. In flight simulation programs those of American origin might apply U. S. usage to airports around the world, for example, runway 05 at Halifax will appear on the program as the single digit 5 rather than 05.
Runway designations change over time because the magnetic poles slowly drift on the Earths surface, depending on the airport location and how much drift takes place, it may be necessary over time to change the runway designation. As runways are designated with headings rounded to the nearest 10 degrees, for example, if the magnetic heading of a runway is 233 degrees, it would be designated Runway 23. If the magnetic heading changed downwards by 5 degrees to 228, if on the other hand the original magnetic heading was 226, and the heading decreased by only 2 degrees to 224, the runway should become Runway 22. Because the drift itself is slow, runway designation changes are uncommon
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
Canada Flight Supplement
The Canada Flight Supplement is a joint civil/military publication and is a supplement of the Aeronautical Information Publication. It is the official airport directory. It contains information on all registered Canadian and certain Atlantic aerodromes, the CFS is published, separately in English and French, as a paper book by Nav Canada and is issued once every 56 days on the ICAO AIRAC schedule. The CFS was published by Natural Resources Canada on behalf of Transport Canada, the CFS presents runway data and departure procedures, air traffic control and other radio frequencies and services such as fuel, hangarage that are available at each listed aerodrome. As well, the CFS contains useful reference pages, including instructions for civil aircraft, chart updating data and search. Most pilots flying in Canada carry a copy of the CFS in case a weather or mechanical diversion to another airport becomes necessary, the Canada Flight Supplement is made up of seven sections, Special Notices — list of new or amended procedures.
General Section — glossary, airport code listing, list of abandoned aerodromes, Aerodrome/Facility Directory — list all aerodromes alphabetically by the community in which they are located. A sketch of the airport is included showing runway layout, locations of buildings, included in the sketch is an obstacle clearance circle. Radio Navigation and Communications — listing of radio navigation aids and communication outlets, together all known commercial AM broadcasters and their locations. Military Flight Data and Procedures — military flight and reporting procedures for Canada, emergency — emergency procedures and guidelines for hijacks, fuel dumping and rescue, etc. This Canadian Aviation Regulation does not specifically require carriage of a copy of the CFS, because information in the CFS may be out of date, particularly with regard to such issues as runway closures and fuel availability, pilots should check NOTAMs before each flight. NOTAM information in Canada can be obtained from the Nav Canada Aviation Weather Website or by contacting the appropriate regional Nav Canada Flight Information Centre, Nav Canada publishes the Water Aerodrome Supplement, as a single volume in English and French.
This contains information on all Canadian water aerodromes as shown on visual flight rules charts, the WAS is published on an annual basis. Airport/Facility Directory – U. S. publications roughly equivalent to the Aerodrome/Facility and Planning chapters of the CFS, but divided into several volumes covering different regions