The James River is a river in the U. S. state of Virginia that begins in the Appalachian Mountains and flows 348 miles to Chesapeake Bay. The river length extends to 444 miles if one includes the Jackson River, the longer of its two source tributaries, it is the longest river in Virginia and the 12th longest river in the United States that remains within a single state. Jamestown and Williamsburg, Virginia’s first colonial capitals, Richmond, Virginia's current capital, lie on the James River; the Native Americans who populated the area east of the Fall Line in the late 16th and early 17th centuries called the James River the Powhatan River, named for the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy which extended over most of the Tidewater region of Virginia. The English colonists named it "James" after King James I of England, as they constructed the first permanent English settlement in the Americas in 1607 at Jamestown along the banks of the James River about 35 miles upstream from the Chesapeake Bay.
The navigable portion of the river was the major highway of the Colony of Virginia during its first 15 years, facilitating supply ships delivering supplies and more people from England. However, for the first five years, despite many hopes of gold and riches, these ships sent little of monetary value back to the sponsors. In 1612, businessman John Rolfe cultivated a non-native strain of tobacco which proved popular in England. Soon, the river became the primary means of exporting the large hogsheads of this cash crop from an ever-growing number of plantations with wharfs along its banks; this development made the proprietary efforts of the Virginia Company of London successful financially, spurring more development and immigration. Below the falls at Richmond, many James River plantations had their own wharfs, additional ports and/or early railheads were located at Warwick, Bermuda Hundred, City Point, Claremont and Smithfield, during the 17th century, the capital of the Colony at Jamestown.
Navigation of the James River played an important role in early Virginia commerce and the settlement of the interior, although growth of the colony was in the Tidewater region during the first 75 years. The upper reaches of the river above the head of navigation at the fall line were explored by fur trading parties sent by Abraham Wood during the late 17th century. Although ocean-going ships were unable to navigate beyond present-day Richmond, portage of products and navigation with smaller craft to transport crops other than tobacco was feasible. Produce from the Piedmont and Great Valley regions traveled down the river to seaports at Richmond and Manchester through such port towns as Lynchburg, Scottsville and Buchanan; as the James River passed through the Confederate capital Richmond, it was the scene of much action in the Civil War, notably in the Peninsula Campaign, the Seven Days Battles and the Siege of Petersburg. The James River was considered a route for transport of produce from the Ohio Valley.
The James River and Kanawha Canal was built for this purpose, to provide a navigable portion of the Kanawha River, a tributary of the Ohio River. For the most mountainous section between the two points, the James River and Kanawha Turnpike was built to provide a portage link for wagons and stagecoaches. However, before the canal could be completed, in the mid-19th century, railroads emerged as a more practical technology and eclipsed canals for economical transportation; the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was completed between Richmond and the Ohio River at the new city of Huntington, West Virginia by 1873, dooming the canal's economic prospects. In the 1880s, the Richmond and Alleghany Railroad was laid along the eastern portion of the canal's towpath, became part of the C&O within 10 years. In modern times, this rail line is used in transporting West Virginia coal to export coal piers at Newport News; the James River drains a catchment comprising 10,432 square miles. The watershed includes about an area with a population of 2.5 million people.
The James River forms near Iron Gate on the border between Alleghany and Botetourt counties, from the confluence of the Cowpasture and Jackson rivers in the Appalachian Mountains. It flows into the Chesapeake Bay at Hampton Roads. Tidal waters extend west to the capital of Virginia, at the river's fall line. Larger tributaries draining to the tidal portion include the Appomattox River, Chickahominy River, Warwick River, Pagan River, the Nansemond River. At its mouth near Newport News Point, the Elizabeth River and the Nansemond River join the James River to form the harbor area known as Hampton Roads. Between the tip of the Virginia Peninsula near Old Point Comfort and the Willoughby Spit area of Norfolk in South Hampton Roads, a channel leads from Hampton Roads into the southern portion of the Chesapeake Bay and out to the Atlantic Ocean a few miles further east. Many boats pass through this river to export Virginia products. During the 1960's and 70's, mishandling and dumping of the insecticide Kepone resulted in the contamination of large stretches or the James River Estuary downstream of the Allied Signal Company and LifeSciences Product Company plants in Hopewell, Virginia.
Due to the pollution risks, many businesses and restaurants along the river suffered economic losses. In 1975 Governor Mills Godwin Jr. shut down the James River to fishing for 100 miles, from Richmond to the Chesapeake Bay. This ban remained in effect for 13 years. A decade of accumulated silt, lying above the contaminated riverbed, helped to reduce levels of the chemical; the James River contains numerous park
The Northeast megalopolis, the most populous megalopolis in the United States with over 50 million residents, is the most urbanized agglomeration of the United States. Located on the Atlantic Ocean in the Northeastern United States, with its lower terminus in the upper Southeast, it runs northeast to southwest from the northern suburbs of Boston, Massachusetts, to the southern suburbs of Washington, D. C. in Northern Virginia. It includes the major cities of Boston, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. along with their metropolitan areas and suburbs, as well as many smaller urban centers such as Richmond and Norfolk, Virginia to the south and Portland, Maine to the north. On a map, the megalopolis appears as a straight line; as of 2010, the region contained over 50 million people, about 17% of the U. S. population on less than 2% of the nation's land area, with a population density of 1,000 people per square mile, compared to the U. S. average of 80.5 per square mile 2. America 2050 projections expect the area to grow to 58.1 million people by 2025.
French geographer Jean Gottmann popularized the term in his landmark 1961 study of the region, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. Gottmann concluded that the region's cities, while discrete and independent, are uniquely tied to each other through the intermeshing of their suburban zones, taking on some characteristics of a single, massive city: a megalopolis; the megalopolis' higher education network comprises hundreds of colleges and universities, including Harvard University, Princeton University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University, which are ranked among the top 5 universities in the United States and top 10 universities in the world. The megalopolis encompasses the District of Columbia and part or all of 11 states: from south to north, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Maine, it is linked by Interstate 95 and U. S. Route 1, which start in Miami and Key West and terminate in Maine at the Canadian border, as well as the Northeast Corridor railway line, the busiest passenger rail line in the country.
It is home to over 50 million people, metropolitan statistical areas are contiguous from Washington to Boston. The region is not uniformly populated between the terminal cities, there are regions nominally within the corridor yet located away from the main transit lines that have been bypassed by urbanization, such as Connecticut's Quiet Corner; the region accounts for 20% of the U. S. Gross Domestic Product, it is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, the White House and United States Capitol, the UN Headquarters, the headquarters of ABC, NBC, CBS, NPR, Comcast, the New York Times Company, USA Today, The Washington Post. The headquarters of many major financial companies—such as J. P. Morgan Chase, Goldman Sachs, Fannie Mae, Fidelity—are located within the region, home to 54 of the Fortune Global 500 companies; the headquarters of 162 of the Fortune 500 are in the region. The region is the center of the global hedge fund industry, with 47.9% of $2.48 trillion of hedge fund assets being managed in its cities and suburbs.
Academically, the region is home to six of the eight Ivy League universities. The Eastern coast of the United States of America, due to its proximity to Europe, was among the first regions of the continent to be settled by Europeans. Over time, the cities and towns founded here had the advantage of age over most other parts of the US. However, it was the Northeast in particular that developed most owing to a number of fortuitous circumstances. While possessing neither rich soil—one exception being New England's Connecticut River Valley—nor exceptional mineral wealth, the region does support some agriculture and mining; the climate is temperate and not prone to hurricanes or tropical storms, which increase further south. However, the most important factor was the "interpenetration of land and sea," which makes for exceptional harbors, such as those at the Chesapeake Bay, the Port of New York and New Jersey, Narragansett Bay in Providence, Rhode Island, Boston Harbor; the coastline to the north is rockier and less sheltered, to the South is smooth and does not feature as many bays and inlets that function as natural harbors.
Featured are navigable rivers that lead deeper into the heartlands, such as the Hudson and Connecticut Rivers, which all support large populations and were necessary to early settlers for development. Therefore, while other parts of the country exceeded the region in raw resource value, they were not as accessible, access to them had to pass through the Northeast first. By 1800, the region included the only four U. S. cities with populations of over 25,000: Philadelphia, New York and Boston. By 1850, New York and Philadelphia alone had over 300,000 residents, while Baltimore, Brooklyn and New Orleans had over 100,000: five were within one 400-mile strip, while the last two were each four hundred miles away from the next closest metropolis; the immense concentration of people in one densely packed area gave that region considerable sway through population density over the rest of the nation, solidified in 1800 when Washington, D. C. only 38 miles southwest of Baltimore, was made the capital. According to Gottmann, capital cities "will tend to create for and around the seats of power a certain kind of built
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Moseley is an unincorporated area in Powhatan and Chesterfield counties in the U. S. state of Virginia. The United States Post Office for the community is located at 21431 Hull Street Road, with a ZIP code of 23120. Many upper-middle class communities have been built in the area in previous years such as Foxcreek, Magnolia Green, Summer Lake and FoxFire, it is bordered to the east by the census-designated place of Woodlake. It was a stop on the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad from 1891 to 1905, on the Tidewater and Western Railroad from 1905 to 1917, it was a stop on the Richmond and Danville Railroad, which became the Southern Railway, the Norfolk Southern Railway in 1982, which no longer stops in Moseley. In the 1800s some people would transfer from one railroad to another here, although they had separate Stations. In 1891 the train did not always stop but a railroad car, although not a Railway post office, on the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad, dropped off and picked up mail using the Mail on-the-fly technique.
This was a pouch system that let the train drop off and pick up mail without slowing down. Chesterfield Berry Farm & Market website Metro Richmond Zoo website
Bowling Green, Virginia
Bowling Green is an incorporated town in Caroline County, United States. The population was 1,111 at the 2010 census; the county seat of Caroline County since 1803, Bowling Green is best known as the "cradle of American horse racing", the home of the second oldest Masonic Lodge, the current location of the oldest continuously inhabited residence in Virginia. The town of Bowling Green was earlier known as New Hope. One of the earliest stage roads in the colony ran through the area from Richmond to the Potomac River, where a ferry crossing was operated to Charles County, Maryland. One of the first stage lines in America to maintain a regular schedule operated along this road. New Hope Tavern was built along the road in the 18th century and the area around it became known as New Hope; the town was renamed for "The Bowling Green", the plantation of town founder, Major John Thomas Hoomes, who donated the land and funds for a new courthouse when the community became the county seat in 1803. The origin of the plantation's name is not definitive but may be based on the 2-acre green sward in front of the plantation house itself.
The Bowling Green Estate was the site of one of the first tracks built to race horses in America. The plantation house, pre-Georgian tidewater colonial in style, was built circa 1741. A prominent colonial landmark, it is one of the oldest houses in original condition in Virginia and is listed on both the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places; the present Caroline County Court House was built in 1835 and Bowling Green was incorporated as a town about 2 years in 1837. The town is best known as the "cradle of American horse racing" and as the home of the second-oldest Masonic Lodge; the Richmond and Potomac Railroad was built through nearby Milford and reached Fredericksburg by 1837. This important rail link between several major Northern railroads at Washington, DC and other major Southern railroads at Richmond was long owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia, became part of CSX Transportation in the 1990s, it is a major freight railroad line for north-south traffic and the corridor hosts many Amtrak trains.
Although the closest Virginia Railway Express commuter passenger rail service to Northern Virginia is accessed at Fredericksburg, future VRE extensions southward may include service at Milford which would be convenient for Bowling Green and the surrounding area. In 1855, a gazetteer described the town as having "2 churches, 3 stores, 2 mills, about 300 inhabitants". In modern times, Bowling Green is located along Virginia State Route 2, one of the two earlier highways between Richmond and Fredericksburg. In years, U. S. Route 301 was built through the area, connecting Richmond with Baltimore, Maryland with what was an eastern bypass of the Washington, DC area for north-south traffic along the U. S. east coast. A new road, Virginia State Route 207 was established from Bowling Green west to Carmel Church, where it intersects Interstate 95 and U. S. Route 1, major north-south highways. In 1941, the United States government acquired 77,000 acres of Caroline County to the north and east of Bowling Green and established the A.
P. Hill Military Reservation. Known in modern times as Fort A. P. Hill, it was named for a Virginia military hero, U. S. Army and Confederate General Ambrose Powell Hill, killed just prior to the end of the War in 1865. At the massive complex, thousands of regular military and reserve troops undergo training each year, it has been the site of national Jamboree gatherings of the Boy Scouts of America. In addition to "The Bowling Green," Auburn, the Bowling Green Historic District, Caroline County Courthouse, Green Falls are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Bowling Green is located at 38°3′12″N 77°20′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.6 square miles, of which 1.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square mile is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 936 people, 387 households, 212 families residing in the town; the population density was 587.1 people per square mile. There were 425 housing units at an average density of 266.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the town was 80.13% White, 18.38% African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.32% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.92% of the population. There were 387 households out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.0% were non-families. 39.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.81. In the town, the population was spread out with 17.1% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 32.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 69.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 66.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,250, the median income for a family was $49,792.
Males had a median income of $30,750 versus $25,341 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,223. About 8.5% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 22.6% of those age 65 or over. Town of Bowling Green, VA official website
The Tri-Cities of Virginia is an area in the Greater Richmond Region which includes the three independent cities of Petersburg, Colonial Heights, Hopewell and portions of the adjoining counties of Chesterfield and Prince George in south-central Virginia. Other unincorporated communities located in the Tri-Cities area include Ettrick, Fort Lee, City Point, the latter a historic incorporated town, annexed to become part of the City of Hopewell; the Tri-Cities area is centered on the Appomattox River about 25 miles south of Richmond. The Appomattox has its confluence with the James River near historic City Point in Hopewell; the applicable Metropolitan Statistical Area for the Tri-Cities area is the Richmond, VA MSA, which includes Richmond and counties to the north of the Tri-Cities area. Economic diversity is typical of the entire Richmond-Petersburg region, helps to insulate it from hardship due to economic fluctuation in particular sectors of the economy; the region's central location allows it to benefit from growth in other regions of Virginia and the state as a whole.
Interstate 95 is the major north-south highway. Interstate 85 and Interstate 295 pass through, as does U. S. Route 1, U. S. Route 301, State Route 144. Major east-west highways are U. S. Route 460, State Route 10, State Route 36. Major river crossings include the Martin Luther King Memorial Bridge and the twin Charles Hardaway Marks Bridges across the Appomattox River, the Varina-Enon Bridge and the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge across the James River. Amtrak passenger railroad service is provided with a station at Ettrick, an unincorporated community in Chesterfield County adjacent to both Petersburg and Colonial Heights. Freight railroad service is provided by both CSX Norfolk Southern Corporation. Bus Transportation is provided by the Petersburg Area Transit. There are nine routes serving parts of Petersburg, Colonial Heights, Fort Lee, Prince George County that all have their intersection in Old Town. PAT and GRTC together provide express bus service between Richmond and Petersburg, with some express buses stopping at John Tyler Community College in Chester.
Periodicals include: The Richmond Times-Dispatch, local daily paper for Richmond. The Progress-Index, local daily paper for the Tri-Cities and Sussex located in Petersburg; the Colonial Voice, a weekly for Colonial Heights. The Fort Lee Traveller, for U. S. Army post and headquarters Fort Lee; the Chester Village News, for Chesterfield County. The Hopewell News & Patriot, for Hopewell, Prince George County and Colonial Heights. Radio and television stations are the same as those listed for Virginia. Like many cities in the United States, the city of Petersburg is a city that has sought to revitalize its downtown area by promoting its arts scene. In the 1990s and 2000s, several areas including the "Old Town" area has seen increased remodeling and renovating of old, abandoned buildings into loft apartments and eclectic restaurants. In 2004, the Shockoe Bottom Arts group moved from downtown Richmond to downtown Petersburg due to lower real estate prices there. Several antique shops, a former train station, a theater are the centerpiece of "old town" See Also: Petersburg Similarly, Hopewell has commenced a revitalization projects with renovations of their harbor complex, "Town Triangle," and the historic Beacon Theater.
Other cultural productions in the tri-cities occur at local colleges and at the Fort Lee Playhouse on Fort Lee. Educational facilities in the region are listed as follows: K-12 Appomattox Regional Governor's School for the Arts And Technology Chesterfield Public Schools Hopewell Public Schools Petersburg Public Schools Prince George Public Schools Dinwiddie Public Schools Colonial Heights Public Schools Colleges and Universities Richard Bland College Virginia State University John Tyler Community College Army Logistics Management College The area is served by several hospitals, John Randolph Medical Center, Hiram Davis Medical Center, Southside Regional Medical Center, Poplar Springs Hospital. Southpark Mall is a large regional shopping mall in the tri-cities area. Built in 1988 at the intersection of State Route 144 and Interstate 95, the mall complex has expanded to include many big box retailers. While the mall itself is located in Colonial Heights, other development has increased throughout the tri-cities.
Fort Lee is a United States Army post and headquarters of the U. S. Army Combined Arms Support Command, U. S. Army Quartermaster Center and School, the Army Logistics Management College and the U. S. Defense Commissary Agency. A United States Army Forces Command unit, the 49th Quartermaster Group, is stationed here. Fort Lee hosts two Army museums, the U. S. Army Quartermaster Museum and the U. S. Army Women's Museum; the fort is named for Confederate General Robert E. Lee. Military personnel make up a significant presence in the tri-cities area; the Tri-cities is home to a federal prison complex called the Petersburg Federal Correctional Complex. It consists of medium and low security Federal Correctional Institutions known as FCI Petersburg Medium and FCI Petersburg Low. Despite its name, the address of the Petersburg Federal Correctional Complex is in Prince George County. In addition, there is United States Probation Office near FCI – Petersburg, in Colonial Heights and the two agencies enjoy a sup
Goochland County, Virginia
Goochland County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Its southern border is formed by the James River; as of the 2010 census, the population was 21,717. Its county seat is Goochland. Goochland County is included in the Greater Richmond Region. Native Americans had lived along the waterways for several thousand years. Siouan-speaking tribes were the historic peoples encountered by English colonists, their numbers were reduced by European infectious diseases to which they had no immunity, which caused widespread social disruption. Portions of the historic Three Chopt Trail, a Native American trail, run through a large portion of the county; the trail was marked by three hatchet chops in trees to show the way. The modern-day U. S. Route 250 follows this route from Richmond to Charlottesville. In 1634, the colonial government organized the territory of Virginia into eight shires, to be governed as shires in England. Henrico was one of these shires. Among the earliest European settlers in this area of the Piedmont were several hundred French Huguenot religious refugees, who were given land in 1700 and 1701 by the Crown and colonial authorities about 20 miles above the falls of the James River.
They settled the villages collectively known as Manakin-Sabot in this area. Soon they moved out to farms and plantations they developed. In neighboring Powhatan County, to the south across the James, they settled Manakin Town, but by 1750 had moved out to farms. Goochland was founded in 1728 as the first county formed from Henrico shire, followed by Chesterfield County in 1749. Goochland included all of the land from Tuckahoe Creek, on both sides of the James River, west as far as the Blue Ridge Mountains; the county was named for Sir William Gooch, 1st Baronet, the royal lieutenant governor from 1727 to 1749. The nominal governor, the Earl of Albemarle, had remained in England; as acting royal governor, Gooch promoted settlement of the Virginia backcountry as a means to insulate the Virginia colony from Native American and New France settlements in the Ohio Country. As the colonists moved into the Piedmont west of Richmond, they first developed tobacco plantations like those of the Tidewater.
After the Revolution, tobacco did not yield as high profits. In Goochland, as in other areas of Virginia, many planters switched to growing wheat and mixed crops; this reduced their need for labor. In the early nineteenth century, some planters sold slaves in the domestic slave trade, as demand was high in the developing Deep South where cotton plantations were developed; the first court was held in May 1728. The exact location of this first court is unknown, but researchers believe that the first courthouse was constructed in old Goochland County between 1730 and 1737 at Scottsville—an old county seat located today at what is the intersection of three counties; when the vast county was divided in 1744, old Albemarle County retained the original county seat. The location of the second Goochland County courthouse had to be moved east. In the early 19th century, the courthouse was moved to its current location along Rt. 6 in central Goochland. The Goochland County Court Square was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970.
During the early part of 1781, Lord Cornwallis marched his sizable army through the boundaries of Goochland. They occupied and destroyed Elkhill, a small estate of Thomas Jefferson, slaughtering the livestock for food, burning barns and fences, burning down the house, they took 27 slaves as prisoners of war, 24 died of disease in the camp. One point along the James River came to be known as Cornwallis Hill, it is said that the British general, who paused here on his way to Yorktown, where he would be defeated and surrender, remarked that this spot with its magnificent vista of the James River Valley would make an ideal site for a house. General Lafayette, a French hero of the Revolution, returned to the United States for a grand tour in 1824 and 1825. On November 2, 1824, General Lafayette "left Richmond on his way to Monticello to visit Mr. Jefferson." On the way, Gen. Lafayette stopped at Powell's Tavern in Goochland. While there, the general met with many citizens of the county; the county was a site of a battle late in the war.
When the war broke out, James Pleasants, a native of Goochland County and descendant of the 22nd governor of the state, insisted he replace his uncle in the Goochland Light Dragoons. In 1861, he was allowed to take his uncle's place. In the winter of 1864, any troops who were close to home were allowed to return to recruit more soldiers. At the same time, the young Union Colonel Ulric Dahlgren had a plan to infiltrate central Virginia, break out nearly 12,000 Union prisoners from Belle Isle in Richmond, the Confederate capital, destroy the city. On March 1, 1864, Dahlgren's forces reached the plantations of Sabot Hill and Eastwood in eastern Goochland. On Pleasants's first night home, Dahlgren's raiders stole his horses but did not search the property; when Pleasants found out what happened, he grabbed his carbine and started off on foot after the raiders. Hearing a noise, he hid in the woods, ordered a single Union cavalryman to surrender. Pleasants mounted the man's horse, forced the soldier to walk in front of him to search for more soldiers.
Within a short amount of time, Pleasants had captured several Union prisoners and took them as prisoners back to Bowles' store. In all, he captured 15 Union soldiers, recovered 16 horses, shot one officer who refused to surrender to him. Eastwood was occupied by Plumer Hobson and his wife, the daughter of Brigadier General Henry A. W