The greater short-horned lizard commonly known as the mountain short-horned lizard, is a species of lizard endemic to western North America. Like other horned lizards, it is called a "horned toad" or "horny toad", but it is not a toad at all, it is a reptile, not an amphibian. It is one of seven native species of lizards in Canada; the specific name, honors Francisco Hernández a Spanish physician who wrote an early account of a horned lizard, published in 1615. The greater short-horned lizard is mistaken for its close relative the pygmy short-horned lizard, which has the same basic body type consisting of small pointed scales around the head and back; until recent mitochondrial DNA evidence, P. hernandesi was considered to be the same species as P. douglasii. They are now considered distinct species with the pygmy short-horned lizard occupying the northwest portion of the United States and extreme southern British Columbia; when placed together the two are distinguished at full size, the pygmy short-horned lizard being much smaller.
P. hernandesi is a variable species with different geographic populations exhibiting differences in color and size with some authorities describing five subspecies. The greater short-horned lizard ranges in size from 2 to 5 inches in snout to vent length and is a flat-bodied, squat lizard with short spines crowning the head, they have short legs. The trunk is fringed by one row of pointed scales; the color is gray, yellowish, or reddish-brown, there are two rows of large dark spots on the back. When threatened or aggressive, their colors become more intense. Females grow to larger sizes than males: females average about 7 cm from snout to vent, with a maximum total length of about 15 cm, weigh about 18 g. Short-horned lizards are "sit-and-wait" predators, they feed on ants, but will take an occasional grasshopper or beetle. They can be found sitting in the vicinity of a nest or trails, they are diurnal creatures burrowing at night. They rely extensively on camouflage to avoid predators. If provoked, some horned lizards can build up blood pressure in regions behind their eyes and squirt their blood at attacking predators, which will deter canids from continuing their attack.
It is rare for horned lizards to squirt blood at humans however, reserving this unique defense for canids which have a strong reaction of distaste to the blood. Squirting blood has been observed in greater short-horned lizards but has not been observed in pygmy short-horned lizards; the mating season for this species is in spring. They are viviparous, giving live birth: the female will birth 5 to 48 offspring from July to September; the young will measure about 24 mm from snout to weigh each about one gram. The young are able to take care of themselves within a few hours. Males will become sexually active after their first year of life and females take two years before they can start reproducing; the greater short-horned lizard is the most distributed lizard in North America and occurs in the widest range of habitats: West into central Nevada, East into North and South Dakota, North to Southern Saskatchewan and Alberta and South into the Texas Panhandle and into central Mexico. This species of lizard is an arid mountain dweller living in the range of 9000–11,300 feet.
It is the only member of its genus in Wyoming. It is considered an endangered species in Saskatchewan and Alberta; the greater short-horned lizard occupies ranges from semiarid plains to high elevations in the mountains. This species is found in a wide range of habitats like shortgrass prairies, sagebrush deserts, juniper, pine, or fir forests; the soil in these habitats can be stony or rocky but has fine loose soil or sand present. The greater short-horned lizard is more cold tolerant than other species and is able to reach higher elevations and a greater distribution where the temperature is much cooler
Clinic Klagenfurt am Woerthersee LKH Klagenfurt, is a maximum care teaching hospital located in the Carinthian capital, Klagenfurt in Austria. With around 1,800 beds 62,000 inpatients per year and 527,000 outpatient treatments, it is the third largest hospital in Austria; the Klagenfurt am Wörthersee Clinic is certified in multiple medical specialities. It offers the range of services of a university clinic with the exception of transplant surgery, it has five institutes and six clinical services. Particular attention is paid to interdisciplinary cooperation. For this purpose, all relevant disciplines can be found in one location. Klagenfurt Hospital was opened on August 9, 1896. State charities were newly opened at that time; these included the state hospital in Klagenfurt, the insane asylum, the children's hospital, the state hospital, the deaf and dumb and blind institution, the men's blind home and the state sick house. During World War II the hospital was used by the Nazis to murder 700 to 900 patients.
Antonie Pachner, the head nurse along with other nurses and the primary teacher of the men's department of the State Asylum Institute, Franz Niedermoser, administered lethal doses of sedatives to many patients. Four death transports to the Hartheim killing center between 1940 and 1941 caused the deaths of 733 people, including 25 children. In 2019, the new medical directors, Dietmar Alberer and Elke Schindler, were focused on the construction of a new psychiatric facility. Official website
The Pond was a small, secret organization formed by the government of the United States which operated between 1942 and 1955. It engaged in espionage, its existence has only been acknowledged. In the spring of 1942, Brigadier General Hayes Kroner, the head of the War Department's Military Intelligence Service, was given the go-ahead to set up an espionage organization separate from William "Wild Bill" Donovan's Office of Strategic Services, he selected to head it U. S. Army Captain John V. Grombach, a rival and previous employee of Donovan. In 1955, The Pond was disbanded by the American government because of post-war centralization of intelligence gathering and questions about the organization's effectiveness. On April 27, 2008, the Associated Press reported that the Central Intelligence Agency planned to "release a stash of Pond-related papers accidentally discovered in a Virginia barn in 2001" and hand them over to the National Archives at College Park, Maryland. Jean Valentin Grombach lead the Pond in intelligence operations from 1942 to 1955.
Grombach was an anti-Communist who had an obsession with security. Grombach was born in New Orleans in 1901 to a French family, he was an accomplished athlete who had a love for fencing and boxing competing on the United State's Olympic boxing team. He grew to know many important European businessmen from his father's business and shipping involvements, sports promotions, managing the Olympics; these connections would help to shape his future in international intelligence operations. At the age of 18, the son of the French consul, renounced his French citizenship and obtained an American citizenship to attend West Point. Despite having 8 demerits, he graduated with a bachelors of science degree in 1923, he spent five years on active duty where he had his first involvement in intelligence as assistant G-2. In 1928, Grombach joined the New York National Guard. After a successful stint working for a subsidiary of CBS and Paramount Publix, Grombach produced his own radio program production companies.
He returned to the army in 1941 to work for the Office of the Coordinator of Information. Grombach claims that throughout that time he was secretly working on confidential intelligence projects. In the spring of 1942, Brig. Gen. Hayes Kroner selected Grombach to head the Pond. Grombach was a writer who authored an article for Infantry Journal titled "Kill or Get Killed," and an essay for American Mercury; the Pond, lead by Grombach, provided the FBI with information on leftist radicals and external influences on the United States. The covert organization's focus developed into the exploitation of communists in America's intelligence institutions. In order to work, the Pond was small and unknown to most; the team used cryptic nicknames in all of the Pond's internal records. Grombach never shared the identities of his sources, totaling over 2,500 field personnel from 32 countries. Although the Pond was an Army operation, the existence of the super secret intelligence organization was kept from the Office of Naval Intelligence, it is not evident if President Truman was aware of its existence.
After the end of World War II, Truman decided to shut down the OSS due to Grombach's reports. The extreme secrecy and small size of the Pond are the reasons why it survived after the end of the war; the Pond remained a secret. The War Department allocated $150,000 to the Pond per year, this grew to over $300,000 by the end of World War II; the Pond collaborated with foreign businesses to increase their financial resources. The Pond employed personnel and agent observers from large corporations around the world; the Pond started out as a part of the War Department General Staff but became a private company working under government contract. It transferred jurisdictions many times until operations ceased in 1955. Starting in 1942 as the leader of The Pond, John Grombach worked with a defected Soviet intelligence officer, Alexander Barmine to discover a list of OSS Soviet agents; this was left to the wayside by the United States government because the Soviet Union was now an ally of the United States.
As a study of communist subversion, John Grombach began this project as a comprehensive record of reports eliminated by Alfred McCormack along with identifying two communists that worked for McCormack and several others. The list of supposed communists included: Alger Hiss Carl Marzani John StewartThe monographs called for research into McCormack to be investigated by superiors, but was set aside as Grombach was accused of discrediting an officer of the Military Intelligence Service along with inappropriately revealing classified information. Although it seemed the end, this was not so. With the abolishment of the OSS by Harry S. Truman, the branch of Research and Analysis was sent to the State Department along with Alfred McCormack, Secretary of State Byrnes. With McCormack as leader of the Interim Research and Intelligence Service, John Grombach would compile the names of 15 G-2 operatives who had moved to the state department along with McCormack and which were suspected of disloyalty. Grombach sent these names to the House Committee of Military Affairs where an investigation would begin.
Without revealing his name, the Committee made made public Grombach's allegations in March 1946, would stir up controversy between McCormack and the Committees chairman, pushing McCormack to resign in April 1946. As doctor, serial killer, source for The Pond, Petiot used his occupation as a doctor to gain information from his patients' gossip, passed that on to John Grombach. Stationed in Paris, Petiot had German Abwehr officers and east Paris refugees as patien