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Green Line (Israel)

The Green Line, or 1967 border or 1949 Armistice border, is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its neighbors after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. It served as the de facto borders of the State of Israel from 1949 until the Six-Day War in 1967; the name comes from the green ink used to draw the line on the map while the armistice talks were going on. After the Six-Day War, the territories captured by Israel beyond the Green Line came to be designated as East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula; these territories are referred to as Israeli-occupied territories. The Green Line was intended as a demarcation line rather than a permanent border; the 1949 Armistice Agreements were clear. The Egyptian–Israeli agreement, for example, stated that "the Armistice Demarcation Line is not to be construed in any sense as a political or territorial boundary, is delineated without prejudice to rights and positions of either Party to the Armistice as regards ultimate settlement of the Palestine question."

Similar provisions are contained in the Armistice Agreements with Syria. The Agreement with Lebanon contained no such provisions, was treated as the international border between Israel and Lebanon, stipulating only that forces would be withdrawn to the Israel–Lebanon border; the Green Line is referred to as the "pre-1967 borders" or the "1967 borders" by many international bodies and national leaders, including the former United States president, Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas, by the United Nations in informal texts, in the text of UN General Assembly Resolutions. The Green Line refers to the demarcation lines, rather than permanent borders, between Israeli forces and those of its neighbors. All movement across the demarcation lines was banned and monitored by the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization. Most the term was applied to the boundary between Jordan-controlled Jerusalem and the West Bank and Israel; the drawing of the Green Line superseded the partition lines proposed and voted on by the United Nations in the Partition Plan of 1947 and which Israel had accepted in the Israeli Declaration of Independence.

The Palestinian and Arab leaders had rejected any permanent partition of Mandatory Palestine. In 1967, after Israel seized all the territories, other than the Emirate of Transjordan, of the former Mandatory Palestine, as well as other territories, the demarcation lines became militarily irrelevant, the status of the Green Line became uncertain. Although Israel has always formally argued that the Green Line has no legal significance, the Green Line continued to have political and administrative significance. Israel regarded the territories beyond the Green Line, unlike those within the Green Line, as occupied territories, they were not incorporated into Israeli political and civilian administrative systems; the territories beyond the Green Line were administered by the Israeli military or also by the Palestinian Authority. Citizenship by residence, for example, was determined with reference to the Green Line, as well as a person's refugee status; the extension of the municipality boundary of Jerusalem in 1980 was an exception to this position.

Although Jerusalem was a part of territory beyond the Green Line, ruled by Jordan until 1967, Israel declared Jerusalem "complete and united" as the capital of Israel according to the 1980 Basic Jerusalem Law. This claim has not been recognised by the United Nations Security Council. A notional Green Line continues to divide Jerusalem at the boundary of East Jerusalem; the Golan Heights are another exception, having been informally incorporated by Israel with the 1981 Golan Heights Law. The UN Security Council declared this to be null and without any international legal effect; the sections of the Green Line that delineate the boundaries between Israel, the West Bank and Gaza run through populated regions. The Line corresponds to the military front of the 1948 War, while the considerations dictating its placement were military, it soon became clear that in many places it divided towns and villages, separated farmers from their fields; the Green Line underwent various slight adjustments, special arrangements were made for limited movement in certain areas.

Jerusalem was divided into East and West Jerusalem. The village of Barta'a due to errors on the map, was left with one third of its area on the Israeli side and two thirds outside of it. Kibbutz Ramat Rachel was left entirely outside the Israeli side of the Green Line. According to Avi Shlaim, in March 1949 as the Iraqi forces withdrew and handed over their positions to the Jordanian legion, Israel carried out Operation Shin-Tav-Shin which allowed Israel to renegotiate the cease fire line in the Wadi Ara area of the northern West Bank in a secret agreement, incorporated into the General Armistice Agreement; the Green Line was redrawn in blue ink on the southern map to give the impression that a movement in the green line had been made. During the war in 1947–48, Jews residing east of the Line, including the Jewish Quarter of the Old City, were taken prisoner by the Jordanians. All but a few of the Gush Etzion defenders were massacred; the prisoners were returned to Israel after the war. On July 8, 1948, the Jewish inhabitants of Kfar Darom and Naharayim were evacuated by Israel due to military pressure by Egypt and Jordan.

Israel withdrew from villages in the Lebanese Upper

Ireland at the 2004 Summer Paralympics

Ireland competed at the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, Greece. The team included thirty-four men and eight women. Irish competitors won four medals, three silver and one bronze to finish sixty-first in the medal table; the men's team didn't win any medals: they were 7th out of 8 teams. Aidan Brennan Andrew Clint Kieran Devlin Paul Dollard Darren Kavanagh Joseph Markey Gary Messett James Murrihy Brendan O'Grady Alan O'Hara Peter O'Neill Finbarr O'Riordan Ireland at the Paralympics Ireland at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Kev Carmody

Kevin Daniel Carmody, better known by his stage name Kev Carmody, is an Indigenous Australian singer-songwriter and musician, a Murri man from northern Queensland. He is best known for the song "From Little Things Big Things Grow", recorded with co-writer Paul Kelly for their 1993 single. On 27 August 2009, Carmody was inducted into the Australian Recording Industry Association Hall of Fame alongside The Dingoes, Little Pattie, Mental As Anything and John Paul Young. In 2009, Carmody was a recipient of the Queensland Greats Awards. In 2019, Carmody was recipient of the JC Williamson Award at the Helpmann Awards. Kev Carmody was born in 1946 in Queensland, his father was his mother an Indigenous Australian. His younger brother, was born three and a half years later, his family moved to southern Queensland in early 1950, he grew up on a cattle station near Goranba, 70 kilometres west of Dalby in the Darling Downs area of south eastern Queensland. His parents worked as drovers. At ten years of age and his brother were taken from their parents under the assimilation policy as part of the Stolen Generations and sent to a Catholic school in Toowoomba.

After schooling, he returned to his rural roots and worked for seventeen years as a country labourer, including droving, bag lumping, wool pressing and welding. In 1967, he married Helen. In 1978, at the age of 33, Carmody enrolled in university, Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education. At the night time I was always just interested in music, so I started to study music and got to a standard, when I moved to Toowoomba and got a proper music teacher, and she said to me, ‘you know, you're miles ahead of the standard they’d require to get into the music course at the University of Southern Queensland. Due to his limited schooling, Carmody’s reading and writing skills were not up to required university standard. Undeterred, he suggested to the history tutor that until his writing was suitable he would present his research in a musical format accompanied by guitar. While this was a novel approach at university, it was in line with the far older indigenous tradition of oral history. Although Carmody had extensive historical knowledge, learnt by oral traditions, much of it could not be found in library history books and was attributed to'unpublished works'.

Carmody completed his Bachelor of Arts degree postgraduate studies and a Diploma of Education at the University of Queensland, followed by commencing a PhD in History, on the Darling Downs 1830–1860. I was supposed to be studying history and music, but I'd be in the library with books on everything, theorems of thermodynamics. I wished. Whilst at university, Carmody had used music as a means of implementing oral history in tutorials, which led to his career. In the early 1980s, Carmody began his musical career, he signed a recording contract in 1987 and his first album, Pillars of Society, was released on the Rutabagas label. It drew upon country and folk styles with tracks such as "Black Deaths in Custody" and "Thou Shalt Not Steal" describing ignorance and oppression experienced by indigenous Australians. In the song "Thou Shalt Not Steal", Carmody draws attention to the hypocrisy of British settlers who brought Christianity to Indigenous Australians, including the commandment prohibiting theft, yet took the land that the Aboriginal people had inhabited for more than 60,000 years.

He emphasises the importance of land to the indigenous people, "The land’s our heritage and spirit", turns the Christian lesson given to indigenous people around: "We say to you yes, thou shalt not steal". A Rolling Stone journalist, Bruce Elder, described it as "the best album released by an Aboriginal musician and arguably the best protest album made in Australia". Pilllar of Society was nominated for a 1989 ARIA Award for Best Indigenous Release. In subsequent recordings Carmody adopted a broad range of musical styles, from reggae to rock and roll; that first album was acoustic because we didn't have enough money for anything else, but as I went on, I was always exploring sound. One of the things he said to us was. What he was saying was, use your imagination, widen it out, be aware of things around you. You learn to listen in another way. That's the key to my music. Just opening up to that sensory perception of sound. Carmody's second album, released in November 1990, was produced by Connolly, with musical support from the rest of the Messengers and members of pioneering Aboriginal rock band Mixed Relations.

A review of the album noted that "Using a combination of folk and country music his hard-hitting lyrics deal with such potent material as the David Gundy slaying, black deaths in custody, land rights and Aboriginal pride and dignity. Carmody is committed, powerfully intelligent and persuasively provocative, he uses images of revolutionaries... and challenges white Australia to stare unrelentingly at the despair which under pins Aboriginal society". The first single from the album, "Blood Red Rose", released in April 1992, was described by Carmody as "a comment on personal isolation. Late nig