Green Party of England and Wales

The Green Party of England and Wales is a green, left-wing political party in England and Wales. Headquartered in London, its co-leaders have been Siân Berry and Jonathan Bartley since September 2018; the Green Party has one representative in the House of two in the House of Lords. It has various councillors in the UK local government and two members of the London Assembly; the party's ideology combines environmentalism with left-wing and centre-left economic policies, including well-funded, locally controlled public services within the confines of a steady-state economy with regulated capitalism, supports proportional representation. It takes a progressive approach to social policies such as civil liberties, animal rights, LGBT rights, drug policy reform; the party believes in non-violence, basic income, a living wage, democratic participation. They comprise various regional divisions, including the semi-autonomous Wales Green Party. Internationally, the party is affiliated to the European Green Party.

The Green Party of England and Wales was established in 1990 alongside the Scottish Green Party and the Green Party in Northern Ireland through the division of the pre-existing Green Party, a group, established as the PEOPLE Party in 1973. Experiencing centralising reforms spearheaded by the Green 2000 group in early 1990, the party sought to emphasise growth in local governance, doing so throughout 1990. In 2010, the party gained its first Member of Parliament in former leader Caroline Lucas, who represents the constituency of Brighton Pavilion; the Green Party of England and Wales has its origins in the PEOPLE Party, founded in Coventry, Warwickshire, in February 1972. It was renamed to The Ecology Party in 1975 and, in 1985, changed again to the Green Party. In 1989, the party's Scottish branch split to establish the independent Scottish Green Party, with an independent Green Party in Northern Ireland developing shortly after, leaving the branches in England and Wales to form their own party.

The Green Party of England and Wales is registered with the Electoral Commission, only as "the Green Party."In the 1989 European Parliament elections, the Green Party polled 15% of the vote with 2.3 million votes, the best performance of a "green" party in a nationwide election. This election gave the Green Party the third-largest share of the vote after the Conservative and Labour parties, although because of the first-past-the-post voting system, it failed to gain a seat. Many say the success of the party is due to increased respect for environmentalism and the effects of the development boom in southern England in the late 1980s. Seeking to capitalize on the Greens' success in the EP elections, a group named Green 2000 was established in July 1990, arguing for an internal reorganization of the party in order to develop it into an active electoral force capable of securing seats in the House of Commons, its proposed reforms included a more centralized structure, the replacement of the existing party council with a smaller party executive, the establishment of delegate voting at party conferences.

Many party members opposed the reforms, believing that they would undermine the party's internal democracy and, amid the arguments, various vital members were dismissed or resigned from the Greens. Although Green 2000 proposals were defeated at the party's 1990 conference, they were overwhelmingly carried at their 1991 conference, resulting in an internal restructuring of the party. Between the end of 1990 and mid-1992, the party lost over half its members, with those polled indicating that frustration over a lack of clear and effective party leadership was a significant reason in their decision; the party fielded more candidates than it had done before in the 1992 general election but performed poorly. In 1993, the party adopted its "Basis for Renewal" program in an attempt to bring together conflicting factions and thus saved the party from bankruptcy and potential demise; the party sought to escape its reputation as an environmentalist single-issue party by placing greater emphasis on social policies.

Recognizing their poor performance in the 1992 national elections, the party decided to focus on gaining support in local elections, targeting wards where there was a pre-existing support base of Green activists. In 1993, future party leader and MP Caroline Lucas gained a seat in Oxfordshire County Council, with other gains following in the 1995 and 1996 local elections; the Greens sought to build alliances with other parties in the hope of gaining representation at the parliamentary level. In Wales, the Greens endorsed Plaid Cymru candidate Cynog Dafis in the 1992 general election, having worked with him on several environmental initiatives. For the 1997 general election, the Ceredigion branch of the Greens endorsed Cynog Dafis as a joint Plaid Cymru/Green candidate, but this generated controversy with the party, with critics believing it improper to build an alliance with a party that did not share all of the Greens' views. In April 1995, the Green National Executive ruled that the party should withdraw from this alliance due to ideological differences.

As the Labour Party shifted to the political center under the leadership of Tony Blair and his New Labour project, the Greens sought to gain the support of the party's disaffected leftists. During the 1999 European Parliament elections, the first to be held in the UK using proportional representation, the Greens gained their first Members of the European Parliament and Jean Lambert. At the inaugural London Assembly Elections in 2000, the party gained 11% of the vote and returned three Assembly Members. Althoug


Kärkevagge is a short valley in Kiruna Municipality, Sweden. It is accessed by a good path from the E10 Kiruna-Narvik highway. Rissajaure, the clearest lake in Sweden, is located at the head of the valley. Karkevagge is noted for the Giant Boulder Deposit which fills it with huge jumbled blocks, some the size of houses. One of Sweden's leading geoscientists, Anders Rapp, a world pioneer of quantitative geomorphology, studied the valley for 10 years, he suggested. He estimated the volume of the GBD at 50 million cubic metres; however a large angular cavity beside Rissajaure has a volume of 42 million cubic metres. The GBD descended from it as a rock avalanche and spread down the valley on a glacier, giving it a moraine-like form and visual unity as seen from the air


