Greek literature dates back from the ancient Greek literature, beginning in 800 BC, to the modern Greek literature of today. Ancient Greek literature was written in an Ancient Greek dialect, literature ranges from the oldest surviving written works until works from the fifth century AD; this time period is divided into the Preclassical, Classical and Roman periods. Preclassical Greek literature revolved around myths and include the works of Homer; the Classical period saw the dawn of history. Three philosophers are notable: Socrates and Aristotle. During the Roman era, significant contributions were made in a variety of subjects, including history and the sciences. Byzantine literature, the literature of the Byzantine Empire, was written in Atticizing and early Modern Greek. Chronicles, distinct from historics, arose in this period. Encyclopedias flourished in this period. Modern Greek literature is written in common Modern Greek; the Cretan Renaissance poem Erotokritos is one of the most significant works from this time period.
Adamantios Korais and Rigas Feraios are two of the most notable figures. Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek dialects; these works range from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until works from the fifth century AD. The Greek language arose from the proto-Indo-European language. A number of alphabets and syllabaries had been used to render Greek, but surviving Greek literature was written in a Phoenician-derived alphabet that arose in Greek Ionia and was adopted by Athens by the fifth century BC. All ancient Greek literature was to some degree oral in nature, the earliest literature was so; the Greeks created poetry before making use of writing for literary purposes. Poems created in the Preclassical period were meant to be recited. Most poems focused on legends that were part folktale and part religion. Tragedies and comedies emerged around 600 BC. At the beginning of Greek literature stand the works of Homer. Though dates of composition vary, these works were fixed after.
Another significant figure was the poet Hesiod. His two surviving works are Theogony. During the classical period, many of the genres of western literature became more prominent. Lyrical poetry, pastorals, epigrams; the two major lyrical poets were Pindar. Of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during this time period, only a limited number of plays survived; these plays are authored by Aeschylus and Euripides. The comedy arose from a ritual in honor of Dionysus; these plays were full of obscenity and insult. The surviving plays by Aristophanes are a treasure trove of comic presentation. Two influential historians of this age are Thucydides. A third historian, wrote "Hellenica,", considered an extension of Thucydides's work; the greatest prose achievement of the 4th century BC was in philosophy. Greek philosophy flourished during the classical period. Of the philosophers, Socrates and Aristotle are the most famous. By 338 BC many of the key Greek cities had been conquered by Philip II of Macedon.
Philip II's son Alexander extended his father's conquests greatly. The Hellenistic age is defined as the time between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of Roman domination. After the 3rd century BC, the Greek colony of Alexandria in northern Egypt became the center of Greek culture. Greek poetry flourished with significant contributions from Theocritus and Apollonius of Rhodes. Theocritus, who lived from about 310 to 250 BC, was the creator of pastoral poetry, a type that the Roman Virgil mastered in his Eclogues. Drama was represented by the New Comedy. One of the most valuable contributions of the Hellenistic period was the translation of the Old Testament into Greek; this work was done at Alexandria and completed by the end of the 2nd century BC. Roman literature was written in Latin and contributed significant works to the subjects of poetry, comedy and tragedy. A large proportion of literature from this time period were histories. Significant historians of the period were Timaeus, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Appian of Alexandria and Plutarch.
The period of time the cover extended from late in the 4th century BC to the 2nd century AD. Eratosthenes of Alexandria wrote on astronomy and geography, but his work is known from summaries; the physician Galen pioneered developments in various scientific disciplines including anatomy, pathology and neurology. This is the period in which most of the Ancient Greek novels were written; the New Testament, written by various authors in varying qualities of Koine Greek, hails from this period. The Gospels and the Epistles of Saint Paul were written in this time period as well. Byzantine literature refers to literature of the Byzantine Empire written in Atticizing and early Modern Greek. Byzantine literature combined Greek and Christian civilization on the common foundation of the Roman political system; this type of literature was set in the ethnographic atmosphere of the Near East. Byzantine literature possesses four primary cultural elements: Greek, Christian and Oriental. Aside from
Downtown St. Louis is the central business district of St. Louis, the hub of tourism and entertainment, the anchor of the St. Louis metropolitan area; the downtown is bounded by Cole Street to the north, the river front to the east, Chouteau Avenue to the south, Tucker Boulevard to the west. The downtown is the site including Stifel Financial Corp.. HOK, Spire Inc, a host of other companies; the founding history of the downtown area of St. Louis relates to the founding of the city. Pierre Laclede chose to found the city on the bluffs because it had access to the river for trade and transportation, was above most floods and defensible against hostile Native Americans. Laclede found the present-day downtown area the perfect place to run a bustling fur trade with the Native Americans of the region. In the community's early days, Laclede acted as the de facto leader of St. Louis. While the settlement was named after King Louis IX of France, most residents called it "Laclede Village." Laclede planned the format of the city streets, oversaw the construction of the settlement's first buildings.
Although initial growth was slow, the settlement received a stimulus when France surrendered all of its territorial holdings east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. Many French colonists moved from east of the Mississippi River to St. Louis to escape British rule. By 1776 St. Louis had 300 residents and 75 buildings. By 1804 the population had tripled to 900. After the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, a flood of immigrants from the United States came to the village; as the newcomers established an American system of government, French influence and use of the French language began to wane, but the leading French colonial mercantile families continued to have power. With the arrival of the steamboat in 1817, St. Louis became a vital center of American commerce, able to trade goods from the Gulf of Mexico across the country through the great river system connected by the Mississippi River. By 1836 the City had 15,000 inhabitants, but it did not have basic institutions, such as banks, libraries or public schools.
The downtown streets were being renamed after prominent American settlers. By the mid-19th century, the area was becoming more commercial than residential, more people began to live in the western parts of the city; the commercial activity of St. Louis was centered on Main Street Washington Avenue, Walnut Street; the St. Louis Fire of 1849 destroyed much of this district. In time the city recovered from the fire and regained its place as one of the commercial centers of the Midwest. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the St. Louis downtown experienced a building boom because of a lack of room for businesses to expand. In its heyday, the downtown was a bustling center of commerce. By the mid-20th century, the downtown area began to decline as businesses moved west and to the suburbs, industries restructured. During the 1970s, owners replaced them with parking lots. In 2004, the historic St. Louis Century Building was demolished to create a parking deck; the present-day downtown has moved further south.
Recent preservation efforts have heightened awareness of the architectural significance of the area. Both major universities in St. Louis began in the downtown region. St. Louis University was founded in 1818 by Bishop DuBourg, who rented a stone house on Market Street to house its first class; the university was discontinued in 1826 because of Bishop DuBourg's pastoral duties, but the institution was rejuvenated two years by Father Van Quickenborne. The university expanded constructing numerous buildings. Washington University was founded as Eliot Seminary on February 22, 1853, it received its present name in 1857 at the insistence of its chancellor, William Greenleaf Eliot, as it was chartered on George Washington's birthday. The first school opened on its downtown campus at 17th Street and Washington Avenue was the Smith Academy in 1856; this original building was soon followed by the buildings for other departments. Like St. Louis University, Washington University relocated from the downtown area, in 1904 moving to its present campus to the west.
After the 1950s, St. Louis, like many other American industrial cities, suffered from industry restructuring, loss of jobs, demographic changes accompanying suburbanization following highway construction, it has had economic decline and heavy population losses, with rising rates of crime. Since the early 1990s, the city has directed urban renewal efforts in the downtown area, with increased investment. Over $4 billion was invested downtown between 1999 and 2006; the population has grown for the first time in 40 years, numerous residential and commercial units are being built. The United States Postal Service operates the St. Louis Main Post Office at 1720 Market Street in Downtown St. Louis. Located in the downtown neighborhood, the St Louis City Hall at 1200 Market Street. Nestlé Purina PetCare and Peabody Energy Corporation are headquartered in Downtown St. Louis. Ralcorp and its former subsidiary Post Foods have their headquarters in the Bank of America Plaza in Downtown St. Louis. In 1999, prior to its merger with American Airlines, Trans World Airlines was headquartered in One City Centre at 515 North 6th Street.
In 2006, John Steffen, owner of One City Centre, announced that he planned to redevelop it into a mixed-us
Thomas Goodwin Hatchard was an English bishop of Mauritius. Hatchard, son of Thomas Hatchard, the publisher, grandson of John Hatchard, was born at 11 Sloane Street, Chelsea, on 18 Sept. 1817, educated at King's College School, London. He matriculated from Brasenose College, Oxford, as Thomas Goodwyn Hatchard on 11 April 1837, graduated B. A. 1841, M. A. 1845, D. D. 4 Feb. 1869. He was curate of Windlesham, from 1842 to 1844, domestic chaplain to the Marquess of Conyngham from 1845 to 1869, he was ordained and consecrated a bishop at Westminster Abbey on 24 February by Archibald Campbell Tait, Archbishop of Canterbury. He belonged to the moderate evangelical school; as a parochial clergyman he was indefatigable in his duties. He died of cholera in the island of Mauritius 28 Feb. 1870. He married, 19 Feb. 1846, Fanny Vincent Steele, second daughter of the Right Rev. Michael Solomon Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, she died at Cannes, 7 Dec. 1880. ‘The German Tree. A Moral for the Young,’ 1851. ‘The Floweret Gathered.
A brief Memoir of Adelaide Charlotte Hatchard, his daughter,’ 1858. ‘Sermons,’ 1847–62. His wife published: ‘Eight Years' Experience of Mothers' Meetings,’ 1871. ‘Prayers for Little Children,’ 1872. ‘Mothers' Meetings, how to organize them,’ 1875. ‘Mothers of Scripture,’ 1875. ‘Thoughts on the Lord's Prayer,’ 1878. ‘Prayers for Mothers' Meetings,’ 1878. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Hatchard, Thomas Goodwin". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900