Air Canada is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Canada by fleet size and passengers carried. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 207 destinations worldwide, it is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canada's corporate headquarters are in Montreal, while its largest hub is at Toronto Pearson International Airport; the airline's regional service is Air Canada Express. Canada's national airline originated from the Canadian federal government's 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines, which began operating its first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval. After the deregulation of the Canadian airline market in the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On 4 January 2000, Air Canada acquired Canadian Airlines. In 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and in the following year emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.
In 2017, Air Canada flew 48 million passengers. Air Canada has a fleet of Airbus A330, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 787 Dreamliner wide-body aircraft on long-haul routes and uses the Airbus A320 family aircraft, Boeing 737 MAX 8, Embraer E190 family aircraft on short-haul routes; the carrier's operating divisions include Air Canada Cargo, Air Canada Express, Air Canada Jetz, Air Canada Rouge. Its subsidiary, Air Canada Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with its regional partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,602 scheduled flights daily. Air Canada's predecessor, Trans-Canada Air Lines, was created by federal legislation as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway on 11 April 1937; the newly created Department of Transport under Minister C. D. Howe desired an airline under government control to link cities on the Atlantic coast to those on the Pacific coast. Using $5 million in Crown seed money, two Lockheed Model 10 Electras and one Boeing Stearman biplane were purchased from Canadian Airways and experienced airline executives from United Airlines and Delta Airlines were brought in.
Passenger flights began on 1 September 1937, with an Electra carrying two passengers and mail from Vancouver to Seattle, a $14.20 round trip, and, on 1 July 1938, TCA hired its first flight attendants. Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras and six Lockheed Model 18 Lodestars. By January 1940, the airline had grown to about 579 employees. Canadian Pacific Airlines suggested in 1942 a merger with TCA. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada allowed to provide transcontinental flights. With the increase in air travel after World War II, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight and a few international routes. Headquartered in Winnipeg, the site of the national maintenance base, the federal government moved TCA's headquarters to Montreal in 1949. With the development of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals.
By 1964, TCA had grown to become Canada's national airline and, in 1964, Jean Chrétien submitted a private member's bill to change the name of the airline from Trans-Canada Airlines to Air Canada, which TCA had long used as its French-language name. This bill failed but it was resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965. Elizabeth II, the reigning Queen of Canada, flew on the first aircraft to bear the name and livery of Air Canada when she departed for the United Kingdom at the end of her 1964 tour of Prince Edward Island and Ontario in 1964. During the 1970s government regulations ensured Air Canada's dominance over domestic regional carriers and rival CP Air. Short-haul carriers were each restricted to one of five regions, could not compete directly with Air Canada and CP Air. CP Air was subject to capacity limits on intercontinental flights, restricted from domestic operations. Air Canada's fares were subject to regulation by the government. In 1976, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada became an independent Crown corporation.
The Air Canada Act of 1978 ensured that the carrier would compete on a more equal footing with rival regional airlines and CP Air, ended the government's direct regulatory control over Air Canada's routings and services. The act transferred ownership from Canadian National Railway to a subsidiary of the national government. Deregulation of the Canadian airline market, under the new National Transportation Act, 1987 opened the airline market in Canada to equal competition; the carrier's fleet expansion saw the acquisition of Boeing 727, Boeing 747, Lockheed Tristar jetliners. In 1978 Judy Cameron became the first female pilot hired to fly for any major Canadian carrier when she was hired to fly by Air Canada. With new fleet expenditures outpacing earnings, Air Canada officials indicated that the carrier would need additional sources of capital to fund its modernization. By 1985 the Canadian government was indicating a willingness to privatize both Canadian National Railways and Air Canada. In 1988 Air Canada was privatized, 43% of shares were sold on the public market, with the initial public offering completed in October of that year.
By this time, long-haul rival CP Air had become Canadian Airlines International following its acquisition by Pacific Western Airlines. On 7 December 1987, Air Canada became
The Magdalen Islands is a small archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence with a land area of 205.53 square kilometres. Though closer to Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, the islands are part of the Canadian province of Quebec; the islands form the territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine. Its geographical code is 01; the islands form the urban agglomeration of Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, divided into two municipalities. These are Les Îles-de-la-Madeleine, the central municipality, Grosse-Île; the mayors are Rose Elmonde Clarke, respectively. There are eight major islands: Amherst, Grande Entrée, Grosse-Île, House Harbour, Pointe-Aux-Loups, Entry Island and Brion. All except Brion are inhabited. There are several other tiny islands that are considered part of the archipelago: Bird Rock, Seal Island, Île Paquet and Rocher du Corps Mort; the islands' interiors were once covered with pine forests. An ancient salt dome underlies the archipelago.
