Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin
Fond du Lac County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 101,633, its county seat is Fond du Lac. The county was created in the Wisconsin Territory in 1836 and organized in 1844. Fond du Lac is French for "bottom of the lake", so given because of the county's location at the southern shore of Lake Winnebago. Fond du Lac County comprises Wisconsin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Holyland region is in northeastern Fond du Lac County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 766 square miles, of which 720 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water. Fond du Lac County Airport serves surrounding communities. Winnebago County – north Calumet County – northeast Sheboygan County – east Washington County – southeast Dodge County – southwest Green Lake County – west Horicon National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 97,296 people, 36,931 households, 25,482 families residing in the county; the population density was 135 people per square mile.
There were 39,271 housing units at an average density of 54 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.16% White, 0.90% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 57.7% were of German, 6.1% Irish and 5.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.5% spoke English, 2.1% Spanish and 1.3% German as their first language. There were 36,931 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 7.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.00% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. Fond du Lac Ripon Waupun St. Peter Taycheedah Van Dyne Ceresco New Cassel Reeds Corners National Register of Historic Places listings in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin Wisconsin Phalanx Glaze, A. T. Incidents and Anecdotes of Early Days and History of Business in the City and County of Fond du Lac From Early Times to the Present. Fond du Lac: P. B. Haber, 1905. McKenna, Maurice. Fond du Lac County Wisconsin and Present. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1912. Fond du Lac County website Fond du Lac County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Berlin is a city in Green Lake and Waushara counties in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The population was 5,524 at the 2010 census. Of this, 5,435 were in Green Lake County, only 89 were in Waushara County; the city is located within the Town of Berlin in Green Lake County, with a small portion extending into the Town of Aurora in Waushara County. In 1845, Nathan H. Strong became the first resident of, he was joined by Hugh G. Martin, Hiram Barnes, William Dickey, their settlement was known as Strong's Landing. In 1848 a post office was established, it was named Berlin after the capital of Prussia, now the capital of Germany. The first school house was built in 1850 and the first church in 1851. Berlin was incorporated as a city in 1857. Area residents put the accent on the first syllable of Berlin rather than on the second, it has been said that this was in reaction to the anti-German sentiment that swept across the United States during World War I, that the accent was on the second syllable. Berlin is located at 43°58′11″N 88°56′55″W.
The Fox River runs north-south through the middle of the city splitting it. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.36 square miles, of which, 5.78 square miles is land and 0.58 square miles is water. Berlin is served by Wisconsin Highway 49 and Wisconsin Highway 91; as of the census of 2010, there were 5,524 people, 2,296 households, 1,423 families residing in the city. The population density was 955.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,561 housing units at an average density of 443.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.4% White, 0.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 3.6% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.0% of the population. There were 2,296 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.0% were non-families.
32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age in the city was 39 years. 25.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,305 people, 2,170 households, 1,425 families residing in the city; the population density was 887.4 people per square mile. There were 2,391 housing units at an average density of 400.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.70% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.47% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. 4.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,170 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families.
30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,896, the median income for a family was $44,922. Males had a median income of $31,512 versus $21,658 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,667. About 3.6% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church is a Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod church and St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church is a Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod church in Berlin Berlin Journal is a weekly newspaper published in Berlin, Wisconsin.
WISS is the area radio station in Wisconsin. Newspaper articles describing Berlin's history City of Berlin Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1884 1891 1895 1900 1911 Nathan H. Strong at Find a Grave
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Waushara County, Wisconsin
Waushara County is a county located in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,496, its county seat is Wautoma. Waushara County is located in central Wisconsin, about 80 miles north of Madison. Waushara County was established by an act of the Wisconsin Legislature on February 15, 1851, it consisted of a single organized Town of Waushara. In 1852 the county achieved full organization; the county seat was first located at Sacramento and was relocated to Wautoma in 1854 after a bitter fight between proponents of the two places. The name is of Native American origin and is believed to mean "good land". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 637 square miles, of which 626 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Interstate 39 U. S. Highway 51 Highway 21 Highway 22 Highway 49 Highway 73 Wautoma Municipal Airport serves Waushara County and the surrounding communities Wild Rose Idlewild Airport serves Waushara County and the surrounding communities Portage County - north Waupaca County - northeast Winnebago County - east Green Lake County - south Marquette County - south Adams County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 23,154 people, 9,336 households, 6,581 families residing in the county.
The population density was 37 people per square mile. There were 13,667 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.80% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 3.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 47.5% were of German, 9.1% Polish, 5.9% Irish, 5.7% American and 5.6% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 94.5% spoke English, 3.4% Spanish and 1.4% German as their first language. There were 9,336 households out of which 27.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.50% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 26.30% from 45 to 64, 19.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.80 males. Berlin Wautoma Coloma Hancock Lohrville Plainfield Redgranite Wild Rose Pine River Poy Sippi Tustin Rodney National Register of Historic Places listings in Waushara County, Wisconsin Portrait and Biographical Album of Green Lake and Waushara Counties, Wisconsin. Chicago: Acme Publishing, 1890. Waushara County website Waushara County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t