Sudbury Greater Sudbury, is a city in Ontario, Canada. It is the largest city in Northern Ontario by population, with a population of 161,531 at the 2016 Canadian Census. By land area, it is the fifth largest in Canada, it is administratively a Unitary authority, thus not part of any district, county, or regional municipality. The Sudbury region was inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group for thousands of years prior to the founding of Sudbury following the discovery of nickel ore in 1883 during the construction of the transcontinental railway. Greater Sudbury was formed in 2001 by merging the cities and towns of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury with several unincorporated townships. Being located inland, the local climate is seasonal with average January lows of around −18 °C and average July highs of 25 °C; the population resides in an urban core and many smaller communities scattered around 330 lakes and among hills of rock blackened by historical smelting activity.
Sudbury was once a world leader in nickel mining. Mining and related industries dominated the economy for much of the 20th century; the two major mining companies which shaped the history of Sudbury were Inco, now Vale Limited, which employed more than 25% of the population by the 1970s, Falconbridge, now Glencore. Sudbury has since expanded from its resource-based economy to emerge as the major retail, economic and educational centre for Northeastern Ontario. Sudbury is home to a large Franco-Ontarian population that influences its arts and culture; the Sudbury region was inhabited by the Ojibwe people of the Algonquin group as early as 9,000 years ago following the retreat of the last continental ice sheet. In 1850, a large tract of land, including what is now Sudbury, was signed over to the British Crown by local Ojibwe chiefs as a part of the Robinson Huron Treaty. In exchange the Crown pledged to pay an annuity to First Nations people, set at $1.60 per treaty member and increased incrementally.
French Jesuits were the first to establish a European settlement when they set up a mission called Sainte-Anne-des-Pins, just before the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1883. The Sainte-Anne-des-Pins church played a prominent role in the development of Franco-Ontarian culture in the region. During construction of the railway in 1883, blasting and excavation revealed high concentrations of nickel-copper ore at Murray Mine on the edge of the Sudbury Basin; this discovery brought the first waves of European settlers, who arrived not only to work at the mines, but to build a service station for railway workers. James Worthington, the superintendent of construction on the Northern Ontario segment of the railway, selected the name Sudbury after Sudbury, Suffolk, in England, the hometown of his wife Caroline Hitchcock. Sudbury was incorporated as a town in 1893, its first mayor was Joseph Étienne aka Stephen Fournier; the American inventor Thomas Edison visited the Sudbury area as a prospector in 1901.
He is credited with the original discovery of the ore body at Falconbridge. Rich deposits of nickel sulphide ore were discovered in the Sudbury Basin geological formation; the construction of the railway allowed exploitation of these mineral resources and shipment of the commodities to markets and ports, as well as large-scale lumber extraction. Mining began to replace lumber as the primary industry as the area's transportation network was improved to include trams; these enabled workers to work in another. Sudbury’s economy was dominated by the mining industry for much of the 20th century. Two major mining companies were created: Inco in 1902 and Falconbridge in 1928, they became two of the world's leading producers of nickel. Through the decades that followed, Sudbury's economy went through boom and bust cycles as world demand for nickel fluctuated. Demand was high during the First World War, when Sudbury-mined nickel was used extensively in the manufacturing of artillery in Sheffield, England.
It bottomed out when the war ended and rose again in the mid-1920s as peacetime uses for nickel began to develop. The town was reincorporated as a city in 1930; the city recovered from the Great Depression much more than any other city in North America due to increased demand for nickel in the 1930s. Sudbury was the fastest-growing city and one of the wealthiest cities in Canada for most of the decade. Many of the city's social problems in the Great Depression era were not caused by unemployment or poverty, but due to the difficulty in keeping up with all of the new infrastructure demands created by rapid growth — for example, employed mineworkers sometimes ended up living in boarding houses or makeshift shanty towns, because demand for new housing was rising faster than supply. Between 1936 and 1941, the city was ordered into receivership by the Ontario Municipal Board. Another economic slowdown affected the city in 1937, but the city's fortunes rose again with wartime demands during the Second World War.
The Frood Mine alone accounted for 40 percent of all the nickel used in Allied artillery production during the war. After the end of the war, Sudbury was in a good position to supply nickel to the United States government when it decided to stockpile non-Soviet supplies during the Cold War; the open coke beds used in the early to mid 20th century and logging for fuel resulted in a near-total loss of native vegetation in the area. The terrain was made up of exposed rocky outcrops permanently stained charcoal black by the air pollution from the roasting yards. Acid rain added
The Metropolitan Rapid Transit or MRT is a mass rapid transit system serving the Bangkok Metropolitan Region in Thailand. The MRT system comprises two heavy rail lines, with a further three lines under construction and due to open in 2021; the MRT Blue Line the Chaloem Ratchamongkhon Line, between Hua Lamphong and Bang Sue was the first to open in 2004 as Bangkok's second metro system. The MRT Blue line is known in Thai as rotfaifa mahanakhon or "metropolitan electric train", but it is more called rotfai taidin "underground train"; the second MRT line MRT Purple Line the Chalong Ratchadham Line, opened on 6 August 2016 and connected Tao Poon with Khlong Bang Phai in Nonthaburi in the northwest of Greater Bangkok. It was the first mass transit line to extend outside Bangkok province, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Both the Blue Line and Purple Line are operated by the Bangkok Expressway and Metro Public Company Limited under a concession granted by the Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand, the owner of the MRT lines.