Tiapride is a drug that selectively blocks D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the brain. It is used to treat a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including dyskinesia, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, negative symptoms of psychosis, agitation and aggression in the elderly. A derivative of benzamide, tiapride is chemically and functionally similar to other benzamide antipsychotics such as sulpiride and amisulpride known for their dopamine antagonist effects. Research in animal models and clinical studies in alcoholic patients have found that tiapride has anxiolytic effects. Dopamine hyperactivity has been linked with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, suggesting that tiapride's antidopaminergic effects are the most mechanism for its clinical efficacy, although others believe some other mechanism might be involved. Alcoholic patients treated with tiapride at a dosage of 300 mg/day reported reduced psychological distress and improved abstinence from alcohol. In another study in which alcoholic patients were given titrated doses up to 800 mg/day, subjects showed significant improvements in ratings of withdrawal, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life.

While tiapride does not affect positive symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinosis or delirium sometimes manifested in alcohol withdrawal syndrome, if combined with a drug such as carbamazepine that addresses those symptoms, it is ideal for treating alcohol dependency because its metabolism does not depend on liver function and it has low potential for abuse. This sets it apart from the benzodiazepines, which are contraindicated with alcohol and can be addictive. Moreover, tiapride's rapid onset makes intravenous or intramuscular injection prior to or during withdrawal episodes effective. Agitation and aggression are associated with hyperdopaminergic activity. Antipsychotic drugs are the most common treatment for these symptoms, but come with a host of side-effects including orthostatic hypotension and deficits in vigilance and attention. One clinical study in agitated elderly patients compared the effects of tiapride and placebo and found that while the two drugs had comparable efficacy superior to the placebo effect, tiapride had fewer and less severe side effects than haloperidol.

Tiapride's selectivity for the limbic system, associated with emotion, could underlie its particular efficacy in treating these affective disorders. Moreover, its selectivity for the dopaminergic system is thought to account for its avoidance of the side effects associated with other neuroleptic drugs, such as chlorpromazine, which act on a number of neurotransmitter systems. While tiapride preferentially targets the limbic system over the striatum, its moderate antagonistic effect on striatal dopamine receptors makes it effective in treating motor deficits that involve this area, such as tardive dyskinesia and chorea. Tiapride's moderate efficacy at D2 receptors may explain why it is able to treat motor symptoms without the extrapyramidal symptoms caused by excess dopamine blockage, which are sometimes seen in haloperidol or chlorpromazine. One clinical study of patients with tardive dyskinesia associated with Parkinson's disease found that tiapride improved motor abilities without affecting other parkinsonian symptoms.

Although it is considered a "safe" medicine, it is, like sulpiride contraindicated for patients under the age of 18 due to its effects during the process of puberty. This is related to its side effects on levels of the hormone prolactin, involved in sexual development. There are insufficient clinical data on the other side effects in adolescents. Tiapride has been found to cause excess prolactin levels in plasma, which can cause decreased libido and increased risk of breast cancer; this is because dopamine plays a primary role in regulating prolactin release by binding to D2 receptors on prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary. Thus, when tiapride blocks these receptors these cells are release more prolactin; the side-effect reported most to the U. S. Food and Drug Administration is rhabdomyolysis, a condition characterized by muscle tissue breakdown. Cardiac abnormalities such as prolongation of the QT interval and torsades de pointes have been observed. Dosages above 300 mg/day risk inducing tardive dyskinesia.

However, given the drug's wide window of tolerable doses, dosages can be titrated to obtain the desired effect without bringing about motor deficits. In general, tiapride is considered an atypical antipsychotic because of its low risk for extrapyramidal symptoms, such as akinesia and akathesia; these effects are thought to be reduced in tiapride relative to typical antipsychotics because of its selectivity for the limbic system over extrapyramidal areas that control movement. Tiapride is a dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, it is more selective than other neuroleptic drugs such as haloperidol and risperidone, which not only target four of the five known dopamine receptor subtypes, but block serotonin, α1- and α2-adrenergic, histamine H1 receptors. Compared to these drugs, tiapride has a moderate affinity for its target receptors, displacing 50 percent of 3H-raclopride binding at a concentration of 320 nM at D2 receptors and a concentration of 180 nM at D3 receptors. Tiapride displays a high regional selectivity for limbic areas.

One study found that, in contrast with haloperidol, which displays equal affinity for receptors in the rat limbic system and striatum, tiapride shows over three times as much affinity for limbic areas than striatal areas. Another study in rats found tiapride's affinity for the septum, a limbic region, to be over thirty times as high as for the st