The inherent buoyancy of the salt forces the uplift of overlying Permian red sandstone. Nearby salt domes are believed to be sources of fossil fuels. Rock salt is mined on the Islands. In 1534, Jacques Cartier was the first known European to visit the islands. However, Mi'kmaqs had been visiting the islands for hundreds of years as part of a seasonal subsistence migration to harvest the abundant walrus population. A number of archaeological sites have been excavated on the archipelago; the archipelago was named in 1663 by François Doublet, the seigneur of the island, after his wife, Madeleine Fontaine. In 1765, the islands were inhabited by their families, they were hunting walruses for British trader Richard Gridley. To this day, many inhabitants of the Magdalen Islands fly the Acadian flag and identify as both Acadian and Québécois; the islands were administered as part of the British Colony of Newfoundland from 1763 until 1774. That year they were joined to Quebec by the Quebec Act. A segment of the population are descendants of survivors of the more than 400 shipwrecks on the islands.
Some of the historic houses were built from wood from the shipwrecks. The islands have some of Quebec's oldest English-speaking settlements. Although the majority of anglophones have long since assimilated with the francophone population or migrated elsewhere, English-speaking settlements are found at Old Harry, Grosse-Ile, Entry Island; the islands are known for a children's French camp. Activities include a night alone in the woods. To improve ship safety, the government constructed lighthouses on the islands, they indicate navigable channels and have reduced the number of shipwrecks, but many old hulks are found on the beaches and under the waters. Until the 20th century, the islands were isolated during the winter, since the pack ice made the trip to the mainland impassable by boat; the inhabitants of the islands had no means of communication with the mainland. An underwater cable was installed to enable communication by telegraph. In the winter of 1910, the cable broke and the islands were again isolated.
Residents sent an urgent request for help to the mainland by writing letters and sealing them inside a molasses barrel, which they set adrift. It reached the shore on Cape Breton Island, where residents notified the government of the Madelinots' emergency; the government sent an icebreaker to bring aid. Within a few years, the government constructed new wireless telegraph stations on the Magdalens to ensure they had communication in the winter; the puncheon became famous as a symbol of survival. At one time, large walrus herds were found near the islands but they had been destroyed by the end of the 18th century due to overhunting. In the 21st century, the islands' beaches provide habitat for the endangered piping plover and the roseate tern; the maritime climate enjoyed by Magdalen Islands is markedly different from that of the mainland. The huge water masses that circle the archipelago temper the weather and create milder conditions in each season. On the islands, winter is mild, spring is cool, there are few heat waves in summer, fall is warm.
The Magdalen Islands have the least amount of annual frost in the Province of Québec. The warm breezes of summer persist well into September, sometimes early October. However, in spite of this under the Köppen climate classification its climate is humid continental, due to its winters averaging far below freezing by maritime standards. Seasonal lag is strong due to the freezing water and the time it takes for the Gulf to warm up again. There is occasional sea ice formation in winter that impedes offshore communications and activities; the highest temperature recorded in Îles-de-la-Madeleine was 31.1 °C on 31 July 1949. The coldest temperature recorded was −27.2 °C on 14 February 1891. Tourism is a major industry on the Magdalen Islands; the islands have many kilometres of white sand beaches, along with eroding sandstone cliffs. They are a destination for bicycle camping, sea kayaking and kitesurfing. During the winter months, beginning in mid-February, eco-tourists visit to observe new-born and young harp seal pups on the pack ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence surrounding the islands.
The island is home to Canadian Salt Company Seleine Mines, which produces road salt for use in Quebec, Atlantic Canada and the United States' eastern seaboard. Opened in 1982, the salt mine and plan
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years; the quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, to allow the aircraft to be converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of, announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.
Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order; as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses. The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration; the newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011. In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft.
These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180,000 pounds and a speed of Mach 0.75, an unrefueled range of 5,000 nautical miles with a payload of 115,000 pounds. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access through doors at the front and rear. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, General Dynamics and Martin Marietta. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features; as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the largest military aircraft in the world at the time.
The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived; the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.
Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted to carry freight and remain in production if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 40 ft lengths; this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am orde
Dieppe, New Brunswick
Dieppe is a city in the Canadian maritime province of New Brunswick. Statistics Canada counted the population at 25,384 in 2016, making it the fourth largest city in the province. Dieppe's history and identity goes back to the eighteenth century. Known as Leger's Corner, it was incorporated as a town in 1952 under the Dieppe name, designated as a city in 2003; the Dieppe name was adopted by the citizens of the area in 1946 to commemorate the Second World War's Operation Jubilee, the Dieppe Raid of 1942. It is a francophone city. A majority of the population reports speaking both French and English. Residents speak French with a regional accent, unique to southeastern New Brunswick. A large majority of Dieppe’s population were in favour of the by-law regulating the use of external commercial signs in both official languages, a first for the province of New Brunswick. Dieppe is the largest predominantly francophone city in Canada outside Québec. Dieppe was one of the co-hosts of the first Congrès Mondial Acadien, held in the Moncton region in 1994.
Dieppe is part of the census metropolitan area of Moncton, New Brunswick's most populous city at 144,810 according to Statistics Canada in 2016. Federal and provincial representatives Provincial electoral districts Members of the 58th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly, the governing house of the province of New Brunswick. Dieppe - Roger Melanson Shediac Bay-Dieppe - Brian GallantFederal electoral districts Members of the 42nd Parliament of Canada. A section of southeast Dieppe is in the Beauséjour riding. Moncton—Riverview—Dieppe - Ginette Petitpas Taylor Beauséjour - Dominic LeBlanc Dieppe is located on the Petitcodiac River, it forms the southeastern part of the Greater Moncton Area, which includes the city of Moncton, the town of Riverview, Moncton Parish, Memramcook and Salisbury. Dieppe's city population increased from 1971 to 1981 with the 1973 unification of the surrounding communities, i.e. Saint Anselme, Fox Creek/Dover and Chartersville. Being part of Moncton census metropolitan area, Statistics Canada counted the population at 144,810 – making it the largest urban area in New Brunswick and the third largest in Atlantic Canada.
Detailed mother tongue Acadians from the Petitcoudiac and Shepody regions were the first pioneers to settle in the area and founded Sylvabreau in 1730, followed by the Melanson family at Ruisseau-des-Renards in 1746 and the LeBlanc and Boudreau families at Chartersville in 1776. Preceding the arrival of Acadian settlers, the southern part of the province was inhabited by the Algonquin people; the Battle of the Petitcodiac was fought on September 2, 1755 during the British expulsion of the Acadians, after the capture of Fort Beauséjour. The Massachusetts-British force was soundly defeated by troops from Boishébert, Acadian militia, First Nations' warriors. At the mouth of the Nacadie Creek settlements such as le Coude and the surrounding hamlets were destroyed. After these raids, Acadians returned to these villages and the numbers grew as the deportation from peninsular Nova Scotia continued, followed by the deportation from present-day Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton. Victory for the British occurred three years during the Petitcodiac River Campaign which resulted in the deportation of the Acadians that lived along the Petitcodiac River or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations.
Dieppe was known as Upper Village after the Expulsion and was settled by the Surette and Thibodeau families, while Chartersville was called Leblanc's Village and included members of the Boudreau's clan. Prior to 1800, Pierre Bourgeois had established himself on the Fox Creek salt marsh. Agriculture and some fishing sustained these Acadian families up until the mid-1800s, when shipbuilding and railways created employment opportunities for Acadians around the Moncton area. After a bridge was completed in 1867 at the mouth of Hall's Creek, a road was constructed that link the incorporated Town of Moncton's Westmorland Road to the Dieppe area; this road went through farmland that had belong to the Leger family and intersected the old road that had taken travellers up and around Hall's Creek to the community of Lewisville to get to Moncton. By 1900, the little area around the intersection became known as Léger's Corner, with the increasing traffic from the bridge, merchants became attracted to the corner and soon set up shops and services around the intersection.
