Rogalin Landscape Park
Rogalin Landscape Park is a protected area in west-central Poland, covering an area of 126.4 square kilometres. It includes two nature reserves; the Park lies across the Poznań County and the Śrem County. It stretches along the banks of the Warta river, takes its name from the village of Rogalin, famous for its historic palace of the Raczynski family and oak trees. About 2000 magnificent oaks are found on the banks of the river Warta near Rogalin, among numerous oxbow lakes, it is Europe’s largest group of monumental oak trees, located within the Rogalin Landscape Park. Their trunks reach a circumference of up to 9 metres, all those reaching over 2 m in circumference are protected by law
Royal Prussia or Polish Prussia was a region of the Kingdom of Poland from 1466 to 1772. Royal Prussia was established after the Second Peace of Thorn, from territory in western Prussia ceded by the State of the Teutonic Order and incorporated into the Kingdom of Poland; the region became part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569, its autonomy and political status were re-organized several times during its existence. Royal Prussia was dissolved in 1772 when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland, the majority of its territory was formed into the province of West Prussia; the area consisted of the following districts: Pomerelia with Danzig, Chełmno Land with Michałów Land and Toruń, the mouth of the Vistula with Elbląg and Malbork, the Bishopric of Warmia with Olsztyn which were forcibly ceded from the Teutonic Order in the Second Peace of Thorn to the Kingdom of Poland. Until the 1569 Union of Lublin the region enjoyed a substantial autonomy. After 1569, Royal Prussia was directly administered by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
From the 14th century, in old texts and in Latin, the terms Prutenia and Prutenic refer not only to the original settlement area of the now extinct Old Prussians along the Baltic coast east of the Vistula River, but to the adjacent lands of the former Samboride dukes of Pomerelia, which territory the Teutonic Knights had acquired from Poland in the 1343 Treaty of Kalisz and added to their Order's State. The former Pomerelian Lauenburg and Bütow Land in the far west was held by the Pomeranian dukes as a Polish fief. Royal Prussia is distinguished from Ducal Prussia, the remaining parts of Prussia around Königsberg, a fiefdom under Polish suzerainty but held by the Teutonic Knights. After secularisation in 1525 it was held by Lutheran dukes of the Hohenzollern dynasty. From 1618 this area was in personal union by the Electors of Brandenburg. In 1657 feudal overlordship was removed from Poland by the Treaty of Wehlau. Before 1308 the Pomerelian part of the region, with Gdańsk, was part of the first Polish state, enjoying periods of autonomy and independence.
During the rule of Władysław I the Elbow-high of Poland, the Margraviate of Brandenburg staked its claim on the territory in 1308, leading Władysław to request assistance from the Teutonic Knights, who evicted the Brandenburgers but took the area for themselves. This event caused a long-lasting dispute between Poland and the Teutonic Order over the control of Pomerelia, it resulted in a series of Polish -- Teutonic Wars throughout 15th centuries. After their defeat at the Battle of Grunwald, the Teutonic Knights according to the 1411 Peace of Thorn had to pay large contributions to the Polish kings, which affected the public budget. In view of rising taxes, several local nobles and Hanseatic cities in 1440 established the Prussian Confederation at Marienwerder protesting against the Order's internal and financial policies; the Confederation was led by the citizens of Danzig and Thorn. The gentry from Chełmno Land and Pomerelia participated as well. Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen demanded the dissolution and in 1453 searched for help from Pope Nicholas V and Emperor Frederick III.
In turn, in February 1454, the Confederation sent a delegation, under Johannes von Baysen, to King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland, to ask him for support against the Teutonic Order's rule and for incorporation of their homeland into the Kingdom of Poland. In this act, Prussian delegates declared the Polish king the only true heir of those lands, parts of which were earlier illegally separated from Poland. After some hesitation and negotiating the exact conditions of incorporation on 6 March 1454, the Royal Chancellery issued the Act of Incorporation that met the requests of the Prussian estates represented by the Confederation. After the Prussian Confederation pledged allegiance to Casimir on 6 March 1454, the Thirteen Years' War began. King Casimir IV Jagiellon appointed Baysen as the first war-time governor of Royal Prussia. On 28 May 1454 the king took an oath of allegiance from the citizens of Toruń and in June a similar oath from the citizens of Elbing and Königsberg; the rebellion included major cities from the eastern part of the Order's lands, such as Kneiphof a part of Königsberg.
Though the Knights were victorious at the 1454 Battle of Chojnice, they were not able to finance further mercenaries in order to reconquer the castles occupied by the insurgents. Thirteen years of attrition warfare ended in October 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, which provided for the Order's cession to the Polish Crown of its rights over the western half of Prussia, including Pomerelia and the districts of Elbing and Chełmno. According to the 1454 Incorporation Statute issued by King Casimir IV, Royal Prussia enjoyed substantial autonomy as part of the Crown of Poland: it had its own treasury, monetary unit, armies, it was governed by a council, subordinate to the Polish king, whose members were chosen from local lords and wealthy citizens. Prussians had seats provided for them in the Sejm, but they chose not to use this right until the Union of Lublin. Thorn and Danzig gained privileges simila
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.
It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University - the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".
The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.
The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.
Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in
Edward Bernard Raczyński
Count Edward Bernard Raczyński was a Polish diplomat, writer and President of Poland in exile. He was the longest living, oldest serving Polish President. Count Edward Bernard Maria Raczyński was born December 19, 1891 in Zakopane, to a Polish aristocratic family, his father was Count Edward Aleksander Raczyński of Nałęcz coat of arms, his mother Róża née Countess Potocka. The Raczyńskis were related to the Austro-Hungarian house of Habsburgs; the full name was "Raczyński z Małyszyna", as they were a branch of the noble family Nałęcz-Małyski from Greater Poland and about 1540 took their name from the estate of Raczyn near Wieluń. However, the Raczyńskis remained unknown until the 18th century, when four of them became Senators of Poland under different reigns. One of the Raczyńskis became a Knight of the Order of the White Eagle during the reign of King August the Strong, six of them were awarded the Virtuti Militari order during the time of Duchy of Warsaw and three received the same distinction during the November Uprising of 1831.
The title of Count was awarded to different branches of the family by Prussian Kings Friedrich Wilhelm III and Wilhelm II. One of their kin was a Knight of the highest Prussian Order of the Black Eagle. Raczyński spent most of his childhood in Kraków, in the family palace Pod Baranami and in the family palace in Rogalin in Greater Poland, he studied law in Lipsk, Kraków, London and was awarded with a doctorate of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków in 1915. In November 1918, Raczynski joined the army of the resuscitated Poland, from which he was called to the diplomatic service in May 1919; until 1925, he worked in Polish embassies and missions in Bern and London. Back in Warsaw, he became the head of the department of international agreements. In 1932, Raczyński was appointed Polish ambassador to the League of Nations and in 1934 he became the ambassador of the Republic of Poland in the United Kingdom. On behalf of Poland, he signed the Polish-British alliance which led the United Kingdom to declare war on Nazi Germany after the country's invasion.
Following the September 1, 1939 German Invasion of Poland Raczyński remained in London where he continued to serve as the ambassador of the Polish Government in Exile and one of its prominent members. Between July 22, 1941 and July 14, 1943 he was the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Władysław Sikorski. In this capacity, he provided the Allies with one of the earliest and most accurate accounts of the ongoing Holocaust and pleaded for action. After 1945, when the government of the United Kingdom broke the pacts with Poland and withdrew support for the Polish government, Raczyński remained in London, where he acted as one of the most notable members of Polish diaspora there, he was active in various political and social organisations in exile, including the Fundusz Pomocy Krajowi which supported the democratic opposition in communist-controlled Poland. Between 1954 and 1972 he was one of the members of the Council of the Three, the collective presidential body of the Polish government in exile.
He was a member of the Committee for Polish Affairs and an advisor of various British governmental agencies and ministries. In March 1979, Raczyński became President in exile, after being chosen by the outgoing President Stanisław Ostrowski. In turn, he chose as his successor Prime Minister Kazimierz Sabbat. During the Raczyński presidency the Solidarity movement was established in Poland. Raczyński played an important role in raising awareness about the events in Poland in Western countries and in establishing closer ties with the opposition movement in Poland. President Raczyński at some point considered naming Władysław Bartoszewski as his successor, as he wanted to choose someone "from the country" and with strong ties to the Polish opposition movement. Bartoszewski, declined the offer. After serving a 7-year term he resigned from his post on April 8, 1986, he was the last Polish President-in-Exile who had held an important office during the era of the 2nd Republic: his successors, Kazimierz Sabbat and Ryszard Kaczorowski were in their twenties at the outset of the Second World War.
As he left office he received a praise for reuniting the Polish political emigration and reshaping the Government in exile. Edward Raczyński died July 1993, at his home in London as the last male descendant of his line, his coffin was placed in the mausoleum of his family located at the chapel in Rogalin. In his last will and testament, Count Raczyński bequeathed his family's palace in Rogalin, his library to the Polish nation, he was the longest living head of state in Poland's history and one of the few centenarians among European politicians of the 20th century. In 2004, a blue plaque was installed on the house where he lived and died, No. 8 Lennox Gardens in Brompton. Order of the White Eagle Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire Grand Cross of the Order of Pius IX from the Pope Doctor Honoris Causa of the Polish University Abroad, London, in 1982. On August 25, 1932 he married his second wife, Cecylia Maria Jar
Poznań Town Hall
Poznań Town Hall or Ratusz is a historic building in the city of Poznań in western Poland, located at the Poznań Old Town in the centre of Old Market Square. It used to serve as the Seat of local government until 1939, now houses a museum; the town hall was built in the late 13th century following the founding of the medieval city in 1253. The display of mechanical fighting goats, played out daily at noon above the clock on the front wall of the building, is one of the city's main tourist attractions; the town hall was constructed as the administrative building of the city founded on the left bank of the Warta in 1253. It was completed around 1300, during the reign of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia, was first documented in Latin in 1310 as Domus Consulum, it was a one-storey Gothic building built upon a raised quadrangle. The cellars remain from this period of construction; the building was extended in the 15th century, at the turn of the century a tower was built at the north-western corner. The interior was remodeled between 1504 and 1508.
In 1536 the city suffered a major fire. Repair work was carried out in 1540–1542 to the tower, but it remained unsafe. In 1550 the city' council commissioned Giovanni Battista di Quadro to carry out a major rebuilding; the work lasted until 1560. Di Quadro added an upper storey, extended the building towards the west, added attic walls and a three-storey loggia. A new clock was made with three full faces and one half-face, with goats added as a "comic element". In 1675 the tower and goats were destroyed by lightning; the tower was rebuilt in 1690 to a height of 90 metres. The top of the tower was destroyed in a hurricane of 1725. In 1781–1784 major renovation was carried out on the building thanks to the efforts of the city's "Committee of Good Order", it obtained the basic form which it presents today. A Classical-style tower roof was designed by Bonawentura Solari, on the top was a white eagle with a two-metre wing span. On the eastern elevation Franciszek Cielecki painted Jagiellonian kings, under the central turret was placed a cartouche with the king's initials "SAR".
The next major renovation was carried out in 1910–1913, when black rustication was used to give the building a more "northern German" style. The original late renaissance polychromy was destroyed. An additional storey was added and the goats, absent since 1675, were restored to the tower in 1913. In October 1943 the Town Hall was the scene of Heinrich Himmler's Posen speeches. Following major damage in the Battle of Poznań, the Town Hall was again rebuilt in 1945–1954, when the Renaissance character of the elevations was restored; the eagle, kept hidden during the war, was returned to the tower in 1947. The mechanism that drives the goats was replaced in 1954, again at the end of the century. Renovation carried out in 1992–2002 restored the building to its post-1784 appearance. Today the mechanical goats' butting display is performed daily at noon, preceded by the striking of the clock and the playing of a traditional bugle call. At other hours between 7 am and 9 pm the same call is played on a carillon, installed in the tower in 2003.
The daily appearance of the goats is one of Poznań's best-known tourist attractions. A legend behind the original addition of the goats to the clock mechanism states that a cook, while preparing a banquet for the voivode and other dignitaries, had burnt a roast deer, attempted to replace it by stealing two goats from a nearby meadow; the goats escaped and ran up the town hall tower, where they attracted the attention of the townspeople when they began to butt each other. Because of the entertainment provided, the voivode pardoned both the cook and the goats, ordered that two mechanical goats be incorporated into the new clock being made for the building. Another legend is associated with the hejnał; this says that Bolko, son of the tower's trumpeter, once took care of a crow whose wing had been shot through. The boy was awoken at night by a gnome wearing a crown and purple cape, who thanked the boy for his kindness and handed him a small gold trumpet, telling him to blow it when in danger. After these words the gnome flew away.
Years after Bolko had taken his father's place as trumpeter, when an attacking army was scaling Poznań's walls, Bolko remembered the present, ran to the top of the tower and began to play the trumpet. Dark clouds began to gather on the horizon, which turned out to be an enormous flock of crows that fell upon the attacking army and forced it to retreat; the trumpet was lost when Bolko dropped it in his astonishment, but the call which he played is still performed. The interior of the town hall consists of a ground floor and two upper storeys; the building serves as a Museum of the History of the City of Poznań, a subdivision of the National Museum in Poznań. The cellars were built between 14th centuries. There was one large room with a supporting column in the centre. Keystones feature the coat of arms of Poznań and the Bohemian coat of arms dating from
The Warta is a river in western-central Poland and a tributary of the Oder. With a length of 795 kilometres, it is the country's second-longest river located within its borders and third-longest in terms of total length; the Warta has a basin area of 54,520 square kilometers and it is navigable from Kostrzyn nad Odrą to Konin half of its length. It is connected to the Vistula by the Noteć River and the Bydgoszcz Canal near the city of Bydgoszcz, it rises in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland at Kromołów in Zawiercie, Silesian Voivodeship, flows through Łódź Land, Greater Poland and Lubusz Land, where it empties into the Oder near Kostrzyn at the border with Germany. The Greater Polish Warta Basin was the original Poland; the river is mentioned in the second stanza of the Polish national anthem, "Poland Is Not Yet Lost." Widawka Ner Wełna Noteć Liswarta Prosna Obra Postomia Rivers of Poland Geography of Poland Warta Landscape Park Ujście Warty National Park
Kalisz is a city in central Poland with 101,625 inhabitants making it the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship. It is the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce. Kalisz is an important regional commercial centre with many notable factories; the city is a centre for traditional folk art. The town was the site of the former'Calisia' piano factory, until it went out of business in 2007; the name Kalisz is thought to stem from the Slavic term "kal", meaning marsh. There are many artifacts from Roman times in the area of Kalisz, indicating that the settlement had once been a stop of the Roman caravans heading for the Baltic Sea along the trade route of the Amber Trail. Calisia had been mentioned by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD, although the connection is doubted by some historians who claim that the location mentioned by Ptolemy was situated in the territory of the Diduni in Magna Germania.
Archaeological excavations have uncovered early mediaeval settlement from the Piast dynasty period, c. 9th-12th centuries. Modern Kalisz was most founded in the 9th century as a provincial capital castellany and a minor fort. In 1106 Bolesław III Wrymouth made it a part of his feudal domain. Between 1253 and 1260 the town was incorporated according to the German town law called the Środa Śląska Law, a local variation of the Magdeburg Law, soon started to grow. One of the richest towns of Greater Poland, during the feudal fragmentation of Poland it formed a separate duchy ruled by a local branch of the Piast dynasty. After Poland was reunited, the town became a notable centre of weaving and wood products, as well as one of the cultural centres of Greater Poland. There are records of Khalyzian settlements from 1139. In 1282 the city laws were confirmed by Przemysł II of Poland, in 1314 it was made the capital of the Kalisz Voivodeship by king Władysław I the Elbow-high. Located in the centre of Poland, Kalisz was a notable centre of trade.
Because of its strategic location, King Casimir III the Great signed a peace treaty with the Teutonic Order there in 1343. As a royal town, the city managed to defend many of its initial privileges, in 1426 a new town hall was built; the Polish king Mieszko III the Old was buried in Kalisz. In 1574 the Jesuits came to Kalisz and in 1584 opened a Jesuit College, which became one of the most notable centres of education in Poland; the economic development of the area was aided by a large number of Protestant Czech Brothers, who settled in and around Kalisz after being expelled from Bohemia in 1620. In 1792, a fire destroyed much of the city centre; the following year, in the second partition of Poland, the Kingdom of Prussia absorbed the city, called "Kalisch" in German. In 1801, Wojciech Bogusławski set up one of the first permanent theatre troupes in Kalisz. In 1807, Kalisz became a provincial capital within the Duchy of Warsaw. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia, following Yorck's Convention of Tauroggen of 1812, von Stein's Treaty of Kalisz was signed between Russia and Prussia in 1813, confirming that Prussia now was on the side of the Allies.
After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, Kalisz became a provincial capital of Congress Poland and the capital of a province of the Russian Empire. Prussia and Russia held joint military exercises near the town in 1835; the proximity to the Prussian border accelerated economic development of the city and Kalisz started to attract many settlers, not only from other regions of Poland and other provinces of the Russian Empire, but from German states. In 1902, a new railway linked Kalisz to Warsaw and Łódź. With the outbreak of World War I, the proximity of the border proved disastrous for Kalisz. Between 2 and 22 August, Kalisz was shelled and burned to the ground by German forces under Major Hermann Preusker though Russian troops had retreated from the city without defending it and German troops – many of them ethnic Poles – had been welcomed peaceably. Eight hundred men were arrested and several of them slaughtered, while the city was set on fire and the remaining inhabitants were expelled. Out of 68,000 citizens in 1914, only 5,000 remained in Kalisz a year later.
By the end of the Great War, much of the city centre had been more or less rebuilt and many of the former inhabitants had been allowed to return. After the war Kalisz became part of the newly independent Poland; the reconstruction continued and in 1925 a new city hall was opened. In 1939 the population of Kalisz was 89,000. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the proximity of the border once again proved disastrous. Kalisz was captured by the Wehrmacht instantly and without much fighting, the city was annexed by Germany. By the end of World War II 30,000 local Jews had been murdered. An additional 20,000 local Catholics were either murdered or expelled to the German-occupied territories or to Germany as slave workers. In 1945 the population of the city was 43,000 – half the pre-war figure. In 1975, after Edward Gierek's reform of the administrative division of Poland, Kalisz again became the capital of a province – Kalisz Voivodeship.