Greek Civil War

Τhe Greek Civil War was a civil war in Greece fought between the Greek government army and the Democratic Army of Greece — the military branch of the Communist Party of Greece from 1946 to 1949. The Soviet Union avoided sending aid; the fighting resulted in the defeat of the DSE by the Hellenic Army. The civil war resulted from a polarized struggle between left and right ideologies that started in 1943. From 1944 each side targeted the power vacuum resulting from the end of Axis occupation during World War II; the struggle was one of the first conflicts of the Cold War and represents the first example of Cold War postwar involvement on the part of the Allies in the internal affairs of a foreign country. Greece in the end was funded by the US and joined NATO, while the insurgents were demoralized by the bitter split between the Soviet Union's Joseph Stalin, who wanted the war ended, Yugoslavia's Josip Broz Tito, who wanted it to continue. Tito was committed to helping the Greek Communists in their efforts, a stance that caused political complications with Stalin, as he had agreed with Winston Churchill not to support the Communists in Greece, as documented in their Percentages Agreement of October 1944.

The first signs of the civil war occurred in 1942 during the German occupation. With the Greek government in exile unable to influence the situation at home, various resistance groups of differing political affiliations emerged, the dominant ones being the leftist National Liberation Front, its military branch the Greek People's Liberation Army, controlled by the KKE. Starting in autumn 1943, friction between the EAM and the other resistance groups resulted in scattered clashes, which continued until spring 1944, when an agreement was reached forming a national unity government that included six EAM-affiliated ministers; the immediate prelude to the civil war took place in Athens, on December 3, 1944, less than two months after the Germans had retreated from the area. After an order to disarm, leftists called for resistance. A riot erupted; the rally had been organised under the pretext of demonstrating against the perceived impunity of the collaborators and the general disarmament ultimatum, signed by Ronald Scobie.

The battle lasted 33 days and resulted in the defeat of the EAM. The subsequent signing of the Treaty of Varkiza spelled the end of the left-wing organization's ascendancy: the ELAS was disarmed while the EAM soon after lost its multi-party character, to become dominated by KKE; the war erupted in 1946, when former ELAS partisans, who had found shelter in their hideouts and were controlled by the KKE, organized the DSE and its High Command headquarters. The KKE supported the endeavor, deciding that there was no alternative way to act against the internationally recognized government formed after the 1946 elections, which the KKE had boycotted; the Communists formed a provisional government in December 1947 and made the DSE the military branch of this government. The neighboring communist states of Albania and Bulgaria offered logistical support to this provisional government to the forces operating in the north of Greece. Despite some setbacks that the government forces suffered from 1946 to 1948, they won due to increased American aid, the failure of the DSE to attract sufficient recruits, the side-effects of the Tito–Stalin split of 1948.

The final victory of the western-allied government forces led to Greece's membership in NATO and helped to define the ideological balance of power in the Aegean Sea for the entire Cold War. The civil war left Greece with a anti-communist security establishment, which would lead to the establishment of the Greek military junta of 1967–1974 and a legacy of political polarisation that persists to this day. While Axis forces approached Athens in April 1941, King George II and his government escaped to Egypt, where they proclaimed a government-in-exile, recognised by the UK but not by the Soviet Union. Winston Churchill encouraged King George II of Greece to appoint a moderate cabinet; as a result, only two of his ministers were previous members of the 4th of August Regime under Ioannis Metaxas, who had both seized power in a coup d'état with the blessing of the king and governed the country since August 1936. The exiled government's inability to influence affairs inside Greece rendered it irrelevant in the minds of most Greek people.

At the same time, the Germans set up a collaborationist government in Athens, which lacked legitimacy and support. The puppet regime was further undermined when economic mismanagement in wartime conditions created runaway inflation, acute food shortages and famine among the civilian population; the power vacuum that the occupation created was filled by several resistance movements that ranged from royalist to communist ideologies. Resistance was born first in eastern Macedonia and Thrace, where Bulgarian troops occupied Greek territory. Soon large demonstrations were organized in many cities by the Defenders of Northern Greece, a patriotic organization. However, the largest group to emerge was the National Liberation Front, founded on 27 September 1941 by representatives of four left-wing parties. Proclaiming that it follow

Mike C. Pena

Mike Castaneda Pena was a U. S. Army veteran of World War II and the Korean War, a recipient of the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Tabu-dong. Pena was born in Texas on November 6, 1924 into a Mexican American family, he joined the U. S. Army as an infantryman in 1941, he served in the Korean War. The bestowal of the Medal recognized Pena's actions on the evening of Sept. 4, 1950, near Waegwan, Korea during the Battle of Tabu-dong, when his unit was fiercely attacked. During the course of the counter-attack, Pena realized that their ammunition was running out, ordered his unit to retreat. Pena manned a machine-gun to cover their withdrawal and single-handedly held back the enemy until morning when his position was overrun and he was killed. Pena received the Medal of Honor posthumously in 2014; the award came through the Defense Authorization Act which called for a review of Jewish American and Hispanic American veterans from World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War to ensure that no prejudice was shown to those deserving the Medal of Honor.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pride in presenting the Medal of Honor to: MIKE C. PENA United States Army For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Master Sergeant Mike C. Pena distinguished himself by acts of gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a member of Company F, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Waegwan, Korea, on September 4, 1950; that evening, under cover of darkness and a dreary mist, an enemy battalion moved to within a few yards of Master Sergeant Pena's platoon. Recognizing the enemy's approach, Master Sergeant Pena and his men opened fire, but the enemy's sudden emergence and accurate, point blank fire forced the friendly troops to withdraw. Master Sergeant Pena reorganized his men and led them in a counterattack which succeeded in regaining the positions they had just lost.

He and his men established a defensive perimeter and laid down devastating fire, but enemy troops continued to hurl themselves at the defenses in overwhelming numbers. Realizing that their scarce supply of ammunition would soon make their positions untenable, Master Sergeant Pena ordered his men to fall back and manned a machinegun to cover their withdrawal, he singlehandedly held back the enemy until the early hours of the following morning when his position was overrun and he was killed. Master Sergeant Pena's extraordinary heroism and selflessness at the cost of his own life and beyond the call of duty, are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit and the United States Army. In addition to receiving the Medal of Honor, Pena received: Bronze Star Medal Purple Heart with one Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster Army Good Conduct Medal with Bronze Clasp and two Loops American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with four Bronze Service Stars Bronze Arrowhead Device World War II Victory Medal Army of Occupation Medal with Japan Clasp National Defense Service Medal Korean Service Medal with one Bronze Service Star Presidential Unit Citation Combat Infantryman Badge Honorable Service Lapel Button- World War II Philippine Liberation Ribbon Philippine Independence Ribbon United Nations Service Medal Republic of Korea-Korean War Service Medal Philippine Presidential Unit Citation Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation Gold Bravery Medal of Greece Unit Citation List of Korean War Medal of Honor recipients

Rajamati (song)

"Rājamati" is a traditional Nepalese ballad about an unsuccessful love quest, is the most well known song in Newar society of Nepal. Written by an unnamed composer, it is based on a true story; the song in Nepal Bhasa gained fame because it was played in London during the state visit of Nepalese Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana to England in 1850. It was first recorded on gramophone disc by maestro Seturam Shrestha in Kolkata in 1908. A movie of the same name and based on the story of the song was released in 1995. Rajamati is the name of a girl from Kathmandu. However, a devious matchmaker gets her married off despite her protests, she ends up in a poor family. Rajamati was born at Taha Nani in a historical neighborhood in central Kathmandu. Art of Rajamati by Uday Charan Shrestha in 1995, his research started in 1993 and after two years, he finished his oil canvas art after 6 month of work on it. Poster was published in 1996 in the samdhyatimes on the occasion of nepal sambat new year. During research time Artist found evidence from Archaeology Department of Nepal Government.

Rajamati bada widow woman sold 64 moharu. Her house of Taabaa is located at lagan in 1884 BS. Wilawati Bada and Bhajumati Bada were evidence during her sold. Guthi land sold in 1892 BS of 60 moharu. In the song, an infatuated man expresses his love for Rajamati, threatens to leave home and go to Kashi and become an ascetic if he doesn't get to marry her, he describes her hair, eyes and moles on the cheek. The song mentions a celebrated episode connected with Rajamati, how she went to fetch water from the water spout at Maruhiti and tripped on a large stone and fell flat on her back. A movie of the same name and based on the song and directed by Neer Shah was released in 1995, it is the second big screen film. Prem Dhoj Pradhan composed and sang Rajamti song in his own style, sang in various stages and functions for many many years made it popular, he recorded Rajamati song in 1962 on 78 rpm gramophone disc. Since the song has been recorded by many artists. Rājamati kumati, jike wasā pirati Hāya bābā Rājamati-chā Rājamati mabila dhāsā Kāshi wane tela bubā Hayā biu Rājamati-chā.

San dhāsā kuli kuli, mikhā dhāsā bālā bālā Sakumi yā mhyāy machā lā Khwā dhāsā tuyu khwā, khwālay niga tee du Tāhā Nani yā Rājamati-chā. Khen khwalā dhyākway dan, pasa baji dhu dan Rājamati bhulu sulu dan Rājamati gana du, Itum Bāhālay chhamha du Hayā biu Rājamati-chā. Nhāpā wamha Tarhi Thakun, lipā wamha Chirhi Thakun Wayā lipā Rājamati-chā Tarhi Thakun mayo jita, Chirhi Thakun mile maju Rājamati byāhā yānā biu. Tarhi Thakun yā tāyo du, Chirhi Thakun yā pāyo du Rājamati yā bijakani du Bijakani marumha, kalā jita mayo bubā Hayā biu Rājamati-chā. Thane yā Thahiti, kwane yā Kwahiti Biche lāka Maruhiti Maruhitii la kā wamha, tagwa lohantay luphin hānā Rājamati thasa pāla nhā. Tisā nan tiyakā, Gujerati puyakā Rājamati bhyāhā yānā biu Rājamati bila dhāsā Kāshi wane makhu bubā Hayā biu Rājamati-chā. Rajamati kumati, if you come to me I will give you my love Oh little Rajamati. If Rajamati is not given to me, I will go to Kashi; the hair is curly, the eyes are half open Is she the daughter of a man from Sankhu?

The face is fair, there are two moles on the face Little Rajamati of Taha Nani. There are egg shells in the corner, rice flakes from the market have been ground to dust Rajamati's hair is dishevelled. Where is Rajamati, there is one in Itum Bahal Bring me little Rajamati; the girl in front is Tarhi Thakun, the one following her is Chirhi Thakun Little Rajamati is behind her. I don't like Tarhi Thakun, Chirhi Thakun is not suitable Get me married to Rajamati. Tarhi Thakun has a "tāyo" locket, Chirhi Thakun has anklets. I do not want a wife without ear ornaments Bring me little Rajamati. Thahiti of uptown, Kwahiti of downtown Between them lies Maruhiti, she tripped on a large stone Rajamati fell flat on her back. Decorate her with jewellery, let flutes play Marry me with Rajamati. If Rajamati is given to me, I will not go to Kashi. Rajamati