Indiana /ɪndiˈænə/ is a U. S. state located in the midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 38th largest by area and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11,1816, before becoming a territory, varying cultures of indigenous peoples and historic Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Indiana has an economy with a gross state product of $298 billion in 2012. Indiana has several areas with populations greater than 100,000. The states name means Land of the Indians, or simply Indian Land and it stems from Indianas territorial history. On May 7,1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a resident of Indiana is officially known as a Hoosier.
The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large game such as mastodons. They created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking, the Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, such new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as axes, woodworking tools. During the latter part of the period, they built mounds and middens. The Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC, the Woodland period took place in Indiana, where various new cultural attributes appeared. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, an early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods, nearing the end of the stage, the people developed highly productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD, the Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with mounds and plazas defining ceremonial
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers, sometimes shortened to CoE is a U. S. Although generally associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, and provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps mission is to Deliver vital public and military engineering services, partnering in peace and war to strengthen our Nations security, energize the economy and their most visible missions include, designing and operating locks and dams. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washingtons first chief engineer, however, it was not until 1779 that Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers.
One of its first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill, the first Corps of Engineers was mostly composed of French subjects who had been hired by General Washington from the service of Louis XVI. that the said Corps. Shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York, until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. During the first half of the 19th century, West Point was the major and, for a while, the General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey road and canal routes. Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S and it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey, the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids.
The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852, in the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers. The Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War, many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War. Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, and Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of supply lines. The Army Corps of Engineers served as a function in making the war effort logistically feasible. This method of building trenches was known as the zigzag pattern, from the beginning, many politicians wanted the Corps of Engineers to contribute to both military construction and works of a civil nature.
During World War II the mission grew to more than 27,000 military, included were aircraft, tank assembly, and ammunition plants, camps for 5.3 million soldiers, depots and hospitals, as well as the Manhattan Project, and the Pentagon
Petroleum coke, abbreviated pet coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes. Stated succinctly, coke is the product of high-boiling hydrocarbon fractions obtained in petroleum processing. These processes are termed coking processes, and most typically employ chemical engineering plant operations for the process of delayed coking. This coke can either be fuel grade or anode grade, the raw coke directly out of the coker is often referred to as green coke. In this context, green means unprocessed, the further processing of green coke by calcining in a rotary kiln removes residual volatile hydrocarbons from the coke. The calcined petroleum coke can be processed in an anode baking oven in order to produce anode coke of the desired shape. The anodes are used in the aluminium and steel industry. Petcoke is over 90 percent carbon and emits 5 to 10 percent more carbon dioxide than coal on a basis when it is burned.
As petcoke has an energy content, petcoke emits between 30 and 80 percent more CO2 than coal per unit of weight. The difference between coal and coke in CO2 production per unit energy produced depends upon the moisture in the coal and volatile hydrocarbon in coal, there are at least four basic types of petroleum coke, needle coke, honeycomb coke, sponge coke and shot coke. Different types of petroleum coke have different microstructures due to differences in operating variables, significant differences are to be observed in the properties of the different types of coke, particularly ash and volatile matter contents. Needle coke is produced exclusively from either FCC decant oil or coal tar pitch, honeycomb coke is an intermediate coke, with ellipsoidal pores that are uniformly distributed. Compared to needle coke, honeycomb coke has a coefficient of thermal expansion. Fuel grade coke is classified as either sponge coke or shot coke morphology, while oil refiners have been producing coke for well over 100 years, the mechanisms that cause sponge coke or shot coke to form are not well understood and cannot be accurately predicted.
In general, lower temperatures and higher pressures promote sponge coke formation, the amount of heptane insolubles present, and fraction of light components in the coker feed contribute. Fluidized bed combustion is used to burn petroleum coke. Gasification is increasingly used with this feedstock, calcined petroleum coke is the product from calcining petroleum coke. This coke is the product of the unit in a crude oil refinery
Muhlenberg County, Kentucky
Muhlenberg County is a county located in the U. S. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,499, the county was founded in 1798 and named for General Peter Muhlenberg, a colonial general during the American Revolutionary War. Muhlenberg County was established in 1798 from land given by Logan and Christian counties, Muhlenberg was the 34th Kentucky county in order of formation. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 479 square miles. The two primary features of Muhlenberg County are the Green River and Lake Malone. The northern portion of the county is gently rolling hills, river flatlands. The southern portion consist of rolling hills with higher relief, many of the valleys in the southern part of the county are rather deep and in places and somewhat rugged. This area is known for many sandstone formations and some small limestone caves. A number of faults cross the county at roughly the point between neighboring counties to the north and south. Coal is a natural resource found in the central part of the county.
Most deposits reside deep underground, though in the past deposits were closer to the surface, in former years, it was common to see machines such as the Big Brother Power Shovel throughout the county. During the 1970s and early 1980s, Muhlenberg County was the leader in Coal Production. This was the subject of the song Paradise, Muhlenberg Countys predominate rock type is sandstone. As one travels south and gets closer to the border, one begins to notice limestone outcroppings become more numerous. Early attempts at extracting iron ore were tried at Old Airdrie on the banks of the Green River and at Buckner Furnace south of Greenville, both operations were extant in the late 19th century and early 20th century, neither enjoyed long-term success. The 300 miles -long Green River is a tributary of the Ohio River and it provides a commercial outlet for goods to be shipped from the county to the major trade centers along the Mississippi River. Muhlenberg County and the Green River first entered the popular consciousness through the John Prine song Paradise, spanning 788 acres near the small town of Dunmor in southern Muhlenberg County, Lake Malone provides a locale for water recreation such as swimming and fishing.
Lake Malone and the hardwood forest form Lake Malone State Park
The Rough River is a 156-mile-long tributary of the Green River in west-central Kentucky in the United States. Via the Green and Ohio rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, according to the Geographic Names Information System, it has been known historically as Rough Creek. It joins the Green River at the town of Livermore, on the boundary of McLean. On the boundary of Breckinridge and Grayson counties, the Rough is dammed to form Rough River Lake, the lake collects the 29. 5-mile-long North Fork Rough River, which flows for its entire length in Breckinridge County
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Campbellsville is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Taylor County, United States. The population within city limits was 10,604 at the 2010 U. S. census and it is the site of Campbellsville University, a private institution. On the border is Green River Lake, established for flood control, Campbellsville is twinned with Buncrana in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland. The city was founded in 1817 and laid out by Andrew Campbell, Campbell owned a gristmill and a tavern and began selling lots in Campbellsville in 1814. Campbellsville was designated by the legislature as the county seat in 1848 after Taylor County was separated from Green County. The city agreed to sell the public square to the county for one dollar so that a courthouse could be built here, the first courthouse was burned by Confederate cavalry in 1864 because the Union Army was using it for barracks. After the war, a replacement courthouse was built on the same site, a third courthouse in a modern design was built in 1965 on a property adjoining the old courthouse.
A portion of the old courthouse still stands near the current courthouse, construction began in 2008 on a new Justice Center because of the demand for a more modern courthouse. In addition, the city built an official county jail to avoid the cost of transporting and housing prisoners in neighboring Lebanon in Marion County, Campbellsville has several historic sites as listed under Taylor County in the National Register of Historic Places listings in Kentucky. The Campbellsville Historic Commercial District includes several blocks of Main Street, the most notable structure in this district is Merchant Tower which has Romanesque architecture. It has been listed individually on the National Register of Historical Places since 1980, just north of Campbellsville is the Spurlington Tunnel, once used by local railroads, but which is no longer in service. It is about 1,900 feet long, approximately one-third of the way in, a shaft leads to the top, where it once vented smoke from steam locomotives.
Downtown Campbellsville includes a Main Street and a historic district. The 100 and 200 blocks of Main Street are lined with brick, stone. Since 2008, Campbellsville has been redevelopig its downtown area with the help of a Main Street Manager, highlighting its historic design, improving pedestrian amenities, Campbellsville is known regionally for its Fourth Of July celebration. Campbellsville is home to a university, Campbellsville University, founded in 1906 as an academy. Campbellsville has two public schools Taylor County High School and Campbellsville High School, in the 20th century, Campbellsville was a regional center of industry. In the 21st century, the university, health care system
Brownsville is a home rule-class city in Edmonson County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 836 at the time of the 2010 census and it is included in the Bowling Green metropolitan area. It is just outside Mammoth Cave National Park, Brownsville is located near the center of Edmonson County at 37°11′28″N 86°15′40″W. The city limits border the edge of Mammoth Cave National Park. State Routes 70 and 259 pass through the city together as Main Street. KY70 leads east 20 miles to Cave City and west 27 miles to U. S. Route 231 at Aberdeen, while KY259 leads southeast 12 miles to U. S. Route 31W and north 25 miles to Leitchfield. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brownsville has an area of 2.6 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles. The city is located on the Green River, a tributary of the Ohio River, as of the census of 2000, there were 921 people,387 households, and 229 families residing in the city. The population density was 581.0 people per square mile, there were 421 housing units at an average density of 265.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 98. 37% White,0. 11% African American,0. 43% Native American,0. 11% Asian,0. 11% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 76% of the population. 37. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was out with 20. 3% under the age of 18,8. 6% from 18 to 24,22. 8% from 25 to 44,24. 4% from 45 to 64. The median age was 43 years, for every 100 females there were 72.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males, the median income for a household in the city was $15,370, and the median income for a family was $21,250. Males had an income of $26,125 versus $14,583 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,711, about 30. 8% of families and 32. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45. 2% of those under age 18 and 24. 5% of those age 65 or over.
There is a Plain and buggy community with about 40 to 50 people in Peace Valley, the community is affiliated with the Caneyville Christian Community. Brownsville is served by the Edmonson County Schools
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall