Greek art began in the Cycladic and Minoan civilization, gave birth to Western classical art in the subsequent Geometric and Classical periods. It absorbed influences of Eastern civilizations, of Roman art and its patrons, the new religion of Orthodox Christianity in the Byzantine era and absorbed Italian and European ideas during the period of Romanticism, until the Modernist and Postmodernist. Greek art is five forms: architecture, painting and jewelry making. Artistic production in Greece began in the prehistoric pre-Greek Cycladic and the Minoan civilizations, both of which were influenced by local traditions and the art of ancient Egypt. There are three scholarly divisions of the stages of ancient Greek art that correspond with historical periods of the same names; these are the Classical and the Hellenistic. The Archaic period is dated from 1000 BC; the Persian Wars of 480 BC to 448 BC are taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC is regarded as the event separating the Classical from the Hellenistic period.
Of course, different forms of art developed at different speeds in different parts of the Greek world, varied to a degree from artist to artist. There was a sharp transition from one period to another; the art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present in the areas of sculpture and architecture. In the West, the art of the Roman Empire was derived from Greek models. In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, with ramifications as far as Japan. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists. Pottery was either black with blue designs. Byzantine art is the term created for the Eastern Roman Empire from about the 5th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453; the term can be used for the art of states which were contemporary with the Byzantine Empire and shared a common culture with it, without being part of it, such as Bulgaria, or Russia, Venice, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire despite being in other respects part of western European culture.
It can be used for the art of people of the former Byzantine Empire under the rule of Ottoman Empire after 1453. In some respects, the Byzantine artistic tradition has continued in Russia and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day. Byzantine art grew from the art of ancient Greece and, at least before 1453, never lost sight of its classical heritage, but was distinguished from it in a number of ways; the most profound of these was that the humanist ethic of ancient Greek art was replaced by the Christian ethic. If the purpose of classical art was the glorification of man, the purpose of Byzantine art was the glorification of God. In place of the nude, the figures of God the Father, Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary and the saints and martyrs of Christian tradition were elevated and became the dominant - indeed exclusive - focus of Byzantine art. One of the most important forms of Byzantine art was, still is, the Cretan school as the leading school of Greek post-Byzantine painting after Crete fell to the Ottomans in 1669.
Like the Cretan school, it combined Byzantine traditions with an increasing Western European artistic influence, saw the first signiand the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. Cretan School describes the school of icon painting known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries; the Cretan artists developed a particular style of painting under the influence of both Eastern and Western artistic traditions and movements. The Heptanese School of painting succeeded the Cretan School as the leading school of Greek post-Byzantine painting after Crete fell to the Ottomans in 1669. Like the Cretan school it combined Byzantine traditions with an increasing Western European artistic influence, saw the first significant depiction of secular subjects; the school was based in the Ionian Islands, which were not part of Ottoman Greece, from the middle of the 17th century until the middle of the 19th century.
Modern Greek art, after the establishment of the Greek Kingdom, began to be developed around the time of Romanticism. Greek artists absorbed many elements from their European colleagues, resulting in the culmination of the distinctive style of Greek Romantic art, inspired by revolutionary ideals as well as the country's geography and history. After centuries of Ottoman rule, few opportunities for an education in the arts existed in the newly independent Greece, so studying abroad was imperative for artists. Munich, as an important international center for the arts at that time, was the place where the majority of the Greek artists of the 19th century chose to study. On, they would return to Greece an
Zipang is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Kaiji Kawaguchi. Just like his previous work, The Silent Service, Zipang talks about the members of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, it was first serialized in Kodansha's Weekly Morning magazine from 2000 until 2009, published in 43 volumes. Four volumes have been translated into English by Ralph McCarthy for the Kodansha Bilingual Comics library, it was adapted into an anime in 2004. The newest, most advanced destroyer in the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, the JDS Mirai, sets sail from Japan on a training exercise with the United States Navy. En route, they encounter a strange meteorological anomaly, causing the Mirai to lose contact with her sister ships. After a short time, the crew detects a fleet approaching, but can believe their eyes as a massive battleship passes by them; the crew soon identify it as the Yamato, a ship, sunk in 1945. As the crew scans with their radar, numerous other ships, including a Nagato-class battleship, are sighted.
Two destroyers from the unknown fleet attempt to intercept the Mirai. After examining the situation, the crew realises that the ships they passed are part of the Imperial Japanese Navy and that they have somehow been transported back in time more than 60 years to June 4/5, 1942, the first day of the Battle of Midway. Knowing that an American attack will soon devastate the four aircraft carriers of the Kido Butai, some Mirai crew members believe that they should intervene, to save the carriers and the 3,000 Japanese lives that will be lost. With the Mirai's advanced technology and weaponry, far superior to anything possessed by the United States in this era, the crew realize that they could alter the course of the Second World War. However, they agree that their top priority is to return home, to ensure that they have a home to which to return they decide to do nothing that will change history. Despite their initial intentions not to alter history, they soon find themselves drawn into the war, though they continue to refuse to choose one side over another.
The struggle of the crew from a modern and wealthy Japan to resist the nationalistic appeal of defending their country, knowing that in this time it is ruled by a brutal and militaristic government is the central theme of Zipang. Their rescue of an Imperial Japanese Navy officer from the past, Lt. Commander Kusaka, who would have perished in the normal timeline, causes unstoppable and devastating changes in the past when he seeks to create a stronger Japan no matter what the cost. Yōsuke Kadomatsu Voiced by: Tetsu Inada. Executive Officer and second in command aboard the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force escort vessel JDS Mirai, he takes over the position of captain. He always respects human life, the action of saving Kusaka's life took priority over the implications this would have on the course of history, he felt responsibility for however history may have been changed because of Kusaka, tried but failed to stop Kusaka's actions. Due to changes in history, Kadomatsu's father as a child was killed in a car accident, turning Kadomatsu into a man who doesn't exist, an anomaly within the alternate past.
After obtaining information that Kusaka is going to Manchuria to secure oil supplies, he decides to leave Mirai and embarks on a journey to stop Kusaka. While attempting to protect Puyi, he is shot by Kusaka and injured. From on, he begins a campaign in which he utilizes military power and whatever information he possesses to save as many lives as possible that would otherwise have been lost during the war. After the New Guinea evacuation operation, he is ousted from the ship following a coup by Kikuchi. Shortly after, Kadomatsu manages to regain control of Mirai with help from Kisaragi. Takumi Kusaka Voiced by: Hiroki Tōchi, he considers the encounter with the Mirai as an opportunity to change the history for the "better" He rejects both the militarism of the Japanese Empire and shame of defeat that he attributes to the postwar Japan. Instead, he seeks to create a new undefeated Japan. While he admires the humanism of Kadomatsu, he dismisses it as a luxury unsuited for wartime and is willing to shed a great deal of blood in pursuit of his ideals.
Masayuki Kikuchi Voiced by: Takanori Hoshino. Kikuchi has been best friends with Kadomatsu and Oguri since they were in the same batch during their time at the Japan Maritime Academy, he does not like taking lives. Kikuchi is calm in making decisions breaking out a sweat when he faces extreme situations. During early volumes of the manga, Kikuchi proposed the Mirai crew to avoid changing the past as much as possible. After events of the battle with the U. S. Navy aircraft carrier, USS Wasp, Kikuchi changes his stance on attacking enemy targets, putting the reason that Mirai is put in danger and they are doing it for self-defense. After realizing that changing the past is inevitable and viewing Kusaka's beliefs to create a stronger Japan, Kikuchi stages a mutiny aboard Mirai and takes over as captain, working alongside Kusaka to attack India. However, he is injured during Japanese army withdrawal at Tarawa lagoon island and takes ref
Generation Alpha is the demographic cohort succeeding Generation Z. Researchers and popular media use the early 2010s as starting birth years and the mid 2020s as ending birth years. Named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, Generation Alpha is the first to be born in the 21st century. Most members of Generation Alpha are the children of the Millennials and sometimes Generations X and Z. In 2005, Australian social researcher Mark McCrindle and his team chose the name Generation Alpha based on the results of a public survey, as McCrindle explained to the New York Times in 2015: When I was researching my book The ABC of XYZ: Understanding the Global Generations it became apparent that a new generation was about to commence and there was no name for them. So I conducted a survey to find out what people think the generation after Z should be called and while many names emerged, Generation A was the most mentioned, Generation Alpha got some mentions too and so I settled on that for the title of the chapter Beyond Z: Meet Generation Alpha.
It just made sense as it is in keeping with scientific nomenclature of using the Greek alphabet in lieu of the Latin and it didn’t make sense to go back to A, after all they are the first generation wholly born in the 21st Century and so they are the start of something new not a return to the old. Unless something dramatic and significant happens in the twenty-first century, this proposed generational label and nomenclature will stick because they are flexible. Sociologist Dan Woodman of the University of Melbourne told The Atlantic that changes in generational attitudes tend to be gradual rather than abrupt. Successors of Generation Alpha will be known as Generations Beta, Delta, so on; the name'Generation X' for successors of the Baby Boomers was supposed to be a placeholder, rather like the variable x in a mathematical expression, while alternate names such as the'Baby Busters', or the'MTV Generation' were proposed, none became as widespread as'Generation X'. Although Generation Y, better known as Millennials, seemed to have buckled the trend, the same applies for Generation Z.
As of 2015, there were a half million people born every week around the globe. For comparison, the United Nations estimated that the human population was about 7.8 billion in 2020, up from 2.5 billion in 1950. Three quarters of all people reside in Africa and Asia in 2020. In fact, most human population growth comes from these two continents, as nations in Europe and the Americas tend to have too few children to replace themselves. 2018 was the first time when the number of people above 65 years of age exceeds those between the ages of zero and four. In other words, this was the first year. If current trends continues, the ratio between these two age groups will top two by 2050. Fertility rates have been falling around the world thanks to rising standards of living, greater access to contraceptives, improved educational and economic opportunities; the global average fertility rate in 1950 was 4.7 but dropped to 2.4 in 2017. However, this average masks the huge variation between countries. Niger has the world's highest fertility rate at 7.1 while Cyprus has one of the lowest at 1.0.
In general, the more developed of countries, including much of Europe, the United States, South Korea, Australia, tend to have lower fertility rates. People here tend to have children and fewer of them. Education is in fact one of the most important determinants of fertility; the more educated a woman is, the she tends to have children, fewer of them. Increasing immigration is problematic while policies that encourage people to have more children succeed. Moreover, immigration is not an option at the global level. At the same time, the global average life expectancy has gone from 52 in 1960 to 72 in 2017. Half of the human population lived in urban areas in 2007, this figure became 55% in 2019. If the current trend continues, it will reach two thirds by the middle of the century. A direct consequence of urbanization is falling fertility. In rural areas, children can be considered an asset, that is, additional labor, but in the cities, children are a burden. Moreover, urban women exercises more control over their fertility.
The United Nations estimated in mid-2019 that the human population will reach about 9.7 billion by 2050, a downward revision from an older projection to account for the fact that fertility has been falling faster than thought in the developing world. The global annual rate of growth has been declining since the late twentieth century, dropping to about one percent in 2019. Egypt's population reached the 100-million milestone in February 2020. According to government figures, during the 1990s and 2000s, Egypt's fertility rate fell from 5.2 down to 3.0, but rose up to 3.5 in 2018, according to the United Nations. If the current rate of growth continues, Egypt will be home to more than 128 million people by 2030; such rapid population growth is a cause for concern in a country marked by poverty, shortages of clean water, lack of affordable housing, traffic congestion. Harsh geography exacerbates the problem: 95% of the population lives on just 4% of the land, a region in the neighborhood of the Nile River half the size of Ireland.