Prior to the First World War, a small residential development was erected, the community continue to grow until the Second World War. A population explosion occurred. Léger's Corner received the largest influx of military personnel in southeastern New Brunswick. Ten thousand airmen and their support staff arrived overnight in 1940, soon temporary warehouses and housing were erected; when Léger's Corner became incorporated as a municipal village in 1946, the community was renamed Dieppe, after a port in France on the English Channel, to honour the 913 Canadian servicemen who took part in the Dieppe Raid, the bloody landing by Allied soldiers, on August 19, 1942, during the Second World War. Part of Lakeburn was annexed in 1946 and Dieppe-East in 1948. A refere
Air traffic control
Air traffic control is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purpose of ATC worldwide is to prevent collisions and expedite the flow of air traffic, provide information and other support for pilots. In some countries, ATC is operated by the military. To prevent collisions, ATC enforces traffic separation rules, which ensure each aircraft maintains a minimum amount of empty space around it at all times. Many aircraft have collision avoidance systems, which provide additional safety by warning pilots when other aircraft get too close. In many countries, ATC provides services to all private and commercial aircraft operating within its airspace. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace, ATC may issue instructions that pilots are required to obey, or advisories that pilots may, at their discretion, disregard; the pilot in command is the final authority for the safe operation of the aircraft and may, in an emergency, deviate from ATC instructions to the extent required to maintain safe operation of their aircraft.
Pursuant to requirements of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ATC operations are conducted either in the English language or the language used by the station on the ground. In practice, the native language for a region is used. In 1920, Croydon Airport, London was the first airport in the world to introduce air traffic control. In the United States, air traffic control developed three divisions; the first of air mail radio stations was created in 1922 after World War I when the U. S. Post Office began using techniques developed by the Army to direct and track the movements of reconnaissance aircraft. Over time, the AMRS morphed into flight service stations. Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services, they do relay control instructions from ATC in areas where flight service is the only facility with radio or phone coverage. The first airport traffic control tower, regulating arrivals and surface movement of aircraft at a specific airport, opened in Cleveland in 1930.
Approach/departure control facilities were created after adoption of radar in the 1950s to monitor and control the busy airspace around larger airports. The first air route traffic control center, which directs the movement of aircraft between departure and destination was opened in Newark, NJ in 1935, followed in 1936 by Chicago and Cleveland; the primary method of controlling the immediate airport environment is visual observation from the airport control tower. The tower is a windowed structure located on the airport grounds. Air traffic controllers are responsible for the separation and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles operating on the taxiways and runways of the airport itself, aircraft in the air near the airport 5 to 10 nautical miles depending on the airport procedures. Surveillance displays are available to controllers at larger airports to assist with controlling air traffic. Controllers may use a radar system called secondary surveillance radar for airborne traffic approaching and departing.
These displays include a map of the area, the position of various aircraft, data tags that include aircraft identification, speed and other information described in local procedures. In adverse weather conditions the tower controllers may use surface movement radar, surface movement guidance and control systems or advanced SMGCS to control traffic on the manoeuvring area; the areas of responsibility for tower controllers fall into three general operational disciplines: local control or air control, ground control, flight data / clearance delivery—other categories, such as Apron control or ground movement planner, may exist at busy airports. While each tower may have unique airport-specific procedures, such as multiple teams of controllers at major or complex airports with multiple runways, the following provides a general concept of the delegation of responsibilities within the tower environment. Remote and virtual tower is a system based on air traffic controllers being located somewhere other than at the local airport tower and still able to provide air traffic control services.
Displays for the air traffic controllers may be live video, synthetic images based on surveillance sensor data, or both. Ground control is responsible for the airport "movement" areas, as well as areas not released to the airlines or other users; this includes all taxiways, inactive runways, holding areas, some transitional aprons or intersections where aircraft arrive, having vacated the runway or departure gate. Exact areas and control responsibilities are defined in local documents and agreements at each airport. Any aircraft, vehicle, or person walking or working in these areas is required to have clearance from ground control; this is done via VHF/UHF radio, but there may be special cases where other procedures are used. Aircraft or vehicles without radios must respond to ATC instructions via aviation light signals or else be led by vehicles with radios. People working on the airport surface have a communications link through which they can communicate with ground control either by handheld radio or cell phone.
Ground control is vital to the smooth operation of the airport, because this position impacts th
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou