Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. There are between 5,000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes though only a few are of commercial significance for wine and table grape production, it is a liana growing to 32 m with flaky bark. The leaves are 5 -- 20 cm long and broad; the fruit is a berry, known as a grape. The species occurs in humid forests and streamsides; the wild grape is classified as V. vinifera subsp. Sylvestris, with V. vinifera subsp. Vinifera restricted to cultivated forms. Domesticated vines subsp.. Sylvestris is dioecious and pollination is required for fruit to develop; the grape is eaten processed to make wine or juice, or dried to produce raisins. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera form the basis of the majority of wines produced around the world. All of the familiar wine varieties belong to Vitis vinifera, cultivated on every continent except for Antarctica, in all the major wine regions of the world.
Wild grapes were harvested by early farmers. For thousands of years, the fruit has been harvested for both nutritional value. Changes in pip shape and distribution point to domestication occurring about 3500–3000 BC, in southwest Asia, South Caucasus, or the Western Black Sea shore region; the earliest evidence of domesticated grapes has been found at Gadachrili Gora, near the village of Imiri, Marneuli Municipality, in southeastern Republic of Georgia. Grape pips dating back to the V-IV millennia B. C. were found in Shulaveri. C. were found in Khizanaant Gora, all in the Republic of Georgia. Cultivation of the domesticated grape spread to other parts of the Old World in pre-historic or early historic times; the first written accounts of grapes and wine can be found in the Epic of Gilgamesh, an ancient Sumerian text from the third millennium BC. There are numerous hieroglyphic references from ancient Egypt, according to which wine was reserved for priests, state functionaries and the pharaoh. Hesiod in his Works and Days gives detailed descriptions of grape harvests and wine making techniques, there are many references in Homer.
Greek colonists introduced these practices in their colonies in southern Italy, known as Enotria due to its propitious climate. The Etruscans improved wine making techniques and developed an export trade beyond the Mediterranean basin; the ancient Romans further developed the techniques learnt from the Etruscans, as shown by numerous works of literature containing information, still valid today: De Agri Cultura by Cato the Elder, De re rustica by Marcus Terentius Varro, the Georgics by Virgil and De re rustica by Columella. During the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, the long crisis of the Roman Empire generated instability in the countryside which led to a reduction of viticulture in general, sustained only close to towns and cities and along coastlines. Between the 5th and 10th centuries, viticulture was sustained exclusively by the different religious orders in monasteries; the Benedictines and others extended the grape growing limit northwards and planted new vineyards at higher altitudes than was customary before.
Apart from ‘ecclesiastical’ viticulture, there developed in France, a ‘noble’ viticulture, practiced by the aristocracy as a symbol of prestige. Grape growing was a significant economic activity in the Middle east up to the 7th century, when the expansion of Islam caused it to decline. Between the Low Middle Ages and the Renaissance, viticulture began to flourish again. Demographic pressure, population concentration in towns and cities, the increased spending power of artisans and merchants gave rise to increased investment in viticulture, which became economically feasible once more. Much was written during the Renaissance on grape growing and wine production, favouring a more scientific approach; this literature can be considered the origin of modern ampelography. Grapes followed European colonies around the world, coming to North America around the 17th century, to Africa, South America and Australia. In North America it formed hybrids with native species from the genus Vitis. North American rootstocks became used to graft V. vinifera cultivars so as to withstand the presence of phylloxera.
V. Vinifera accounts for the majority of world wine production. In Europe, Vitis vinifera is concentrated in the southern regions.
Santorini is a Greek wine region located on the archipelago of Santorini in the southern Cyclades islands of Greece. Wine has been produced there since ancient times, but it was during the Middle Ages that the wine of Santorini became famous worldwide under the influence of the Republic of Venice; the Italian influence is still present in modern Santorini winemaking: the most famous Tuscan sweet wine is called Vin Santo. Santorini's Vin Santo is made in a passito style from grapes dried in the sun after harvest. Santorini produces blended and rosé wine made from white grapes such as Athiri and Assyrtiko, red grapes such as Mandelaria. In its early geological history, Santorini was the core of an ancient volcano that erupted in about 1640–1620 BC. A large part of the island became submerged. Wine was made on the island in Greek and Roman times, but the region became noteworthy in the Middle Ages when Crusaders captured control of the island from the Byzantine empire after Constantinople was sacked in 1203.
One of the crusaders was a Venetian nobleman whose family maintained control of the island until 1336 when it became part of the Venetian maritime state Duchy of Naxos. Under the Venetian influence, with this extensive trade network and maritime control, Santorini wines were exported throughout the Mediterranean and Europe; the wine was prized for its ability to withstand the month long sea voyages due, in part, to its sweetness and high alcohol levels. So valued was Santorini wines during this period that when the Ottoman Turks captured the region in 1579, they still permitted the uninterrupted trade of the wine though the religious edicts of their Muslim faith forbids alcohol. One explanation for the Turks concession was that the poor soil and perilous topography of the island, with cliffs running right to the sea, made the cultivation of other cash crops difficult; when the Russian Orthodox Church adopted Santorini wine as the official Eucharistic wine of the church, the Ottomans allowed the island producers to trade with Russia during the frequent wars between the two empires.
During the early 19th Century a variety of wines were produced in Santorini, both white. The best red wine was called Santorin, representing a dry fine-tasting claret, with an approach to port; the most famous white wine was called Nykteri. There were two varieties of Nykteri, one named Kalliste, being richer; the “king” of Santorini wines, was the Vino Santo, occurring in two varieties: dark-red and amber coloured. This wine was sweet, rich dry, has a strong stimulating aroma; the quantity of wine exported was 45-50,000 barrels per year. Located in the Aegean Sea, Santorini has a distinctly Mediterranean climate, characterized by warm temperatures, low rainfall but high humidity during the growing season; the area is subjected to strong winds coming off the oceans which can damage the vines and grapes if they are not trained low to the ground for protection. The vineyard soils of the region are poor, composed of volcanic ash and rocks; the calcareous subsoils are porous which helps to retain some of the humidity in the air and release it as moisture in the night for the vines to utilize.
The island of Santorini is most famously known for its indigenous white grape varieties Assyrtiko and Aidani, though some wines made from international varieties and from indigenous red grapes such as Mandalieria and Mavrotragano can be found. About 1,200 hectares of land are under vine, there is a constant struggle with Santorini's tourism industry that puts this small number at risk of decreasing further. Assyrtiko is the island's flagship grape. It's a high acid grape full of citrus and mineral nuances, it can be enjoyed with grilled fish and meats. The grape is referred to as a “white grape in red’s clothing,” due to the full-bodied wines it produces with an average of 13.5% abv. Santorini is immune to phylloxera as its volcanic soils contain none of the clay, necessary for parasite to survive; as a result, many of the roots found on the vines on Santorini are centuries old. The grape growers of Santorini use a unique bush-training system, known as koulara, to grow the grapes; as the vines grow, they are woven into baskets with the grapes facing toward the inside of the ring.
The vine's leaves and vine provide protection for the grapes from harsh winds and sunlight. The koulara are grown haphazardly on small plots of land and can be mistaken for wild bushes by unknowing passers-by. Grape varieties are grown together and the growers are unaware which grapes are which until harvest which takes place in mid-August. At the age of 75 a vine is woven into many layers and it may be unable to provide proper nutrients and high enough yields to keep in production; as a result, it is clipped at its roots and a new vine is connected to the rootstock. It is important to keep the roots healthy and in use as their old age has allowed them to grow deep into the calcareous soils, extracting any moisture that may be available. Santorini classified wines: Santorini and Vinsanto Santorini: This wine must contain 75% or more of the Assyrtiko grape variety with the remaining 25% made up from Athiri and/or Aidani; the wine is unoaked, but some wineries choose to make a small portion of oaked wine due to Assyrtiko's versatility.
Either way has a great
Ancient Greece and wine
The influence of wine in ancient Greece helped ancient Greece trade with neighboring countries and regions. Many mannerisms and cultural aspects were associated with wine, it led to great change in Ancient Greece as well. The ancient Greeks pioneered new methods of viticulture and wine production that they shared with early winemaking communities in what are now France, Italy and Russia, as well as others, through trade and colonization. Along the way, they markedly influenced the ancient European winemaking cultures of the Celts, Etruscans and the Romans. Viticulture has existed in Greece since the late Neolithic period, with domestic cultivation becoming widespread by the early Bronze Age. Through trade with ancient Egypt, the Minoan civilization on Crete was introduced to Egyptian winemaking methods, an influence most imparted to Mycenaean Greece; the Minoan palaces had their associated vineyards, as Spyridon Marinatos demonstrated in excavations just south of the palace site at Archanes, the Minoan equivalent of a villa rustica devoted to wine production was unearthed at Kato Zakros in 1961.
In Minoan culture of the mid-second millennium BC, wine and the sacred bull were linked in the form of the horn-shaped drinking cups called rhyta. Along with olives and grain, grapes were an important agricultural crop vital to sustenance and community development. One of the earliest known wine presses was discovered in Palekastro in Crete, from which island the Mycenaeans are believed to have spread viticulture to others in the Aegean Sea and quite to mainland Greece. In the Mycenaean period, wine took on greater cultural and economic importance. Records inscribed on tablets in Linear B include details of wine and wine merchants, as well as an early allusion to Dionysus, the Greek god of wine. Greeks embedded the arrival of winemaking culture in the mythologies of Dionysus and the cultural hero Aristaeus. Early remnants of amphoras show that the Mycenaeans traded wine throughout the ancient world in places such as Cyprus, Palestine and southern Italy; as the Greek city-states established colonies throughout the Mediterranean, the settlers brought grapevines with them and were active in cultivating the wild vines they encountered.
Sicily and southern Italy formed some of the earliest colonies, as they were areas home to an abundance of grapevines. The Greeks called the southern part of the Italian Peninsula Oenotria. Settlements in Massalia in southern France and along the shores of the Black Sea soon followed, with the expectation that not only would colonial wine production supply domestic needs, but create trading opportunities to meet the demand of the nearby city-states. Athens itself provided a large and lucrative market for wine, with significant vineyard estates forming in the Attican region and on the island of Thasos to help satisfy demand. Wine historians have theorized that the Greeks may have introduced viticulture to Spain and Portugal, but competing theories suggest that the Phoenicians reached those areas first; the grape clusters and wine cups that adorn Greek coins from classical times bear witness to the importance of wine to the ancient Greek economy. With every major trading partner, from the Crimea, Scythia and beyond, the Greeks traded their knowledge of viticulture and winemaking, as well the fruits of their own production.
Millions of amphora pieces bearing the unique seals of various city-states and Aegean islands have been uncovered by archaeologists, demonstrating the scope of Greek influence. A shipwreck discovered off the coast of southern France included nearly 10,000 amphoras containing nearly 300,000 litres of Greek wine destined for trade up the Rhône and Saône rivers into Gaul, it is estimated that the Greeks shipped nearly 10 million liters of wine into Gaul each year through Massalia. In 1929, the discovery of the Vix Grave in Burgundy included several artifacts demonstrating the strong ties between Greek wine traders and local Celtic villagers; the most notable of these was a large Greek-made krater, designed to hold over 1,000 litres of wine. Ancient Greeks called the cultivated vine hemeris, after their adjective for "tame", differentiating it from its wild form. A massive rootstock was carved into a cult image of the Great Goddess and set up on the coast of Phrygia by the Argonauts; the late Dionysiaca of Nonnus recounts the primitive invention of wine-pressing, credited to Dionysus, Homer's description of the Shield of Achilles describes that part of its wrought decoration illustrating the grape harvest from a vineyard protectively surrounded by a trench and a fence.
He wrote that Laertes, father of Odysseus, had over 50 grape varieties planted in different parts of his vineyard. The 4th-century BC Greek writer Theophrastus left a detailed record of some Greek influences and innovations in viticulture, one of, the study of vineyard soils and their proper match to specific grapevines. Another innovation was the minimization of yields for more intense concentration of flavors and quality, rather than increased quantity; the economics of the time favored high yields for most crops, intentionally limiting agricultural output was exceedingly uncommon in the ancient world. Theophrastus detailed the practice of using suckering and plant cuttings for new vineyard plantings; the Greeks employed vine training with stacked plants for easier cultivation and harvesting, ra
Hippocrates of Kos known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles, considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is referred to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine; this intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields with which it had traditionally been associated, thus establishing medicine as a profession. However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates himself were commingled. Hippocrates is portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, credited with coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today, he is credited with advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus and other works.
Historians agree. Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek physician, was Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal information about him. Biographies are in the Suda of the 10th century AD, in the works of John Tzetzes, Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC. Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician, his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane; the two sons of Hippocrates and Draco, his son-in-law, were his students. According to Galen, a physician, Polybus was Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son named Hippocrates. Soranus said that Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and grandfather, studied other subjects with Democritus and Gorgias. Hippocrates was trained at the asklepieion of Kos, took lessons from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria. Plato mentions Hippocrates in two of his dialogues: in Protagoras, Plato describes Hippocrates as "Hippocrates of Kos, the Asclepiad". Hippocrates taught and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far as Thessaly and the Sea of Marmara.
Several different accounts of his death exist. He died in Larissa, at the age of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying medicine, he separated the discipline of medicine from religion and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism. Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split on; the Knidian school of medicine focused on diagnosis. Medicine at the time of Hippocrates knew nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo forbidding the dissection of humans.
The Knidian school failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of symptoms. The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments, its focus was on patient prognosis, not diagnosis. It could treat diseases and allowed for a great development in clinical practice. Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian school; this shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of strong denunciations. Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death, or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the patient recover.
After a crisis, a relapse might follow, another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a critical day, a relapse might be expected. Galen believed that this idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it predated him. Hippocratic medicine was passive; the therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature". According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself. Hippocratic therapy focused on easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a solid or viscous substance of plant or synthetic origin, convertible into polymers. Resins are mixtures of organic compounds; this article focuses on naturally-occurring resins. Plants secrete resins for their protective benefits in response to injury; the resin protects the plant from pathogens. Resins confound a wide range of herbivores and pathogens, while the volatile phenolic compounds may attract benefactors such as parasitoids or predators of the herbivores that attack the plant. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes. Specific components are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes, longifolene and delta-cadinene; some resins contain a high proportion of resin acids. Rosins on the other hand consist, inter alia, of diterpenes. Notable examples of plant resins include amber, Balm of Gilead, Canada balsam, copal from trees of Protium copal and Hymenaea courbaril, dammar gum from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae, Dragon's blood from the dragon trees, frankincense from Boswellia sacra, galbanum from Ferula gummosa, gum guaiacum from the lignum vitae trees of the genus Guaiacum, kauri gum from trees of Agathis australis, hashish from Cannabis indica, labdanum from mediterranean species of Cistus, mastic from the mastic tree Pistacia lentiscus, myrrh from shrubs of Commiphora, sandarac resin from Tetraclinis articulata, the national tree of Malta, spinifex resin from Australian grasses, turpentine, distilled from pine resin.
Amber is fossil resin from other tree species. Copal, kauri gum and other resins may be found as subfossil deposits. Subfossil copal can be distinguished from genuine fossil amber because it becomes tacky when a drop of a solvent such as acetone or chloroform is placed on it. African copal and the kauri gum of New Zealand are procured in a semi-fossil condition. Solidified resin from which the volatile terpenes have been removed by distillation is known as rosin. Typical rosin is a transparent or translucent mass, with a vitreous fracture and a faintly yellow or brown colour, non-odorous or having only a slight turpentine odor and taste. Rosin is insoluble in water soluble in alcohol, essential oils and hot fatty oils. Rosin melts under the influence of heat. Rosin burns with a smoky flame. Rosin consists of a complex mixture of different substances including organic acids named the resin acids. Related to the terpenes, resin acid are oxidized terpenes. Resin acids dissolved in alkalis to form resin soaps, from which the purified resin acids are regenerated upon treatment with acids.
Examples of resin acids are abietic acid, C20H30O2, plicatic acid contained in cedar, pimaric acid, C20H30O2, a constituent of galipot resin. Abietic acid can be extracted from rosin by means of hot alcohol. Pimaric acid resembles abietic acid into which it passes when distilled in a vacuum. Rosin is obtained from pines and some other plants conifers. Plant resins are produced as stem secretions, but in some Central and South American species such as Euphorbia dalechampia and Clusia species they are produced as pollination rewards, used by some stingless bee species to construct their nests. Propolis, consisting of resins collected from plants such as poplars and conifers, is used by honey bees to seal gaps in their hives. Shellac and lacquer are examples of insect-derived resins. Asphaltite and Utah resin are petroleum bitumens, not a product secreted by plants, although it was derived from plants. Human use of plant resins has a long history, documented in ancient Greece by Theophrastus, in ancient Rome by Pliny the Elder, in the resins known as frankincense and myrrh, prized in ancient Egypt.
These were prized substances, required as incense in some religious rites. The word resin comes from French resine, from Latin resina "resin", which either derives from or is a cognate of the Greek ῥητίνη rhētinē "resin of the pine", of unknown earlier origin, though non-Indo-European; the word "resin" has been applied in the modern world to nearly any component of a liquid that will set into a hard lacquer or enamel-like finish. An example is nail polish. Certain "casting resins" and synthetic resins have been given the name "resin." Some resins when soft are known as'oleoresins', when containing benzoic acid or cinnamic acid they are called balsams. Oleoresins are occurring mixtures of an oil and a resin. Other resinous products in their natural condition are a mix with gum or mucilaginous substances and known as gum resins. Several natural resins are used as ingredients in perfumes, e.g. balsams of Peru and tolu, elemi and certain turpentines. Other liquid compounds found inside plants or exuded by plants, such as sap, latex, or mucilage, are sometimes confused with resin but are not the same.
Saps, in particular, serve. Plant resins are valued for the production of varnishes and food glazing agents, they are prized as raw materials for the synthesis of other organic compounds and provide constituents of incense and perfume. The oldest known use of plant resin comes from the late Middle Stone Age in Southern Africa where it was used as an adhesive for hafting stone tools
Naousa The Heroic City of Naousa is a city in the Imathia regional unit of Macedonia, Greece with a population of 21,139. An industrial center since the 19th century, for most of the 20th century the history of Naousa was intertwined with that of the Lanaras family, local industrialists who, at the height of their influence, employed half of Naousa's population in their textile factories; the Lanaras family built hospitals, social centers etc. while streets of Naousa were named after family members. In the 1990s and 2000s however, most of the local factories closed, leaving Naousa with a serious unemployment problem; the municipality Naousa was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Anthemia Eirinoupoli NaousaThe municipality has an area of 425.491 km2, the municipal unit 300.891 km2. The province of Naousa was one of the provinces of Imathia, it had the same territory as the present municipality. It was abolished in 2006.
The city is situated in ancient Emathia west of the ancient Macedonian town of Mieza and the site of ancient School of Aristotle. The area, according to Herodotus, was. In the current position of the city, the Romans established the colony of Nova Augusta; the name changed through the centuries to Niagusta and Niaousa, until it became today's Naousa. It was known as "Ağustos" during Ottoman rule. In 1705, an armatolos named. In 1822, during the Greek War of Independence, the fighting in Central Macedonia against the Turks came to a dramatic finale in Naousa. Abdul Abud, the Pasha of Thessaloniki, arrived on 14 March at the head of a 16,000 strong force and 12 cannons; the Greeks defended Naousa with a force of 4,000 under Anastasios Karatasos, Dimitrios Karatasos, Aggelis Gatsos and Philippos, the son of Zafeirakis Theodosiou, under the overall command of Zafeirakis Theodosiou and Anastasios Karatasos. The Turks attempted to take the town of Naousa on 16 March, again on 18 and 19 March, without success.
On 24 March the Turks began a bombardment of the city walls. After requests for the town's surrender were dismissed by the Greeks, the Turks charged the Gate of St George on Good Friday, 31 March; the Turkish attack failed but on 6 April, after receiving fresh reinforcements of some 3,000 men, the Turkish army overcame the Greek resistance and entered the city. In an infamous incident, as the rebels were abandoning the town, some of the women left behind committed suicide by falling down a cliff over the small river Arapitsa. Zafeirakis Theodosiou was killed; the other Greek leaders retreated southwards. Abdul Abud laid; the fall and massacre of Naousa marked the end of the Greek Revolution in Central Macedonia. Naousa has a large population of Aromanians known as Vlachs, a small Romani population. Naousa is located in Northwestern Imathia, 22 kilometers north of Veroia and 90 kilometers east of Thessaloniki, the biggest city in Northern Greece; the city lies on the eastern foothills of Vermio Mountains, one of the biggest mountain ranges in Greece, west to the plain of Kambania.
Naousa is today the largest forest-owning municipality in the country being surrounded by orchards, producing peaches, apples and other fruits, while the jam brand name Naousa is well-known all over Greece. Naousa is known for its parks and for its ski resorts. Due to its location, altitude can raise by as much as 150m between the lowest and highest parts of the city, it reaches nearly 550m in the Park of Saint Nicholas. Naousa is home of one of the three female named Greek rivers, together with Neda in Peloponnesus and Erkyna in Livadia. Naousa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification but due to its inland location and elevation, is more continental than that found in most Greek cities, it is influenced by the mountains which rise up to the west, by the plain of Kambania to the east. On one hand, the mountains shelter the area from cold winds blowing from the north and west down the Balkan Peninsula and from hot southwest winds, creating a non-extreme microclimate.
On the other they create föhn winds, which draw in damp air from the Aegean coast. The annual precipitation of Naousa is lower than in western Greece, but it is one of the highest in the Macedonia region, measuring around 710 mm per year. Winters can be cold and Vermio mountains are home to two of the most famous skiing resorts in Greece, Seli and 3-5 Pigadia. In the city, snowfall is not uncommon and measurable amounts of snow can remain on the ground for several days. Downtown Naousa experiences milder winter temperatures than the suburbs where temperatures can drop many degrees below zero. Recent years have been a lot warmer and the 2007 European heat wave saw Naousa reaching 40°C for the first time in recent memory, with an absolute maximum of 41.3°C in July 25th. In January 8th, 2017, temperature dropped to -10.5°C, a 10-year low. Naoussa is served by Naousa railway station on the Thessaloniki-Florina line. Inaugurated in 1894, it connects the rest of Northern Greece. Since 2009, it is served by the suburban services to Edessa.
Skiing club EOS Naousas is the oldest of the city's sporting clubs, havi