Along with the BTS Skytrain and the Airport Rail Link, the MRT is part of Bangkok's rail transportation infrastructure. The two MRT lines have 470,000 passengers each day with 45 operational stations and a combined route length of 60 kilometers. From mid 2011, construction began to extend the MRT Blue Line with an extension west from Hua Lamphong via Tha Phra to Lak Song, in the north from Bang Sue to Tha Phra; when completed by April 2020, the Blue Line will become a fake loop line around the centre of Bangkok. The first section of the MRT Blue Line extension from Hua Lamphong via Tha Phra to Lak Song opened for full operation on 29 September 2019. Other MRT lines are planned for the future MRT system with the MRT Orange Line, MRT Pink Line and MRT Yellow Line all under construction. An extension of the MRT Purple Line south from Tao Poon to Rat Burana is due to be tendered in April 2020. and the MRT Brown Line has been approved by the MRT Board and is planned to be tendered in late 2020. The MRT was constructed under a concession framework.
For the first MRT line known as Chaloem Ratchamongkhon or informally as the "Blue Line", civil infrastructure was provided by the government sector, Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand, handed over to their concessionaire under a 25-year concession agreement. Bangkok Expressway and Metro Public Company Limited was the only private sector company that won a bid in MRTA's concession contract for the blue line; as MRTA's concessionaire, BEM provides M&E equipment, including electrical trains, signalling systems, SCADA, communication, PSD, etc. for the subway project and operates the system. To maintain the system, BEM has subcontracted in 10 years to Siemens, the M&E system supplier since system opening and 7 years maintenance contract to two local maintenance services for north and south line; the construction of the first Bangkok Metro line known as Chaloem Ratchamongkhon – "Celebration of Royal Auspice" – or informally as the "Blue Line", began on 19 November 1996. The project suffered multiple delays not only because of the 1997 economic crisis, but due to challenging civil engineering works of constructing massive underground structures deep in the water-logged soil upon which the city is built.
The Blue Line was opened for a limited public trial period of several weeks starting on 13 April 2004. On 3 July 2004 the line was opened at 19:19 local time by HM King Bhumibol and Queen Sirikit, who were accompanied by other members of the royal family. Within 30 minutes of its opening, sightseers filled the system to its maximum capacity, but after the initial rush ridership has settled down to around 180,000 riders daily — lower than projections of over 400,000, despite fares being slashed in half from 12-38 baht to 10-15 baht per trip. From 2006 until 2008, fares ranged between 14-36 baht per trip; the fare was raised to 16-41 Baht on 1 January 2009. Daily ridership in 2014 was 253,000. In August 2016, the Purple Line opened for service. In August 2017, the MRT Blue Line was belatedly extended to Tao Poon station allowing interchange with the Purple Lines. Considering that Bangkok is a low-lying plain, prone to flooding, all of the Metro's station entrances are raised about one metre above the ground level and are equipped with built-in floodgates in order to avoid water inundating the system.
Lifts and ramps are found at all stations. Stations have multiple passageways which allow passengers to connect to any corner of the adjacent surface intersection. Passageways between exits are spacious and some are beginning to open as malls. Maps depicting the local area and exit points are posted on the walls on the way out. Due to safety considerations, platform screen doors are installed. Uniformed security personnel and security cameras are present at all platforms. 19 three-car metro trains, of the Siemens Modular Metro type, are used. Each metro train consists of a centre trailer car; the ticketing system uses RFID contactless technology with round tokens issued for single trips and a contactless stored value card, the MRT Plus card, for frequent travellers. It is planned that a joint ticketing system will be set up so that passengers can use a single ticket on the MRT as well as on the Skytrain. Multi-storey park & ride facilities are provided at Thailand Cultural Centre. Motorists who park their cars at these premises wil
Alfred Aleksandrovich Parland was a Russian architect born in St. Petersburg into an English family and baptized and confirmed in the Anglican Church. Son of Alexander Parland and Maria Caroline Parland, grandson of John Parland. Parland first studied at the St. Petersburg 4th Gymnasium, he went at the Stuttgart Polytechnical School. In 1862 Parland enrolled in the Imperial Academy of Arts. During his studies he was awarded five medals for his achievements in architecture. On graduation in 1871 he received a gold medal along with the right to travel abroad on a grant of the Academy. During his career Parland designed several religious buildings, the most famous of, the Church of the Resurrection of Christ in St. Petersburg; this building became the work of Parlands life, as it was built during a quarter-century, Parland oversaw the construction of the church until 1907. Afterwards, he was responsible for its maintenance; the fencing at the Church of the Savior on Blood was created in 1903-1907 following the project of Parland.
This fencing has beautiful patterns formed by shod links with a large vegetative ornaments. It is characteristic for an early modernist style; the fencing stretches from Benua's wing on the embankment of the Griboyedov Canal to the Moyka river. Among the buildings designed by Parland is the Holy Resurrection Cathedral of the Coastal Monastery of St. Sergius, designed by Parland after graduating from St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in 1877—1884, he was responsible for the renovation of the Znamenskaya Church of the Life-Guards Horse-Grenadier Regiment in Petergof in 1896. In 1910–1911 Parland joined the Committee for the Restoration of Kazan Cathedral. Parland was offered a professorship in 1892, in 1905 was made an honorary member of the Academy of Arts. In 1907, after the completion of the Church of the Resurrection, Parland joined the staff of the Ministry of the Imperial Court and was awarded several medals in his career path. Parland was professor of Greek and Roman architecture at the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg.